ePub 版

THE OLD MAN'S COMFORTS, AND HOW HE GAINED best method of prolonging life, and of making life happy," THEM.

said a wise Mandarin to one of these infatuated princes, “is You are old, Father William, the young man cried,

to control your appetites, subdue your passions, and pracThe few locks which are left you are grey;

tise virtue! Most of your predecessors, O Emperor! would You are hale, Father William, a hearty old man,

have lived to a good old age had they followed the advice Now tell me the reason, I pray.

which I give you!" In the days of my youth, Father William replied, I remember'd that youth would fly fast,

A wise man's kingdom is his own breast; or, if he ever And abused not my health and my vigour at first,

looks farther, it will only be to the judgment of a select feve, That I never might need them at last.

who are free from prejudices, and capable of giving him solid You are old, Father William, the young man criea,

and substantial advice. And pleasures with youth pass away, And yet you lament not the days that are gone,

Time tries the characters of men, as the furnace assays Now tell me the reason, I pray.

the quality of metals, by disengaging the impurities, dissiIn the days of my youth, Father William replied,

pating the superficial glitter, and leaving the sterling gold I remember'd that youth could not last;

bright and pure. I thought of the future, whatever I did, That I never might grieve for the past.

It was said, with truth, by Charles the Twelfth, of Sweden, You are old, Father William, the young man cried,

that he who was ignorant of the arithmetical art was but And life must be hastening away;

half a man. With how much greater force may a similar You are cheerful, and love to converse upon death!

expression be applied to him who carries to his grave the Now tell me the reason, I pray.

neglected and unprofitable seeds of faculties, which it deI am cheerful, young man, Father William replied,

pended on himself to have reared to maturity, and of which Let the cause thy attention engage;

the fruits bring accessions to human happiness-more preIn the days of my youth I remember'd my God!

cious than all the gratifications which power or wealth can And He hath not forgotten my age.

command.-Dugald Stewart. The above Stanzas are ascribed to Mr. Southey.

A Ship of War.-It is a mighty and comprehensive Encouragement to Persons of mature Age to cultivate problem to contemplate all the essential elements connected the Mind.-Instances have frequently occurred of indivi.

with the construction of so massy and stupendous a fabric duals, in whom the power of imagination has at an ad

as a ship destined for the terrible purposes of war, which, vanced period of life been found susceptible of culture to in the magnificent voyages it undertakes, has to cross wide a wonderful degree. In such men what an accession is and immeasurable seas, agitated at times by the unbridled gained to their most refined pleasures! What enchantments fury of the winds, subjecting it to strains of the most formiare added to their most ordinary perceptions ! The mind dalle kind;—which shall possess mechanical strength to awakening, as if from

a trance to a new existence, becomes ha- resist these, and at the same time be adapted for stowage bituated to the most interesting aspects of life and of nature; and velocity, which is expected in all cases to overtake the the intellectual eye is “purged of its film;" and things, the enemy, and yet must contain within itself the materiel of a most familiar and unnoticed, disclose charms invisible before, six months cruise. These and many other complicated The same objects and events, which were lately beheld inquiries which the naval architect has to contemplate, must with indifference, occupy now all the powers and capacities all be involved in the general conditions of his problem, the of the soul; the contrast between the present and the past elements of which

he must estimate while he is rearing his serving only to enhance and to endear so unlooked for an ac mighty fabric in the dock, and be prepared to anticipate quisition. 'What Gray has so finely said of the pleasures of their effects before he launches his vessel on the turbulent cicissitude, conveys but a faint image of what is experienced bosom of the deep.- Review of Hervey's Article, Shipby the man who, after having lost in vulgar occupations building, Edinburgh Encyclopædia. and vulgar amusements his earliest and most precious years, is thus introduced at last to a new heaven and a new earth:

Average Duration of Life.- Nothing is more proverbi« The meanest floweret of the vale,

ally uncertain than the duration of human life, where the The simplest note that swells the gale,

maxim is applied to an individual ; yet there are few things The common sun, the air, the skies,

less subject to fluctuation than the average duration of a To him are op'ning Paradise.”

multitude of individuals. The number of deaths happening Dugald Stewart's Essay on the Cultivation of amongst persons of our own acquaintance is frequently very Intellectual Habits.

different in different years, and it is not an uncommon Cure of Drunkenness.-A man in Maryland, notoriously event that this number shall be double, treble, or even many addicted to this vice, hearing an uproar in his kitchen one times larger in one year than in the next succeeding. If evening, had the curiosity to step without noise to the door, we consider larger societies of individuals, as the inhabitants to know what was the matter, when he beheld his servants of a village or small town, the number of deaths is more indulging in the most unbounded roar of laughter at a couple uniform; and in still larger bodies, as among the inhabitants of his negro boys, who were mimicking himself in his of a kingdom, the uniformity is such, that the excess of deaths drunken fits; showing how he reeled and staggered, - how in any year above the average number, seldom exceeds a he looked and nodded, and hiccupped and tumbled. The small fractional part of the whole. In the two periods, each picture which these children of nature drew of him, and of fifteen years, beginning at 1780, the number of deaths which had filled the rest with so much merriment, struck occurring in England and Wales in any year did not fall him so forcibly, that he became a perfectly sober man, to short of, or exceed, the average number one-thirteenth part the unspeakable joy of his wife and children.-Anatomy of differ from the number of those dying in the next by a tenth

of the whole; nor did the number dying in any year Drunkenness.

part.-Babbage on the Assurance of Lives. Lesson to Rulers.—The Chinese Emperor Tchou set out

How many minds—almost all the great ones--were on a journey to visit the vast provinces of his empire, accompanied by his eldest son. One day he stopped his car in the formed in secrecy and solitude, without knowing whether midst of some fields where the people were hard at work. they should ever make a figure or not! All they knew

I took you with me," said he to his son, “ that you might was, that they liked what they were about, and gave their be an eye-witness of the painful toils of the poor husband-whole souls to it. men, and that the feeling their laborious station should ex

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. cite in your heart, might prevent your burdening them with

Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following taxes !"

Booksellers :-
London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITH.

Manchester, ROBINSOx, and WEBB an à How to prolong life.-For many years there prevailed in

SIMMS. China an extraordinary superstition and belief that the secret Birmingham, Drake,

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARXLEY,

Nottingham, WriouT. 'sect of Tao had discovered an elixir which bestowed immor- Bristol, Westley and Co.

Derby, Wilkins and Son. tality. No less than three Emperors died after swallowing Falmouth, PhilP.

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Bord, a drink presented to them by the eunuchs of the palace, as

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. the draught that was to confer never-ending life. “The Leeds, Basses and Co.

Printed by WILLIAM CLOW zs, Stamford Street.

[ocr errors]

Bath, Sumus.

Dublin, WAKEMAN.



Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. . 10.


April 30 to May 31, 1832.


brown bread while he can get white, unless he like the brown the best ; nor drink small beer while he can get strong, unless he like the small the best. These are mummeries of a past age, when boisterous merriment was mistaken for happiness. The more the understanding is cultivated the more do we acquire a taste for quiet and unexpensive pleasures ;—and whilst we have fields and green lanes, such as Highgate offers, to wander through, and can know how to derive pleasure and instruction from the contemplation of “ the meanest floweret of the vale," we may well foregothe unmeaning shouts which once attended the general practice of being “sworn at Highgate,” happy to have escaped the expense and the headaches which waited upon those fooleries, kept up by interested hosts and their idle and drunken hangers-on.


Higngate Churcn.) Tuose of our readers who take their “ holiday walks” in the northern environs of London-and more delightful walks cannot be presented by the suburbs of any city in the world—will have observed, that in the course of last autumn, a tall Gothic spire had sprung up on the summit of Highgate-hill. This is the spire of Highgate church, which has been just completed *, and which is an honourable monument of the taste of Mr. L. Vulliamy, its architect. It is impossible to imagine a more beautiful site than that chosen for the church, or a style of building better adapted to the situation. The interior is extremely neat and commodious. The old Chapel of Ease, which stands near the Gate-house, was a very small and inconvenient place of worship.

Those who take a summer ramble to Highgate, to see this new church, need not now apprehend that they

(GEORGE CANNINO.: shall be compelled to be “ sworn on the horns," if they stop for refreshment at any of the inns. The Horns, according to Mr. Hone, in his amusing ‘Every-day Book,' A MONUMENT to the memory of George Canning has just ore kept at each of the nineteen places of refreshment been erected, by subscription, in Palace-yard. It is a cowhich Highgate possesses, and there are persons ready to lossal statue of bronze, executed by Mr. Westmacott. officiate at this ridiculous ceremony, if the wayfarer de. The attitude of the figure is, upon the whole, simple and sire it. But he sober-minded man is not now constrained grand ; though, in one or two points of view, a little to go through the farce of swearing that he will not eat theatrical. The likeness of the orator is excellent. The

above wood-cut will furnish a general idea of this fine • We gladly take this opportunity to correct an error which inad- figure. It is placed on a granite pedestal, bearing the vertently crept into the Companion for the Almanac for 1832: The building of Highgate church was not suspended for want of funds, inscriptionand the cost did not exceed the estimate.




marked by a straight line, uniting the nodes of Mercury Our readers would be prepared to observe the transit and extending both ways to the earth's orbit. (For sewhich took place on Saturday the 5th of May, by the veral centuries the earth will pass through those poin's hasty notice contained in our Supplement for April. early in May and November, although owing to an es: We fear, however, that owing to the state of the wea- tremely slow motion of Mercury's nodes round the sum , ther, few can have enjoyed the sight. The writer of this these periods are not absolutely invariable.) Thirdls,

rticle watched during the whole time, and although the earth and Mercury must be on the same side of the there were a few short intervals in which the sun was par- sun; if they are on opposite sides, Mercury will pass be tially visible, he was totally unable to obtain a view of hind the sun, causing an occultation. the transit, owing probably in part to the unavoidable When these three circumstances combine, a transi delay in adjusting the telescope. The transit was, how will take place; and it will be visible from all parts vi ever; seen for a short time at Greenwich, Islington, and the earth on which the sun shines during any part 6 a few other places in the neighbourhood of London. the transit. At Islington a gentleman was able to measure the dia The transits of Venus are regulated by causes es meter or thickness of Mercury, an operation which can actly similar to these which determine the transits a be performed during a transit with very great accuracy. Mercury.

We promised to explain how it happens, that although Mercury moves round the sun four times in one of our A DICTIONARY OF COMMERCE AND COMMERyears, and might therefore be expected to pass between CIAL NAVIGATION; ILLUSTRAPED WITH Maps us and the sun very frequently, a transit is really an

By J. R. MacCulloch, Esq. 8vo. London, 1832. event of rare occurrence. In order to accomplish this, The price of this book is fifty shillings, which may seem we shall make use of a comparison, the homeliness of at first to be a great deal of money for a single volume. which will, we trust, be excused, if it render intelligible Yet we see here merely one of the wonders of the that which is certainly difficult of explanation.

modern printing-press. With such economical compactWe will suppose ourselves to stand by the side of a ness is this volume printed that, while nothing can be circular pond of very clear water, and that we place a desired more beautifully distinct than is every page and ball to float in the centre, of such a weight as to be every line of it, it actually, as is noticed in the preface, half covered with water. Let this ball represent the sun, contains more letter-press, that is more words, than and the brink of the pond the orbit of the earth. Then Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, in four large vothe surface of the water will represent the plane of the lumes quarto, published at eight guineas. Estimated earth's orbit, passing, as it does in reality, through the even upon this principle, therefore, the work is really sun's centre.

not a dear, but a very cheap one. The matter of which Let the diameter of the circular pond be sixteen feet, it consists, if printed in the ordinary style, would have then that of the ball which represents the sun must be filled two folio volumes; the price of which would prorather less than an inch.

bably have been four guineas each. And here we have Now if there should happen to be a small globular the whole in a much less bulky, less cumbrous, and in insect, not quite the hundredth part of an inch in every way more convenient form, for less than a third diameter, swimmingalong the brink of the pond in part of that money. a direction (as we should view it) opposite to that in But the quantity of information which is extracted in which the hands of a clock move, this insect would this Dictionary from other publications, to say nothin: represent the earth.

of what appears here for the first time and is to be We must next suppose ourselves to take a fine wire found nowhere else in print, it would probably cost hurhoop, about six feet in diameter, and to hold it in the dreds of pounds to collect by the purchase of the origi. middie of the pond, so that one half of the hoop shall nal works themselves. The most eminent works both dip a little below the surface (about four inches), the in our own and other languages, on commerce, political other half rising as much above the surface, and the economy, the arts and manufactures, and the sciences on representative sun being in the centre of the hoop as which they are dependent, together with numberless ! well as in that of the pond. This hoop would represent parliamentary reports and other similar documents, have the orbit of Mercury. For Mercury itself we must all been laid under contribution by the able and laboriimagine a very small insect, of less than half the dia

ous author, to furnish the inaterials of this admirable meter of the earth's representative, to move round the performance. Of several of these scattered publications, hoop in the same direction as the other insect moves indeed, we are presented in the present volume with a round the pond, but in a shorter time; so as to make careful and complete analysis or summary, embracing rather more than four revolutions to the other's one. everything of any value in their contents, and exhibiting In completing its circuit, it is manifest that Mercury's the whole arranged in the most intelligible and converepresentative must pass twice through the surface of nient form. We may venture to say that there is no the water. These points of the insect's orbit represent important source of information upon the subjects of the nodes of Mercury; namely, the points in which which lie treats which Mr. Macculloch has not consulted, Mercury's orbit cuts the plane of the earth's orbit. At and nearly all that is material in which he has not laid the moment of rising through the surface of the water, before his readers. The book is for all ordinary purthe insect would be in the ascending node; when sink- poses really more useful than an entire fibrary of the best ing through the surface, it would be in the descending works on commerce and commercial topics that existed node; and it is manifest that except when in or near previous to its appearance. one of these points it could not intercept any part of the Although an expensive book, therefore, and conseother insect's view of the representative sun; it might quently not one which a labouring man will think of appear to pass a little above or a little below the central purchasing, à book society could scarcely perhaps lay ball, according as it happened to be above or below the out a portion of its funds to better purpose than in water's surface, but not across the face of the ball, and, procuring a copy of this Dictionary. It is an immense consequently, except as before, there could be no transit

. fund of knowledge and that of the most useful as well Our ideal orrery will, we hope, make it apparent that as the most universally interesting sort. We will a transit can take place only when the following circum- abridge from the Preface an enumeration of the different stances combine. First, Mercury must be in or near subjects of which it treats. All the various articles which to one of its nodes. Secondly, the earth must be in or are the subjects of commerce are described under their near one of the two points in its orbit which would be English names, those which they bear in the other prin

cipal languages of the world being also given. The and talent, and obtains a certain popularity. The dull accounts embrace generally not orly a description of the and the stupid we may safely leave to themselves. article and its uses, but a notice of its growth or manu- Mrs. Trollope, an English gentlewoman, passed four facture, of its price, of the tests or marks by which its years in the United States of America, so her statements genuineness or goodness is ascertained, and of the his- come to us exempt from the suspicion of hasty observatory of the rise, progress, and present state of the trade tion. We are given to understand that she left England in it. Accounts are given of all the chief places of trade dissatisfied with political and social systems of the with which this country has any intercourse ; in which Old World, and anxious to try the republicanism of the are stated what commodities are exported to and im- New. But dissatisfaction with one order of things does ported from them, what are their moneys, weights, and not imply the faculty of justly appreciating another; and measures, and what are the institutions, customs, and to say nothing of an irritability of temperament, of a regulations which prevail in them with respect to com-spirit of discontent, which we really do presume must merce and navigation. In this department of the work exist to a considerable extent, to make England“ with alone, there is collected a larger mass of authentic infor-all her faults" so very insupportable, we would only re-, mation respecting the trade and navigation of foreign mark that over-expectation is apt to lead to exaggerated countries than is to be found in any other English pub- disappointment, and that it is very natural that Mrs. lication. The general principles and laws of commerce Trollope, not finding America and the Americans quite and commercial navigation are examined and explained so good as she had fancied them to be, should describe in a series of elaborate articles under the heads of Com- them as much worse than they are. merce, Freight, Navigation Laws, Corn Laws, Registry, Besides these natural consequences she shews throughSalvage, Ships, Wrecks, and many others. The prin- out her work the equally natural error of judging of every ciples and practice of Commercial Arithmetic and Ac-thing by a fixed English standard, from which all her counts are unfolded in articles on Book-keeping, Dis- liberalism never relieved her for a moment. Than count, Exchange, Interest, Annuities, &c. Besides a this nothing can be less philosophical or just. Every general article on Commercial Companies, there are state of society must have its peculiarities, its advantages separate accounts of all the principal associations of this and disadvantages (if, as regards America, we can dedescription that exist in great Britain, including Banking signate domestic trifles by so important a word) attached and Dock Companies, the East-India Company, Water to it, and inseparable from it; and we have no more reaCompanies, Mining Companies, Insurance Companies, son to expect certain graces and ornaments, distinguishand others. Every thing pertaining to the Excise and the ing the fashionable society of an old country, in the Customs is elucidated under these heads, and also under hard-working people of a new country, than we have to the terms Importation, Smuggling, Warehousing, Tariff, look for the finish of a professional dancing-master in &c. And finally, to all these are to be added a host of the hearty gambols of a peasant. In a new country articles on subjects which it is not easy to classify, in- where every man's hands are full of work, the usefu. cluding Brokers, Canals, Coins, Colonies, Light-houses, must predominate over the ornamental. The things Money, Partnership, Post-office, Rail-roads, Treaties, after which Mrs. Trollope's heart yearned were deApprentice, Auctioneer, Balance of Trade, Bankruptcy, pendent on the civilization of centuries, ----on the existCredit, Patents, Pawnbroking, Piracy, Publicans, Qua-ence of a body wealthy and idle enough to be elegant rantine, and many more which it is unnecessary to enu- in all things. These are circumstances which the merate. No subject in short has been omitted which Americans may be acquainted with in after years, but can be properly said to be comprehended under the title which they can no more create suddenly, than they of the work, or to belong to either the science or the could cover their country with ancient seats and still practice of commerce.

more ancient baronial castles, or than we could convert This sketch will enable our readers to form some idea our cultivated fields and convenient streams into the of the varied entertainment as well as instruction to be sublimities of their primeval forests and mighty rivers. found in the volume. Whether read through, or used Far be it from us to attempt to disparage those amenifor occasional consultation, it is calculated to impart more ties on which much of the pleasure of life and society information of a useful and interesting kind than proba- depend, and which the Americans themselves will bly any other single volume in any language. The speedily be more generally possessed of; but still we labour and multifarious resources which such a work can conceive, that, among the people she describes, must have demanded are quite extraordinary for one the men who smoked and spat might be honest and individual to have brought to the task. Although Mr. industrious; that the women who would not submit Macculloch acknowledges, both in his preface and in dif- to the name of servants, but called themselves helps, ferent passages throughout the body of his book, his might be good servants notwithstanding ; that the coobligations to the assistance of several official persons, lonels who kept stores, and the majors who sold spimerchants, and others, we are not surprised to learn rits, might be brave and efficient officers in the hour of that he " has been almost incessantly engaged upon it need; that men pursuing such callings might sit in for upwards of three years ;" while, as he remarks," the congress with credit; and that the gentlemen and ladies previous part of his life may be said to have been spent who ate with their knives might be in possession of an in preparing himself for the undertaking." It is a work education teaching real politeness, without being initiated the accomplishment of which might indeed fitly crown in all the mysteries of the silver fork. a life-time of preparatory study.

We regret the talent misapplied in this book. We

disapprove of its publication, because it tends to open NATIONAL PECULIARITIES.

those breaches, which an improved philosophy and years A work has just been published (and it has had a con

of peaceful intercourse between us and our trans-atlantic siderable sale), entitled Domestic Manners of the Ame- brethren, were fast closing up. ricans. By Mrs. Trollope.' In our notices of new books we had laid it down as a rule to confine ourselves to such

Lord Chancellor Harcourt.-The patent of the Harcourt works as we could conscientiously recommend as con

barony (now extinct) recites, that Lord Chancellor Harcourt taining wholesome amusement or useful instruction;

daily despatches a multitude of suits in Chancery, removes but we may properly depart from this rule when any obstacles which delay judgment in that court, and takes spething appears, not of a useful but an injurious tendency, cial care, that the successful issue of an honest cause shorld particularly if the work in question is written with spirit cost every plaintiff as little as may be."


[ocr errors]

[Intended Suspension Bridge over the Avon, at Clifton. SUSPENSION BRIDGES.

Such a bridge must be very inconvenient, as the road We avail ourselves of the permission of Mr. Brunel, way is bent like the cables. iun., to copy his beautiful lithographic engravings of a

There are several ancient suspension bridges in Suspension Bridge about to be erected over the Avon, China and in Thibet sufficiently strong to enable a at Clifton. The above plate will furnish some idea of man with a load, and even a beast of burthen, to pass the beauty of the situation of this intended bridge ; and with security. But such structures are manifestly not the following particulars will give a notion of the bold- to be compared to those splendid monuments of science ness of the undertaking :

which afford a safe and broad passage to any number of Distance from centre to centre of piers

500 feet. horses and carriages; and the situations of which are Height of roadway above water:

240 feet. never productive of any inconvenience. The principle Width of roadway, 20 feet;-two footways of 6 feet, 12 feet.- upon which suspension bridges are constructed is thus Total, 32 feet. The road being in the centre, the footpaths are on each side and

described :outside of the chains and suspension rods.

“In these the flooring or main body of the bridge is The Egyptian gateways will be on a scale equal to those of some supported on strong iron chains or rods, hanging, in of the largest of the ancient models.

the form of an inverted arch, from one point of support From the roadway to the top of the Sphynx will be about 100 feet. to another. The points of support are the tops of strong The gateway will be about 40 feet high in the clear. The base on which the south pier stands, will be 120 feet in height. pillars or small towers, erected for the purpose. Over

The bridge is to be thrown across the river Avon, joining the high these pillars the chain passes, and is attached, at each rocks on either side, called the St. Vincent Rocks, about one mile extremity of the bridge, to rocks or massive frames of below Bristol ; and consequently

, all the shipping of Bristol, including iron, firmly secured under ground. The great advantage East and West Indiamen of the largest class, will pass under it. It is considered by some that the notion of suspension librium, in consequence

of which a smaller amount of

of suspension bridges consists in their stability of equibridges was derived from the rope bridges of South materials is necessary for their construction than for Ame:ica. A very remarkable bridge of this sort, that of that of any other bridge. If a suspension bridge be Penipé, is described by Humboldt, in his · Vues des

shaken, or thrown out of equilibrium, it returns by its Cordillères ;' and, from a plate in that fine work, we

weight to its proper place, whereas the reverse happens copy the following representation of this bridge.

in bridges which are built above the level of their supporters."

The Europeans of the seventeenth century had conceived the principle of suspension bridges, and such a structure is described by Scamozzi, an Italian architect, in his work Del Idea Archi, published in 1615. Eighty years ago, the English threw over the Tees, at Winch, near Durham, a bridge of iron-wire, which served for foot-passengers. In the beginning of the present century, by means of chains placed close to each other, carrying cross-beams and planks laid longitudinally, we constructed bridges, over which workmen might pass with loaded wheelbarrows. Such were the bridges established on iron chains, and thrown from one eminence to another, for the purpose of carrying away the earth to be removed in order to disengage the blocks of stone

* Encyclopædia Americana, vol. ii. p. 269.

« 上一頁繼續 »