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which were then blown up with gunpowder, and em- | THE LIBRARY OF ENTERTAINING KNOWLEDGE ployed afterwards to form the great Breakwater at

CRIMINAL TRIALS, VOL. I. Plymouth. Towards the end of 1816, the Scotch intro- The former volumes of the Library of Entertaining duced the use of suspension bridges, but without ex- Knowledge have consisted of treatises compiled on the tending them, at first, to the passage of horses and car- principle of merely presenting, within a convenient space riages. As early as 1813, Mr. Telford proposed to and in a popular form, such information as had, for the construct a bridge of suspension over the Mersey, at the most part, been already given to the world in other place where the Duke of Bridgewater's canal communi-books. It is true, that there is scarcely one of these cates with that river. This bridge was to have only four treatises which does not, in addition to what the writer supports, and to be composed of three arches, having, has gleaned from the examination and comparison of respectively 500 feet, 1000 feet, and 500 feet in span; preceding authorities, contain many facts which had not making a total length of 2000 feet

. The boldness of been before published. The works belonging to the this project frightened the capitalists to whom it was department of Natural History, in particular, including proposed; but it had, at least, the advantage of drawing the Menageries, and the volumes entitled Insect Archipublic attention to this new species of constructions. tecture, Insect Transformations, Insect Miscellanies, It caused a number of experiments to be made on the and the Architecture of Birds, abound in novel details, strength of iron, and on its utility when employed for derived either from the personal observation of the suspension bridges.

writers or from original communications. But still, both Captain Brown, who subsequently built the fine sus- in these and in the other volumes of the series, the object pension bridge at Hammersmith, was the first engineer upon the whole has been to render the existing stores who erected such a bridge for heavy vehicles in Great of literature more generally accessible rather than to add Britain. His bridge over the Tweed, at Kelso, was to their amount. The present is a work of a different completed in 1820. It is 300 feet in length, by 18 feet character. Instead of being borrowed from preceding in width. The most remarkable bridge of suspension collections, the materials out of which these accounts of in existence is that constructed by Mr. Telford over the our early criminal trials have been composed, are, in a Menai strait, between the isle of Anglesea and Caernar- great measure, altogether new to the public eye; being vonshire in Wales. It was finished in 1825. The now, for the first time, drawn from the manuscripts in roadway is 100 feet above the surface of the water at which they have lain hidden for centuries. Then, so far high tide. The opening between the points of suspen- from being abridgments of the hitherto published resion is 560 feet. The platform is about 30 feet in breadth. ports, the narratives which we have here are by far the The whole is suspended from four lines of strong iron most ample and the most elaborately circumstantial which cables, by perpendicular iron rods 5 feet apart. The have yet appeared in print. Did the volume, therefore, cables pass over rollers on the tops of pillars, and are contain nothing more than merely the reports of the trials, fixed to iron frames under ground which are kept down it would even thus form an important contribution to our by masonry. The weight of the whole bridge, between national history. By his researches among the manuthe points of suspension, is 489 tons.

scripts of various public collections, and especially among In France there is a very pretty suspension bridge the treasures of the State-Paper Office, which have been over the Seine, at Paris, which is now known, in con- thrown open to him by the Government, the editor has sequence of the conflict of July, 1830, as the Bridge of been enabled to throw new light upon every one of the Arcole,

cases of which he has given us the history, and, in so In the United States such bridges are to be found, doing, essentially to elucidate the principles and the though not of the dimensions of the English. That progressive development of our system of criminal over the Merrimack, at Newburyport, is a curve whose jurisprudence itself. He has, however, made his work chord measures 244 feet. That over the river Brandy- much more instructive to the common reader, as well as wine, at Wilmington, has a chord of 145 feet ; that at much more entertaining, by the interesting biographical Brownsville, over the Monongahela, measures 120 feet sketches of the prisoners, which he has prefixed to each between the points of suspension. Another, in its vici- trial, and the remarks on the legal and other bearings nity, forms an inverted suspended arch, with a chord of of the whole transaction with which he winds up the 112 feet

account of it. Such illustrations as these are almost entirely wanting in all our previous collections of State Trials; although without them the trials themselves are in most cases deprived of their chief value and attraction as records for popular perusal, and are sometimes left almost unintelligible.

These curious accounts of some of the most remarkable events that have ever happened in England, are here, for the first time, at once submitted in a tolerably satisfactory shape to the examination of the professional student, and turned into reading for all.

Nor is there much reading which is better calculated to awaken and detain the attention of an intelligent. mind. “ There are few books,” says the editor, Mr. Jardine, in his introduction," which furnish a larger fund of instruction and entertainment than the State Trials. It has been erroneously supposed that these collections are valuable only to lawyers; but, in faet, their importance and interest equally extend to the general reader. The interest which they excite is uni versal, being founded upon the same principle which brings persons of both sexes, old and young, and belonging to all classes of society, into our courts of justice

to witness the trials of criminals ; that principle is to be (Design for the Gateways to the Bridge over the Avon.

found in the feeling of reality which prevails on such occasions, and the consciousness that the life or liberty


of a fellow-creature is at stake, and the facts upon which he presided his own original minutes of the conversahis fate depends are actually weighed before our eyes. tion and conduct of Sir Walter Raleigh whilst under Hence it is that no procession or solemn show, no his charge in the Tower. On the perusal of these theatrical representation, nor the most popular preacher, papers it is difficult to say whether the preponderating ever attracted greater crowds than the trials of Hatfield feeling is sympathy for the captive, or disgust and inor Bellingham, or, in these later years, of the Cato-street dignation for his unfeeling and treacherous keeper. Sir Conspirators; and no orator or actor ever addressed an Thomas Wilson entered upon his charge on the 11th of audience of more breathless attention, than that which September, and from that time until the 15th of October, witnessed the proceedings in those memorable cases. when he was withdrawn from the Tower, his minutes Next in point of attraction to actual presence on such and daily reports to Secretary Naunton show a system occasions, is the perusal of the written report of what of rigid observation, and of artful, ensnaring espionage, has taken place; and the eagerness with which this on his part, which was never for a moment relaxed. report is sought is scarcely less remarkable than the Raleigh's own servant was immediately dismissed, and persevering patience and unwearied attention of those a man appointed by Wilson took his place. Lady Rafavoured few who have endured the heat and suffocation leigh and her son were excluded from the Tower, but of the day within the four walls of the Court."

she was allowed, and even invited to correspond freely -- The present volume contains the trial of Sir Nicholas with her husband ; and then the notes which she sent, Throckmorton, in the reign of Mary, those of the Duke as well as Raleigh's answers, were intercepted by Sir of Norfolk, Dr. William Parry, and the Earls of Essex Thomas Wilson's man, and sent to the King and Council and Southampton, in the reign of Elizabeth, and that of for their perusal before they were delivered *. Sir Sir Walter Raleigh, in the reign of James I. They Thomas Wilson himself never stirred from his prisoner are not all of equal interest; but no one of them is from the time he opened his lodging in the morning till, without circumstances the recital of which will well re- with his own hand, he locked him up for the night; at ward the trouble of perusal. The trial of Throckmorton his meals, at his devotions, and during the attendance (for his alleged participation in Sir Thomas Wyatt's of his physician and surgeon, this persevering keeper Rebellion) is less illustrated than any of the others from never quitted his apartment. His own feeling towards original sources; and the text, indeed, is taken entirely his unhappy prisoner, and his zeal in the unworthy task from Hollingshed. Imperfect, however, as the old in which he was employed, are manifested by the lanChronicler's account is, it is a very extraordinary and guage which he constantly uses respecting him in his affecting narrative. The behaviour of the judges and reports and letters: he calls him `hypocrite' and 'arch of the crown lawyers affords a strange picture of what impostor,' with other terms of reproach.

' The King an English court of justice was in those days. And of Heaven preserve your Majesty,' says he in one rarely on the other hand has a defence been managed of his letters, from having many such dangerous subwith greater ability than was displayed on this occasion jects.' Having removed his prisoner into apartments by the prisoner at the bar ; who, indeed, by a rare fate of greater security than those in which he had been for a person in such circumstances, actually won a ver- placed by Sir Allen Apsley, Sir Thomas Wilson writes dict of acquittal from the jury by his eloquence and to Sir Robert Naunton, one of the Secretaries of State, consummate dexterity. The demeanour of the Duke of thus: “I have removed this man into a safer and higher Norfolk, the unfortunate victim in the next case, was in lodging, which, though it seemeth nearer heaven, yet every respect different from that of Throckmorton; and ' there is there no means to escape but into hell.' exhibiting as he did neither talent, intrepidity, nor the Again, in a letter to the King, he says, “I hope, by straight-forwardness of innocence, he was easily crushed such means as I shall use, to work out more than I before the strength of legal knowledge and skill brought • have yet done; if not, I know no other means but a forward to destroy him. There is a speech of one of rack or a halter.' the crown counsel on this occasion, Mr. Wilbraham, “Raleigh was at this time in the sixty-sixth year of his Attorney of the Wards, of great merit as a specimen of age; during the whole period of his imprisonment, he forensic eloquence. The account of this trial is enriched was tormented by an intermitting fever and ague; his by a great deal of original matter from the State-Paper body was covered with painful imposthumes, and he Office. The two concluding trials, however, of Essex had a swelling on his left side which occasioned perand Raleigh, with the Memoirs and Remarks by which petual uneasiness ; in addition to which he was afflicted they are accompanied, form by far the most interesting by a hernia. These distressing complaints were repreportion of the volume. They are both largely illustrated sented by Wilson to be either wholly counterfeited or from hitherto unpublished documents, as well as from greatly exaggerated; and, as a proof of this, he tells the printed books not generally accessible ; and so much King, that “howbeit he is ever and anon puling, pining, pains has evidently been taken by the editor to present and groaning, yet, if I put him into any discourse to his them in the most complete form, that he has probably liking, of his last voyage, or former actions, he will talk left little to be added by any who shall follow him in immediately with as great heartiness, courage, and signs examining or narrating the same transactions. We could wish to extract a portion of the observations to “* The following specimen of the treasonable correspondenco thus which these cases give rise, as a sample of the manner intercepted, taken from the originals at the State-Paper Office, may in which this part of the work is executed; but separated be interesting to our readers. The first is a note from Sir Walter

Raleign to his Lady: from the trial itself to which it refers, a passage of this sort would scarcely be intelligible, and we will therefore give" Mr. Edward Wilson, is my keeper, and takes pains with me. My

* 18th Sept. I am very sick and weak. This honest gentleman the following detail of the infamous treatment to which swollen side keeps me in perpetual pain and unrest. God comfort Raleigh was subjected when a second time immured in

us! Your's,

W.R. the Tower, Preparatory to his execution in 1618, on a sentence pronounced fifteen years before. Sir Allen

LADY RALEIGH'S ANSWER. Apsley, the regular lieutenant of the Tower, a man of

'I am sorry to hear, amongst many discomforts, that your health

is so ill. 'Tis merely sorrow and grief that, with wind, hath gathered honour and humanity, being removed, Sir Thomas

into your side. I hope your health and comforts will mend, and Wilson was put in his place, with instructions to use mend us for God. I am glad to hear that you have the company and every art to entrap his unfortunate prisoner.

comfort of so good a keeper. I was something dismayed at the first “ Sir Thomas Wilson,” the narrative then pro

that you had no servant of your own left you; but I hear this

Knight's servants are very necessary. God requite his courtesies, ceeds, was at this time Keeper of the State Papers,

and God in mercy look on us! Your's. and there are preserved in the office over which


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of cheerfulness as the soundest and strongest man temple for the Holy Ghost to dwell in." To which he alive.'

* said, “it was a disputable question ; for divers did “Such was the mind and disposition of the man to hold opinion that a man may do it, and yet not despewhose custody Raleigh was delivered; though, towards rately despair of God's mercy, but die in God's favour.” his prisoner personally he adopted a mild and insinu Whereto this discourse of bis tended it is easily seen, ating demeanour, with an appearance of candour and but I think he hath no such Roman courage. Mr. sympathy calculated to gain his confidence, and to in- Lieutenant tells ine he hath had like discourse with duce him to make disclosures; introducing himself to him heretofore, who charged him with such intent him as one whom the King of his gracious and upon occasion of having so many apothecary's drugst, princely goodness had sent unto him, because his Ma- and such like; "which it were well,” saith' he, jesty knew him to be a person of more honesty than not suffered to be here.” “Why,” saith Raleigh, “ if cunning.'

you take away all these means from me, yet, if I had “ The story of Sir Walter Raleigh is one of those such a mind, I could run my head against a post and which seem to belong to the romance of history ; and kill myself.”' circumstances and anecdotes respecting him, which are “. 21st September. This day I was sitting by him trivial and unimportant in themselves, become attractive while the barber was trimming and keeming (combing) and valuable from the universal interest excited by the ' my head. He told me he was wont to keem his head character of the extraordinary man to whom they relate.' a whole hour every day before he came into the Tower. With this view we extract a few passages from the Asking him why he did not so still, he said, “ he would minutes of Sir Thomas Wilson.

• know first who should have it; he would not bestow * 12th September, at night. so much cost of it for the hangman.' "This evening finding him reading the Psalms, I “On Sir Thomas Wilson's announcing to him that he • told him that there he had the best comfort; that there was about to leave him, being recalled from his charge, • he had a man and a king,—and the best man and the Raleigh told him that he knew that as soon as he was • best king that ever was, who had as great affliction as gone he should be delivered over to the secular arm, as ever any had, and yet by his constancy and faithful- they called it,' and desired Wilson to tell the King that ness he overcame all; and so might he. Hereupon he could do him better service here than in the grave; he began and told me from the beginning to the end of and yet,' said he, 'what have I to do with life? My ali his misfortunes; how first, at his Majesty's coming age is fit for the grave; my reputation is lost; my body

in, Northampton, Suffolk, Salisbury, and the rest, weak and full of pain ;-nothing can be more welcome * plotted to get him and Cobham out of favour, and to to me than death."

get every thing into their own hands; then he went to
the arraignment at Winchester, and said, “it was as

GALLERY OF PORTRAITS. * unjust a condemnation, without proof and testimony, The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge as ever was known." So went he along his thirteen have this month commenced a publication which will years' imprisonment, and the means he took to pro- require several years for its completion: it is a ‘Gallery cure liberty for his voyage; his disasters there, and all of Portraits' of those eminent men of modern times who the tedious circumstances, and then the betraying of have given the greatest impulses to their age, and whose ‘him by Sir Lewis Stukely on his return. After likenesses are, of course, calculated to be universally inte* this I told him that if he would but disclose what he resting. The Society, while they thus hope to iinpart to

knew, the King would forgive him and do him all many families the pleasure and instruction derived from
' favour; "aye," quoth he, " how should I be assured contemplating the representations of the most dis-
• of that? The King will say when it is told, the craven tinguished amongst mankind, expect, by the careful
• was afraid of his life, else he would not have told it. execution of those engravings, to diffuse a taste for art
Therefore no, God-a-mercy!" I told him that if he at a very cheap rate. Each number, containing three
would write to the King *, I would ride and carry it, portraits printed upon paper about the size of this
and assured hiin upon my life that I would return him Magazine, is sold for half-a-crown ;-and it further
a gracious answer. Whereupon he made a pause, contains á sketch of the life of each individual whose
as if he were half persuaded to do it. Then supper likeness is found in the collection. The first number
came up, and after he had supped, he got courage comprises Dante, the great Italian poet—Sir Humphrey
again to say he knew nothing worth the revealing. Davy, our own eminent chemist-and Kosciusko, the

“* * 13th September.—This day, upon his complaint of Polish general and patriot. We give an extract from
his misery, I gave him counsel and comfort to bear the Life of Davy:-
his affliction with patience, upon the assurance of God's “ The autumn of 1815 is rendered memorable by the

mercy, and the example of such as God had suffered discovery of the safety-lamp, one of the most beneficial 'to be as grievously afflicted as flesh and blood could applications of science io economical purposes yet made, by bear, and yet had restored them to as great felicity as

which hundreds, perhaps thousands, of lives have been preHe took occasion thereupon to commend the served. Davy was led to the consideration of this subject magnanimity of the Romans, who would rather have by an application from Dr. Gray, now Bishop of Bristol, the * their deaths by their own hands than endure any that Wearmouth, to consider and promote the means of pre

Chairman of a Society established in 1813, at Bishop‘was base or reproachful. To which I answered, that venting accidents by fire in coal-pits. Being then in Scot• "they were such as knew not God, nor the danger of land, he visited the mines on his return southward, and was

their souls to be damned to perpetual torment of hell supplied with specimens of fire-damp, which, on reaching • for destroying their bodies, which God had made a London, he proceeded to examine and analyze. He soon

discovered that the carburetted hydrogen gas, called fire“* Raleigh afterwards wrote a letter to the King, which is published damp by the miners, would not explode when mixed with in Cayley's Life, vol. ii. p. 153; the date of this letter bas bitherto less than six, or more than fourteen times its volume of air; been considered to be uncertain, but as it appears unquestionably and further, that the explosive mixture could not be fired from Sir Thomas Wilson's papers that a letter was sent to the King in tubes of small diameters and proportionate lengihs. from Raleigh on the 18th September, and as an ancient copy of the Gradually diminishing these, he arrived at the conclusion letter, preserved with Wilson's papers, at the State-Paper Office, is that a tissue of wire, in which the meshes do not exceed a indorsed with that date, we may probably conclude that this was the letter then sent. The letter is too long for insertion here ; it merely “+ In one of his Reports, Wilson says, 'the things he seems to make consists of a vindication of his Guiana Voyage, and contains no dis most reckoning of are his chemical stuffs, amongst which there is s closures whatever of facts which were not known and notorious many spirits of things, that I think there is done wanting that ever a before."

heard of, unless it be the Spirit of God.''

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certain small diameter, which may be considered as the came to a shilling at the old rate. This is a vast imultimate limit of a series of such tubes, is impervious to the provement. The speed, also, with which new laws are inflamed air; and that a lamp, covered with such tissue, promulgated in this cheap form is deserving of all praise, may be used with perfect safety even in an explosive mix. for the sixth number, or sheet of the publication, which ture, which takes fire, and burns within the cage, securely cut off from the power of doing harm. Thus when the at

we purchased in the beginning of May, contains an act mosphere is so impure that the flame of the lamp itself dated the 9th April, 1832. cannot be maintained, the Davy still supplies light to the

We hail this improvement as an important step in miner, and turns his worst enemy into an obedient servant. the art of governing a people in quiet by the operation This invention, the certain source of large profit, he pre- of their knowledge, instead of their fears; and as one sented with characteristic liberality to the public. The of the many proofs which we daily receive, that knowwords are preserved, in which, when pressed to secure to ledge of any kind has in great part ceased to be exclusive. himself the benefit of it by a patent, he declined to do so, in conformity with the high-minded resolation which he

MONTHLY NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. formed upon acquiring independent wealth, of never making his scientific eminence subservient to gain :- I have We are entreated by several anonymous correspondents to enough for all my views and purposes, more wealth might notice their communications, if that notice were only exbe troublesome, and distract my attention from those pur- pressed in a single line. With every desire to oblige, it is suits in which I delight. More wealth could not increase impossible for us to insert any such notice, unless it is intermy fame or happiness. It might undoubtedly enable me esting and intelligible to our readers in general. For let us see to put four horses to my carriage, but what would it avail the cost of a single line which would apply only to one indivime to have it said, that Sir Humphrey drives his carriage dual. There are about twelve hundred lines in each of our and four ?' He who used wealth and distinction to such numbers; so that a single line occupies the twelve-hundredth good purpose, may be forgiven the weakness if he estimated part of whatever quantity we sell of the whole impression of them at too high a value."

that number. As our impression is now one hundred and twenty thousand, the singlo line for one individual would be equal to one hundred copies of the entire number ;--and our whole body of readers would be taxed eight shillings and fourpence for the gratification of one reader only.

We shall be glad to receive the Authentic Anecdotes of Bloomfield,' particularly if they relate to his endeavours to carry on his own mental cultivation.

It is affirmed, by two correspondents, that the first stone of New London Bridge was laid on the 15th June, and not on the 27th April, 1825.

The belief that if a funeral be carried along a path a right of way is established, is not less a popular error because the experiment was tried and yielded to at Woolwich.

A writer suggests that the slow increase of population in some agricultural districts, mentioned in statistical Notes,' No. 1, may be thus accounted for :

The purely agricultural districts do not increase their population, because a certain quantity of land requires only a definite number of | labourers, and this number, instead of increasing, has a tendency to diminish in proportion to improvements in agricultural machines, and other means of economising labour. All the children, therefore, which are born in these districts, above the number required to replace their parents, &c., move off to towns and other places where emplos.

ment can be obtained ; and the slow increase, noticed in their popuPROMULGATION OF THE LAWS.

lation, depends on a corresponding increase in capital and income." It has long been a reproach to the British government The Penny Magazine. will, in most cases, be delivered weekly that the people, without incurring a large expense which in the Towns of the United Kingdom, by Booksellers and Newsfew individuals could bear, were unable to obtain an

venders, to whom Subscribers should address their Orders. It cannot

be sent by Post as a Newspaper is, being uostamped. For the accurate knowledge of the new laws passed from time to convenience of those, who, residing in country places, cannot obtain time, while they were liable to punishment for their the Publication at regular weekly intervals, the Numbers published ignorance of those laws. The public acts of parliament during each Month will be stitched together to form a Monthly Part. passed in one session amount, upon an average, to That this part may be sold at a convenient and uniform price, a 1000 pages, or 250 sheets; and the price of these acts Books as we think right to give a place to in the Library, will appear

MONTHLY SUPPLEMENT, consisting chiefly of Notices of such New was three-pence for each sheet of four pages. The size with the regular Number on the last Saturday in the Month. The price of the sheet was exactly one-half of the size of the of the Part, whether consisting of five or of six Numbers, will be Sis. Penny Magazine. A page of such an act contained PENCE; each Part will be neatly and strongly done up, in a wrapper. about 600 words, while a page of this Magazine con

Thus, the annual Expense of Twelve Parts will be Six Shillings, viz.:

8. d. tains 1,500 words. It must be evident that such a price

52 Regular Numbers amounted to a prohibition against the purchase of the

12 Supplements

10 statutes, except to lawyers, to whom they were indis

12 Wrappers

08 pensable; and that by this prohibition it became very

6 0 possible that a man, with the best intentions, might violate some statute, particularly of those relating to

Errata.-In page 59, line 47 of the second column, for Crompton, read

Compton. customs and excise, and be thus subjected to undeserved In page 70, line 18, from the bottom of the first column, for 1774, read 1744, punishment. We are glad to announce that inquiries found it necessary to number tho 'Supplements, in future, in their order in the

The first Supplement, for April, should have been numbered 6. We have into this matter, before a committee of the House of Series, to prevent mistakes. Commons, have led to the publication, by the King's LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST.. printer, of a cheap edition of the statutes passed in the Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following

Booksellers :current session. We have now before us - A Collection

Lonaon, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, | Lincoln, BROOKE and Sox. of the Public General Statutes passed in the second

Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITH.

Manchester, ROBINSON, and W&B) year of the reign of King William IV., 1832,' beauti- Bath, Simas. fully printed upon the paper called royal, and sold at Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLIT. the exceedingly small price of two-pence per sheet of six- Derby, WILKINS and Son.

Nottingham, WRIGHT,

Sheffield, Ridor. teen pages. Each page contains about 600 words, Falmouth, PHILP.

Dublin, WAKEMAN.

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Born that we may now purchase for two-pence as much as Leeds, BAINES and Co.

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co.
Printed by WILLIAM Clowes, Stamford-Street,

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Paternoster Pow.

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The iron part of the harpoon which is used by the We have already translated an account of the mode of | huntsmen is a span long; towards the point it is formed killing the hippopotamus, from Dr. Rüppell's Travels; like a penknife, being sharp at one end and on one side to which we shall now add, from the same writer, a There is a strong barb immediately following the edge, description of the somewhat similar way in whic: tne and at the other end is a projecting piece to which the crocodile is caught by the natives of Dongola.

rope is fastened. This iron is put on a wooden shaft “ The most favourable season for catching the c oco-, eight feet long. dile is the winter, when the animal usually sleeps on's nd- “ The flesh and fat of the crocodile are eaten by the banks to enjoy the sun; or, during the spring, after Berbers, among whom they pass for a dainty bit. Both pairing-time, when the female regularly watches the sand parts, however, have a kind of musk smell so strong, islands where she has buried her eggs. The native that I could never eat crocodile's flesh without vomiting spies out the place, and on the south side of it (that is afterwards. The four musk glands of the crocodile are to the leeward) he makes a hole in the sand by throwing a great part of the profit which results from the capture, up the earth on the side on which he expects the croco- as the Berbers will give as much as two dollars in specie dile. There he hides himself, and if the crocodile does for the four glands, which they use as a perfumed unnot observe him, it comes to the usual place and soon | guent for the hair.” falls asleep in the sun. Then the huntsman darts his When Herodotus was in Egypt about 450 years harpoon with all his might at the beast. To succeed, before the Christian era, the following was the way in the iron end ought to penetrate at least to the depth of which this formidable reptile was taken prisoner : four inches, in order that the barb may hold fast. The “ There are many ways of catching crocodiles in wounded crocodile flies to the water, and the huntsman Egypt, but the following seems to me best worth relatto his canoe, with which a companion hastens to his ing. The huntsman puts the chine of a pig as a bait assistance. A piece of wood fastened to the harpoon on a hook, and lets it down into the river. In the mean by a long cord swims on the water, and shows the time he takes his station on the bank, holding a young direction in which the crocodile is moving. The hunts- pig, which he beats in order to make it squeal out. men, by pulling at this rope, draw the beast to the sur- The crocodile, on hearing this, makes towards the face of the water, where it is soon pierced by a second sound, but meeting with the bait on his way he swallows harpoon.

it down. Then the men begin to pull, and after he is “The dexterity consists in giving to the spear sufficient fairly hauled out on dry land, the first thing the huntsstrength to pierce through the coat of mail which pro- man does is to plaister the crocodile's eyes up with tects the crocodile, who does not remain inactive after mud. If he can succeed in doing this, there is no diffihe is wounded, but gives violent blows with his tail, culty in managing the beast; otherwise it is a very trouand tries to bite asunder the harpoon rope. To prevent blesome affair*.” this, the rope is made of thirty different thin lines, placed The different treatment which this monster received side by side, and tied together at intervals of every two in different parts of antient Egypt is curioiis, and not feet, so that the thin lines get entangled and fastened very easily accounted for. In the southern parts, near in the hollows of the animals teeth. Very frequently the cataracts, the crocodile was an article of food, but the harpoons, through the pulling, break out of the probably only with a particular caste, as in Dongola at crocodile's body, and it escapes. If I had not seen the the present day. In other parts, as at Thebes and near fact with my own eyes, I could hardly have believed the great Lake Moeris (now Keroun), it was fashionthat two men could draw out of the water a crocodile able to have a pet crocodile, who was fed daintily and fourteen feet jong, fasten his muzzle, tie his legs over his treated with great respect. “They put,” says Heroback, and finally kill the beast by plunging a sharp dotus,“ pendents of glass and gold in their ears, and weapon into his neck, and dividing the spinal nerve.

+ Herodotus. ii. 70, VOL. I.


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