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a wild and enthusiastic scheme of emigration. Much
MATERNAL CARE OF THE EARWIG. however as I feel the deprivation of such society, I IN ‘Insect Transformations,' (p. 102,) it is mentioned must say that I do not yet regret my coming to this that the distinguished Swedish naturalist, Baron De country. When I consider that the people around me Geer,“ discovered a female earwig in the beginning of have mostly been convicted of heinous offences in Eng. April under some stones, brooding over a number of land, I am pleased at the security we enjoy. You will
, eggs, of whose safety she appeared to be not a little I know, rejoice to hear that I and my family are in good jealous. In order to study her proceedings the better, health ; and that though so remote, I am as near to you he placed her in a nurse-box, filled with fresh earth, in the alliance of friendship as ever.
and scattered the eggs in at random. She was not
long, however, in collecting them with all care into one THE LOBSTER.
spot, carrying them one by one in her mandibles, and placing herself over them. She never left them for a moment, sitting as assiduously as a bird does while hatching. In about five or six weeks the grubs were hatched, and were then of a whitish colour."
These observations the author of 'Insect Transformations' has just had an opportunity of verifying and extending, and has coinmunicated to us the following interesting facts :
“ About the end of March, I found an earwig brood. ing over her eggs in a small cell scooped out in a garden border; and in order to observe her proceedings I removed the eggs into my study, placing them upon fresh earth under a bell glass. The careful mother soon scooped out a fresh cell, and collected the scattered eggs with great care to the little nest, placing herself over them, not so much, as it afterwards appeared, to keep them warm as to prevent too rapid evaporation of their moisture. When the earth began to dry up, she
dug the cell gradually deeper, till at length she got ANONGST the numerous examples given by Dr. Paley, almost out of view; and whenever the interior became of the wonderful manner in which Nature contrives to too dry, she withdrew the eggs from the cell altogether, overcome difficulties, which would at first appear insur- and placed them round the rim of the glass where some mountable, there is perhaps none more striking than the of the evaporated moisture had condensed. Upon obmode in which the lobster is released from his case serving this, I dropped some water into the abandoned when the increasing size of his body requires more cell, and the mother soon afterwards replaced her eggs
In most animals the skin grows with their there. When the water which had dropped had nearly growth. In some animals, instead of a soft skin, there evaporated, I moistened the outside of the earth oppois a shell, which admits by its form of gradual enlarge- site the bottom of the cell; and the mother perceiving ment. Thus the shell of the tortoise, which consists of this, actually dug a gallery right through to the spot several pieces, is gradually enlarged at the joinings of where she found the best supply of moisture. Having those pieces which are called “ sutures.” Shells with neglected to moisten the earth for some days, it again two sides, like those of the muscle, grow bigger by addi- became dry, and there was none even round the rim of tion at the edge. Spiral shells, as those of the snail, the glass as before. Under these circumstances, the receive this addition at their mouth. The simplicity of mother earwig found a little remaining moisture, quite their form admits of this; but the lobster's shell being under the clod of earth upon the board of the mantelapplied to the limbs of his body, as well as to the body piece, and thither she forthwith carried her eggs. itself, does not admit of either of the modes of enlarge “ Her subsequent proceedings were not less interestment which is observed in other shells. It is so hard ing; for though I carefully moistened the earth every that it cannot expand or stretch, and it is so complicated day, she regularly changed the situation of the eggs in its form that it does not admit of being enlarged by morning and evening, placing them in the original cell adding to its edge. How, then, was the growth of the at night, and on the board under the clod during the lobster to be provided for? We have seen that room day; as if she understood the evaporation to be so great could not be made for him in his old shell: was he then when the sun was up that her eggs might be left too to be annually fitted with a new one? If so, another dry before night. difficulty arises: how was he to get out of his present “I regret to add, that during my absence the glass confinement? How was he to open his hard coat, or draw had been moved, and the mother escaped, having carhis legs out of his boots which are become too tight for ried away all her eggs but one or two, which soon him? The works of the Deity are known by expedients, shrivelled up and will of course prove abortive." and the provisions of his power extend to the most desperate cases. The case of the lobster is thus provided
THE WEEK. for: At certain seasons his shell grows soft. The ani- May 14.-This is the birth-day of Gabriel Daniel mal swells his body; the seams open, and the claws Fahrenheit, usually regarded as the inventor of the comburst at the joints. When the shell is thus become mon mercurial thermometer, and certainly the first per
the body, the animal makes a second effort, son by whom the instrument was accurately constructed. and by a trembling motion, a sort of spasm, casts off Fahrenheit was born at Dantzic, in 1686. His business
In this state of nakedness the poor defence was that of a merchant, but he was fond of spending his less fish retires to a hole in the rocks. The released leisure in philosophical inquiries and experiments; and body makes a sudden growth. In about eight and forty at last he settled at Amsterdam, and devoted himself nours a fresh concretion of humour takes place all over almost entirely to the fabrication of the instrument which the surface of his body; it quickly hardens; and thus a bears his name, and which still continues to be the thernew shell is formed, fitted in every part to the increased mometer principally used in Britain, North America, and size of the body and limbs of the animal. This wonder- Holland. He is supposed to have begun to make these ful change takes place every year
thermometers about the year 1720, and he died in
1736. It was Fahrenheit, also, who first noticed the been able to command for its possessor. Petty's father fact that water boils at different degrees of temperature, was a clothier, and he appears to have given his son according to the weight of the atmospheric column rest. little to set out in life with but a good education. It is ing upon it—that it requires, for instance, less heat to said that Petty, when quite a boy, took great delight in make it boil on the summit than at the foot of a high spending his time among smiths, carpenters, and other mountain. We shall, in some future number, explain artificers, so that at twelve years old he knew how to the construction and principle of the thermometer. In work at their trades. He made so great progress at the mean time we extract from the Companion to the the grammar-school, that at fifteen he had made himself Almanac' for 1830, a comparison of the various scales master of French, Latin, and Greek, and understood of the thermometer which are in general use :
something of mathematics and physical science. On “A fertile cause of error in estimating and comparing entering the world, he went to Caen in Normandy with a the statements of temperature, is the very different little stock of merchandize, which he there improved; and manner in which they are recorded by scientific men of on his return to England, having obtained some employdifferent nations. Wherever the English language pre-ment connected with the navy, he managed to save about vails, the graduation of Fahrenheit is generally pre-sixty pounds before he was twenty years of age; and ferred. By the German authors, Römer (Reaumur) is with this sum he repaired to the Continent, to study used ; and the French have, within a few years, decided medicine at the foreign universities. He accordingly to adopt that of Celsius, a Swedish philosopher, calling attended the requisite classes successively at Leyden, it “ Thermomètre Centigrade.” To diminish this evil, in Utrecht, and Paris ; and in about three years came home some degree, the annexed diagram has been con- well qualified to commence practising as a physician. structed, which shows by inspection, the expression of Having taken up his residence in this capacity at Oxo any point of temperature in the degrees of either or of ford, he soon acquired for himself a distinguished repuall the above-mentioned scales; and the comparison of tation, and, young as he was, was appointed assistant any degree of one with the equivalent degrees of the professor of anatomy in the University. He had already others."
also become known in the scientific world by some mechanical inventions of considerable ingenuity; and he was one of the club of inquirers who, about the year
1649, began to assemble weekly at Oxford, for phiFAHRENHEIT
losophical investigations and experiments, and out of whose meetings eventually arose the present Royal So
ciety. Indeed, Dr. Wallis, one of the members, in a 100 water boils, this Baro-letter, in which he has given an account of the assometer 30 inches
ciation, tells us that their meetings were first held “at Dr. Petty's lodgings, in an apothecary's house, because
of the convenience of inspecting drugs, and the like, as 70
there was occasion.” Petty's reputation, however, rose so
rapidly that, after having succeeded first to the professor-80
174. Pahr.-Alcohol ship of anatomy in the university, and then to that of boile. Bar, 30 Ins
music in Gresham College, he was, in 1652, appointed
physician to the forces in Ireland. This carried him over
-70 Highed Lemp. Sun's rays }150
to that country-and eventually introduced him to a
new career. In 1655 we find him appointed secretary 50
1999–Bees' wax melts,
to the Lord Lieutenant, and three years afterwards a -14-0- -60
member of the House of Commons. He was, however,
soon after removed from his public, employments by the
1270-Tallow melts. Parliament which met after the death of the Protector. 40-120-50
On the Restoration, which took place the following Fever Heat as usually year, he was made a commissioner of the Court of 107°-Fever Heat ingene
Claims. The remainder of his life was as busy as the 140
portion of it already passed had been ; but we have no Blood Heat.
room to enumerate the books he wrote, the ingenious Highest Temp. of the air at for
schemes and inventions with which his mind was conse
stantly teeming, and the lucrative speculations in mining, -80
the manufacture of iron, and various other great under
takings, in which he engaged. Suffice it to say, that, -70
after accumulating a large property, he died in London,
on the 16th of December, 1687, full of honours, if not Temperate.
of years. The first Marquis of Lansdowne (the father
50°-Usual Temp. of Mean Temp. of do. at do. 1976
of the present Marquis) was the great-grandson of Sir
THE VALUE OF A PENNY.
It is an old saying, that "a pin a day is a groat a year," 200-Strong Wine freezes.
by which homely expression some wise man has inLowest Temp.of do. at do. 11° - 10
tended to teach thoughtless people the value of small Ditted at the Earth's surface }
savings. We shall endeavour to show the value of a
somewhat higher article, though a much despised one, the}
we mean a penny.
Pennies, like minutes, are often thrown away because May 16.—On this day, in the year 1623, was born at people do not know what to do with them. Those who Rumsey, in Hampshire, the celebrated Sir William are economists of time, and all the great men on record Petty, a memorable and animating example of the ele- have been so, take care of the minutes, for they know vation and distinction which real talent, accompanied that a few minutes well applied each day will make by activity and perseverance, has always in this country | hours in the course of a week, and days in the course
of a year; and in the course of a long life they will try which is his calling. It may relieve him in sick. make enough of time, if well employed, in which a ness, it may contribute to the comfort of an aged father, man may by perseverance have accomplished some it may assist the young man in paying back some part work, useful to his fellow-creatures, and honourable to of that boundless debt which he owes to the care and himself.
tender anxiety of a mother, who has lived long enough Large fortunes, when gained honestly, are rarely to feel the want of a son's solicitude. Finally, however acquired in any other way than by small savings at disposed of at the end of the year, if well disposed of, first; and savings can only be made by habits of in- the penny saved will be a source of genuine satisfaction. dustry and temperance. A saving man, therefore, while The saving of it during the year has been a daily rehe is adding to the general stock of wealth, is setting petition of a virtuous act, which near the end of the an example of those virtues on which the very existence year we have little doubt will be confirmed into a virand happiness of society depend. There are saving peo-tuous habit. ple who are inisers, and have no one good quality for Suppose a dozen young men, who are fond of reading, which we can like them. These are not the kind of were to contribute a penny a week to a common stock: people of whom we are speaking; but we may remark at the end of the year they would have 21. 12s. This that a miser, though a disagreeable fellow while alive, sum judiciously laid out, would purchase at least twelve is a very useful person when dead. He has been volumes of really useful books, varying in price from compared to a tree, which, while it is growing, can be three to four shillings, besides allowing some small sum applied to no use, but at last furnishes timber for houses for the person who took care of them and kept the and domestic utensils. But a miser is infinitely more accounts. Another year's saving would add another useful than a spendthrift, a mere consumer and waster, twelve volumes; and in five years the library might conwho, after he has spent all his own money, tries totain sixty volumes, including a few useful books of spend that of other people.
reference, such as dictionaries, maps, &c. .-an amount Suppose a young man, just beginning to work for of books, if well chosen, quite as much as any one of himself, could save one penny a day; and we believe them would be able to study well in his leisure hours. there are few unmarried young workmen who could not But suppose the number of contributors were doubled do this. At the end of a year he would have 11. 10s. 5d., or trebled, the annual income would then amount to which he could safely deposit in a savings' bank, where 5l. 4s., or 71. 168., for which sum they could certainly it would lie safely with some small addition for interest, procure as many useful books as they could possibly till he might want it. After five years' savings, at the want. There might be some difficulty in the choice of rate of a penny a day, he would have between 8 and 91., books, as it is not always easy to know what are good which it is very possible he might find some opportunity and what are bad. We propose to meet this difficulty of laying out to such advantage as to establish the by occasional notices of particular books under the head foundation of his future fortune. Who has not had the of “The Library. At present we will merely suggest opportunity of feeling some time in his life how ad- what classes of books might gradually find admission vantageously he could have laid out such a sum of into such a library. There are now good practical and money, and how readily such a sum might have been cheap treatises on the principles of many of the branches saved by keeping all the pennies and sixpences that had of industry which are followed by mechanics—such as been thrown away? Such a sum as 8l. or 91. would books on the elements of geometry and measuring of enable a man to emigrate to Canada, where he might, surfaces and solids; on arithmetic; on chemistry, and by persevering industry, acquire enough to purchase a its application to the useful arts, &c.; lives of persons piece of land ; and, if blessed with moderate length of distinguished for industry and knowledge ; descriptions life, he might be the happy cultivator of his own estate. of foreign countries, compiled from the best travels;
Eight pounds would enable a mechanic, who had maps on a pretty large scale, both of the heaven and acquired a good character for sobriety and skill, to of different parts of the earth: such books as these, furnish himself on credit with goods and tools to five with an English dictionary, a gazetteer, and some or six times the amount of his capital ; and this might periodical work, would form a useful library, such as in a form the foundation of his future fortune.
few years might be got together. It often happens that a clever and industrious man It would be impossible to enumerate all the good things may have the opportunity of bettering his condition by that a penny will purchase ; and as to all the bad things, removing to another place, or accepting some situation they are not worth enumerating. But there is one which of trust; but the want of a little money to carry him we cannot omit mentioning. A penny will buy a penny. from one place to another, the want of a better suit of worth of gin, and a man may spend it daily without clothes, or some difficulty of that kind, often stands in thinking himself the worse for it. But as every penny the way. Eight pounds would conquer all these obsta- saved tends to give a man the habit of saving pennies, cles.
so every penny spent in gin, tends to cause him to It may be said that five years is too long a time to spend more. Thus the saver of the penny may at the look forward to. We think not. This country is full end of the year be a healthy reputable person, and conof examples of men who have risen from beginnings firmed economist, with 11. 10s. 5d. in his pocket : the hardly more than the savings of a penny, through a spender may be an unhealthy, ill-looking, worthless long course of persevering industry, to wealth and fellow; a confirmed gin-drinker, with nothing in his respectability. And we believe there is hardly a con- pocket except unpaid bills. dition, however low, from which a young man of good We wish it were in our power to impress strongly on principles and unceasing industry may not elevate him- the working people of this kingdom, how much hapself.
piness they may have at their command by small But suppose
penny only saved during one year : savings. They are by far the most numerous part of at the end of it the young man finds he has got the community; and it is by their condition that the 11. 10s. 5d. Will he squander this at the ale-house, or real prosperity of the country should be estimated; not in idle dissipation, after having had the virtue to resist by the few who live in affluence and splendour. Hard temptation all through the year? We think not. This as the condition of the working classes often is, are 11, 10s. 5d. may perform a number of useful offices. It they not yet aware that by industry, frugality, and a may purchase some necessary implement, some good judicious combination of their small resources, they can substantial article of dress, some useful books, or if well do more to make themselves happy, than anybody else laid out, some useful instruction in the branch of indus- I can do for them?
I will go
land, he had attentively investigated the practical part M. DUMONT, of Geneva, a distinguished writer on juris- of government: he was the only man that entered the prudence, who died about two years ago, has left behind National Assembly well acquainted with the necessary, him a most interesting work, entitled Recollections of forms and true spirit of a representative government; Mirabeau, and of the two first Legislative Assemblies.' all the rest had to learn their rudiments. There was This work has been received throughout Europe as one talent there was even genius in abundance—but all of great merit and importance, and deservedly so; for it these new legislators were theorists ; Mirabeau was contains, in a brief space, the best account we have read the only practical man. of the most extraordinary part of the life of one of the In the second place, he had a wonderful art (which most extraordinary inen of modern times, and with it, he had also acquired during his misfortunes, when his the first impulses and movement of the French Revo- poverty obliged him to write and compile books and lution.
pamphlets for his living) of readily availing himself of This most extraordinary man, whose character is the assistance of other men, and of working up their still a problem to most of those who knew him, was materials so as to make them appear his own. The Honoré Gabriel Riquetti de Mirabeau, who ruled the whole matter of many of Mirabeau's most admired National Assembly, who directed the political opinions speeches was furnished by M. Dumont himself, or by of twenty-five millions of men for two years together, another citizen of Geneva, M. Duroverai ; and, geand who was, for that period, what has been cleverly nerally, he laid under contribution the information and termed “the intellectual Dictator of France." This experience of all his associates. When he was deficient champion for the people was born a noble ; his father on any point, or what was more frequently the case, was the Marquis de Mirabeau, of whose ancestors we pressed for time, he would assemble these gentlemen, know nothing ; but, on his mother's side, he could boast and from their conversation, their notes, or digested a descent of which even those who dislike or care not for essays, get up all he wanted, and proceed forthwith to aristocracy, might þe proud; for she was grand-daughter astonish the Assembly with his wonderful fund of of Riquet, constructor of the famous canal of Languedoc. knowledge and flashes of eloquence. But that eloMirabeau was ugly in face almost to hideousness; and quence, it must be said, did really make the matter his he was perfectly conscious of this ; for, in writing to a own; his powers of adaptation were as great as those lady who had never seen him, he told her to fancy the of invention in other men. face of a tiger that had been marked with the small- Mirabeau's hatred to the ancient despotism was impox, and then she would have an idea of his countē- placable ; but he seems to have had no objection to a nance; and at a later period, when his voice and gesture constitutional monarchy. Great obscurity still hangs and appearance struck the National Assembly with awe, over these matters; but it is said that, seeing the he was accustomed to say, if any of its members had democratic principle was gaining too much strength, shown refractoriness during his absence,
and the revolution going too far, he had undertaken to down to the House and show them my wild boar's head*, stop its march, and that the negociations with the Court and that will silence them!”
of the unfortunate Louis XVI., which were notorious, All the circumstances of the times were favourable to had for their object the prevention of a republic, and his ambition and his wonderful talents and energy; but the establishment of a limited monarchy. His will had perhaps no man ever begun public life with more dis- hitherto been law; he had ruled and played with all advantages, as regarded his own character, against him. parties and factions—but whether he could now have He had been seventeen times in prison; he had de succeeded to the utmost of his wish—whether he could serted his own, and run away with other men's wives ; now have quieted the storm he had mainly raised, and he had had the most scandalous lawsuits with his own on which he had floated, we cannot determine; for at family; had been condemned as a criminal ; exiled; the very crisis, at the time when he was supposed to executed in effigy; he had written and published one hold the destinies of his country in his hands, lie died in of the most depraved of books; had led the most dis- the forty-second year of his age, after a most agonizing sipated and obscene of lives; and was known to be a illness of five days, brought on by his detestable excesses. dangerous enemy to those he hated, and an unsure His funeral was “ rather an apotheosis than a human friend to those he pretended to love. The morals of entombment.”. Nearly all Paris followed his body to the French capital had been reduced in the days of the church of Sainte Geneviève, thenceforward entitled despotism to a degraded standard ; but, according to the Pantheon ; the melancholy music, the thousand Dumont, when the name of Mirabeau was first read in torches, and the intermittent cannon, producing an effect the National Assembly among those elected to repre- which has been forcibly described by many eye-witnesses ; sent the French nation, it was hissed and hooted by all and those who had feared and hated him, those who had present.
been literally enchanted by his eloquence and genius, saw In spite, however, of all this, in a few weeks he was the grave closed over Mirabeau with awe and feelings everything with those men who had considered them that never can be described. selves disgraced by being associated with him ; and ga- The career of Mirabeau offers a few consolatory thering influence and power by bounds, and not by slow remarks to those who are gifted with no extraordinary steps, he became almost the absolute master of the Na- faculties, either for good or for evil. Mirabeau swayed tional Assembly, the mass of whose members he moved the destinies of millions, – but he was never happy ;and controlled with as much facility as the Italian show- Mirabeau had almost reached the pinnacle of human man moves his wooden puppets. His talents and energy power, and yet he fell a victim to the same evil passions were indeed, as we have characterized them—wonderful, which degrade and ruin the lowest of mankind. He and so was his eloquence; but these qualities would could never be really great, because he was never freed not of themselves have given him the supremacy he from the bondage of his own evil desires. The man who obtained. There were two other advantages in his steadily pursues a consistent course of duty, which has favour: the first of which we have never heard sufficient for its object to do good to himself and to all around importance given to-the second, of which M. Dumont him, will be followed to the grave by a few humble and alone has clearly, and it appears to us, honestly, stated. sincere mourners, and no record will remain, except in
During his long imprisonments, Mirabeau had pro- the hearts of those who loved him, to tell of his earthly foundly studied the science of politics; and during career. But that man may gladly leave to such as his exile in foreign countries, and particularly in Eng. Mirabeau the music, the torches, and the cannon, by In French, la hurt.
which a nation proclaimed its loss; for assuredly he has
felt that inward consolation, and that sustaining hope penny would therefore immediately become three half throughout his life, which only the good can feel ;-he pence to the consumer, by the profit of the retailer alone. has fully enjoyed, in all its purity, the holy influence of The remaining hall-penny would be necessary to com" the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.". pensate the publisher for this additional advance of
capital, and for the diminished return upon the original THE MAY FLY.
outlay for authors, artists, and that branch of the print" The angler's May-fly, the most short-lived in its perfect state of any of the ing process which is called composition. There are insect race, emerges from the water, where it passes its aurelia state, about six in the evening, and dies about eleven at night."—White's Selborne.
certain expenses which are the same whether a work The sun of the eve was warm and bright
sells one hundred copies, or one hundred thousand. When the May-iy burst his shell,
The price being therefore raised to three-pence, we may
fairly conclude that the consumption would be dimi. And the deepening tints of the crimson sky
nished nine-tenths—that ten thousand copies would be Still gleam'd on the wing of the glad May-fly.
sold instead of a hundred thousand. Let us see how The colours of sunset pass'd away,
the revenue would be affected by these altered circumThe crimson and yellow green,
The paper for 100,000 copies of the Penny Magazine
d. Till the deep repose of the stillest night
per Ib., amounting to ..
42 10 0 Was hushing about his giddy flight.
The imposition of a stamp of ld, per copy would have
the effect of raising the retail price of the Penny
Magazine to 3d. Ai that rate it is presumed that
the sale of the Three-penny Magazine, instead of
being 100,000 copies, would be reduced to 10,000 The hum has ceas'd--the quiet wave
at the utmost.
Upon 10,000 copies, with ld. stamp, the revenue
would receive as under: £. s. d. £. 8. d. £. S. d. In thy lustihood to air,
Duty of 3d. in the lb. upon paper.
4 5 0 And sail about, on untiring wing,
Stamp of ld. upon 10,000..... 41 130
Deduct discount of twenty per cent.
allowed upon news stamps
8 6 6 Like a leaf that the willow branch has shed.
33 6 6
37 11 6 And who shall say that his thread of years Is a life more blest than thine !
Weekly loss to the revenue from the high duty....... 4 18 6
Or, Annual duty upon sixty-four impressions of 100,000
copies of the Penny Magazine, using 217,600lbs. of -
paper, taxed at 3d. per lb....
2,720 0 0
Annual produce of a Penny stamp, and paper duty upon
2,404 16 0
Annual loss to the revenue from the high duty....... 315 4 0
By this operation, therefore, the government would
sustain that loss which invariably results from the dimiNor too brief the date of thy cheerful race
nished consumption of an article of general use upon 'Tis its use that measures time
which a high duty is imposed; and ninety thousand per And the mighty Spirit that fills all space
sons would be excluded from the purchase of a little work With His life and His will sublime,
from which they derive instruction and amusement. By May see that the May-fly and the Man Each futter out the same small span.
this diminished consumption of nine-tenths of the Penny
Magazine, nearly nine-tenths of the paper-makers, prin
ters, type-founders, ink-makers, bookbinders, carriers, May bave deeper joy, ere his course be run,
and retailers, to whom the sale of a hundred thousand Than man in his pride and power;
copies weekly affords profitable employment, would, as And the insect's minutes be spared the fears
far as the Penny Magazine goes, be deprived of thai And the anxious doubts of our threescore years.
employment; and that diminution of profitable employThe years and the minutes are as one
ment would in a degree diminish their power of contiThe fly drops in his twilight mirth, And the man, when his long day's work is done,
nuing consumers of other articles contributing to the Crawls to the self-same earth.
revenue, and thus still more affect the amount of taxGreat Father of each! may our mortal day
ation dependent upon the Penny Magazine. Be the prelude to an endless May!
Perseverance." I recollect," says Sir Jonah Barring HIGH DUTIES AND LOW DUTIES.
ton, “ in Queen's County, to have seen a Mr. Clerk, who It is a well-known principle, that in taxation two and had been a working carpenter, and when making a bench two do not make four—that is, if a government receive for the session justices at the Court-house, was laughed one sum from a low or a moderate duty upon an article the seat of it.
at for taking peculiar pains in planing and smoothing
He smilingly observed," that he did so of common use, that receipt will not be doubled by to make it easy for himself, as he was resolved he doubling the duty. In some cases it will be even less would never die till he had a right to sit thereupon, and ened. This result is produced by the diminished con- he kept his word. He was an industrious man-honest, sumption, arising out of the higher price to the con respectable, and kind hearted. He succeeded in all his sumer; which higher price includes the additional pro- efforts to accumulate an independence; he did accumulate fit which the manufacturer and the retailer must charge it, and uprightly. His character kept pace with the infor the additional capital employed upon the article in crease of his property, and he lived to sit as a magistrate
bench that he sawed and planed." consequence of the tax. Suppose a tax of a penny were put upon the · Penny Magazine? Let us see, in
'. LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. that case, how the tax would affect the consumption, Shopkeepers and Hawkers marome tepplied Wholesale by the following and what the government would gain by the tax. In London, GROOMDRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Manchester, Robinson, and Webb and the first place the tax would raise the price of the Ma
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLEY, gazine to three pence; for, as the retailer receives one- Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.
Nottingham, WRIGHT. third of the present price, he would also require to re
Edinburgh, OLIVER and Bord, ceive one-third of the additional price:—the stamp of a Liverpool, Willmen and Switu. Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co.
Printed by WYILLIAN CLowes, Stamford-Street.