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In our

She space of five hours, during which I fainted eight and would afford some kind of amusement to divert their or nine times."

minds from incessantly dwelling on their own forlorn 4th. A fourth kind of torture was a cell called "little and hopeless condition. Is it too much to say that - ease." It was of so small dimensions, and so construct something would be gained for the happiness of the ed, that the prisoner could neither stand, walk, sit, nor human kind, if all men were agreed that, wherever there lie in it at full length. He was compelled to draw him- was a habitation, whether for an individual family, or for self up in a squatting posture, and so remain during a number of persons, strangers to each other, such as several days.

hospitals, workhouses, prisons, asylums, infirmaries, and It would lead us into too wide a field to point out even barracks, there should be a garden ? the various considerations which suggest themselves opinion, a dwelling without a garden ought not to exist. upon a review of this subject. The facts above col- |--Loudon's Gardener's Magazine, February. lected are, however, well worthy the attention of the

THE CRAFTS OF GERMANY. student of our constitutional history; for the long continuance, under the authority of the royal prerogative governed by usages of great antiquity, with a fund to defray the cu

The different crafts in Germany are incorporations recognised by law, alone, of a practice directly opposed to the fundamental porate expenses, and, in each considerable town, a house of entertainprinciples of reason, justice, and law, condemned and ment is selected as the house of call, or harbor, as it is styled, of each denounced by the opinions of the wisest lawyers and particular craft. Thus you see, in the German towns, a number of statesmen, at the very time that they were compelled taverns indicated by their signs, as the Masons' Harbor, the Blackto act upon it, furnishes a very remarkable instance of smiths' Harbor, &c. No one is allowed to set up as a master work

man in any trade, unless he is admitted as a freeman or member of the existence, in former times, of a power above the law, the craft ; and such is the stationary condition of most parts of Gercontrolling and subverting the law, and rendering its many, that no person is admitted as a master workman in any trade, practical application altogether inconsistent with its except to supply the place of some one deceased, or retired from theoretical excellence.

business. When such a vacancy occurs, all those desirous of being The above interesting account is abridged from a volume just published permitted to fill it present a piece of work, executed as well as they

are able to do it, which is called their master-piece, being offered to in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, Criminal Trials

obtain the place of a master workman, Nominally, the best work. TO THE CUCKOO.

man gets the place; but you will easily conceive, that, in reality, O blithe new-comer! I have heard,

some kind of favouritism 'must generally decide it. Thus is every I hear thee, and rejoice.

man obliged to submit to all the chances of a popular election whether o Cuckoo! shall I call thee bird,

he shall be allowed to work for his bread; and that, too, in a country Or but a wandering voice ?

where the people are not permitted to have any agency in choosing While I am lying on the grass

their rulers. But the restraints on journeymen, in that country, are still Thy twofold shout I hear,

more oppressive. As soon as the years of apprenticeship have expired, That seems to fill the whole air's space,

the young mechanic is obliged, in the phrase of the country, to wander As loud far off as neat.

for three years. For this purpose he is furnished, by the master of the

craft in which he has served his apprenticeship, with a duly-authentiThough babbling only to the vale,

cated wandering book, with which he goes forth to seek employment. Of sunshine and of flowers,

In whatever city he arrives, on presenting himself with his credential, Thou bringest unto me a tale

at tho house of call, or harbor, of the craft in which he has served bis Of visionary hours.

time, he is allowed, gratis, a day's food and a night's lodging. If he Thrice welcome, darling of the spring!

wishes to get employment in that place, he is assisted in procuring it. Even yet thou art to me

If he does not wish to, or fails in the attempt, he must pursue his No, bird: but an invisible thing,

wandering; and this lasts for three years before he can be anywhere A voice, a mystery.

admitted as a master. I have heard it argued, that this system had The same whom in my schoolboy days

the advantage of circulating knowledge from place to place, and imI listened to; that cry

parting to the young artisan the fruits of travel and intercourse with Which made me look a thousand ways,

The world. But, however beneficial travelling may be, when underIn bush, and tree, and sky.

taken by those who have the taste and capacity to profit by it, I cannot To seek thee did I often rove

but think, that to compel every young man who has just served out Through woods and on the green ;

his time to leave his home, in the manner I have described, must And thou wert still a hope, a love ;

bring his habits and morals into peril, and be regarded rather as a Still longed for, never seen.

hardship than as an advantage. There is no sanctuary of virtue like

home,From Everett's Address.
And I can listen to thee yet,
Can lie upon the plaiu,

And listen till I do beget

Wita cheerful step the traveller
That golden time again.

Pursues his early way,

When first the dimly-dawning eas:

Reveals the rising day.
In the Great Marylebone Work house, which has a front

He bounds along his craggy road,

He hastens up the height, that, for length, and the size and number of the windows,

And all he sees and all he nears might be compared to a Russian palace, there are con

Administer delight. stantly from eighty to one hundred and twenty very

And if the mist, retiring slow, old men and women, who are led or carried out, one

Roll round its wavy white, by one, every morning, and set down on a bench un

He thinks the morning vapours hide der a shed, or, when the weather is fine, in the sun,

Some beauty from his sights where they remain almost in a state of torpor, being

But when behind the western clouds unable to help themselves and having no one to al

Departs the fading day,

How wearily the traveller tend to them, till they are led or carried, one by one,

Pursues his evening way! back again, at the time appointed for their next meal.

Sorely along the craggy road What a picture of human desolation! If, instead of

His painful footsteps creep ; being placed upon benches, with nothing to gaze at but

And slow, with many a feeble pause, a brick wall, these persons were led into a garden, where

He labours up the steep. they could see numbers of their fellow-inmates at work,

And if the mists of night close round, breathe the fresh air, see and smell the flowers, and hear

They fill his soul with fear, the birds and other rural sounds, their miserable lot

He dreads some ariseen precipice,

Some hidden danger near. would have some little alleviation. A number of them could perhaps assist in some of the lighter garden opera

So cheerfully does youth begin

Life's pleasant morning stage; tions; the most infirm could scare away the birds, or

Alas! the evening traveller feels prepare gooseberries and vegetables for the kitchen.

The fears of weary, age! This might enable them to measure their time as it goes,


further essay.

IMPROVEMENTS IN MEDICINE AND SURGERY. | difficult and unnecessary to enumerate one-tenth of the

(Extracted from the last number of the Westminster Review.] achievements of modern surgery; and it were superIt is a fact capable of demonstration, that since the fluous to add that it is to anatomy, and to anatomy healing art reached that point of cultivation which en- alone, that all improvements in this department can be titled it to the name of science, disease has been gra- traced. dually decreasing both in frequency and fatality. And

SINGING OF BIRDS, it is equally capable of proof, that the degree of perfece

(From the Journal of a Naturalist. ] tion with which anatomy has been studied at any suc

The singing of most birds seems entirely a spontaneous effusion, processive periods, may be safely taken as the rule by duced by no exertion, or occasioning no lassitude in muscle, or relax. which the progress of all the other branches of the ation of the parts of action. In certain seasons and weather, tbe science may be ascertained. And on what else should nightingale sings all day, and most part of the night; and we never it depend ;-how much does a watch-maker know about observe that the powers of song are weaker, or that the notes become

harsh and untunable, after all these hours of practice. The song. a watch by counting its beats, and looking at the out-thrush, in a mild, moist April, will commence his tune early in the side? As anatomy has been encouraged, so has medi- morning, pipe unceasingly through the day, yet, at the close of ere, cine progressed. Wherever dissection was forbidden, when he retires to rest, there is no obvious decay of his musical surgery declined ; and, even in the present day, those powers, or any sensible effort required to continue his harmony to the schools of medicine in which dissection is most liberally different degrees of execution. Some counties may produce finer

last. Birds of one species sing in general very like each other, with practised, send out into society surgeons and physi- songsters, but without great variation in the notes. In the thrust, cians who seldom fail to prove in after life the accu- however, it is remarkable that there seems to be no regular notes, each racy of Baillie's assertion, that “ the dead body is that individual piping a voluntary of his own. Their voices may always great basis on which we are to build the knowledge be distinguished amid the choristers of the copse, yet some one per

former will more particularly engage attention by a peculiar modulaThat is to guide us in distributing life and health to our tion or tune ; and should several stations of these birds be visited the fellow-creatures." Sir William Petty (who died about same morning, few or none probably will be found to persevere in 150 years since) states, that the proportion of deaths the same round of notes; whatever is uttered seeming the effusion of to cures in St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas's Hos- the moment. At times a strain will break out perfectly unlike any pitals, was in his time one to seven ; while we know by any repetition of it.' Harsh, strained, and tense, as the notes of this

preceding utterance, and we may wait a long time without noticing subsequent documents, that in St. Thomas's Hospital, bird are, yet they are pleasing from their variety. The voice of the during 1741, the mortality had diminished to one in blackbird 'is infinitely more mellow, but has much less variety, comten; during 1780, to one in fourteen ; during 1813, to pass, or execution; and he too commences his carols with the morn. one in sixteen ; and that, during 1827, out of 12,494 ing light, persevering from hour to hour without effort

, or any sensible

faltering of voice.—The cuckoo wearies us throughout some long May patients treated, 259 only were buried, or one in forty- morning with the unceasing monotony of its song; and, though there eight. As his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex has

are others as vociferous, yet it is the only bird I know that seems lo justly said "Indeed, such is the advantage which has suffer from the use of the organs of voice. Little exertion as the been already derived from the improvement of medical few notes it makes use of seem to require, yet, by the middle or end

of June, it loses its utterance, becomes hoarse, and ceases from any science in this line of study, that comparing the value of life as it is now calculated to what it was a hundred years ago, it has absolutely doubled. The most fatally

Robespierre.-The following is a brief and striking sketch of the malignant diseases have become comparatively mild in man who attained so sanguinary a celebrity, and reigned absolute the hands of modern physicians. The entire half of Sultan of the “ Reign of Terror:”our population were at one time destroyed by one dis- " he fiad a sinister aspect; he never looked one in the face ; he

“I had two privale conversations with Robespierre," says Dumont; ease alone-small-pox; the mortality of which at the had a twinkling, winking motion in his eyes, which was continual present time is but fractional. Typhus fever was once and painful. Once I saw him on some business relating to Genera; accustomed to visit this country in annual epidemics, he asked some explanations from me, and I pressed him to speak and to slay one out of every three whom it attacked; when he rose to speak in public, and from the moment he so began whereas in the present day it is seldom seen as an epic speaking, he could not hear his own voice!" demic, and its average mortality does not amount to Curious proof of Mirabeau's popularity.--"Your horses are very one in sixteen. Measles, scarlet fever, hooping-cough, bad," said one to a post-boy, between Calais and Amiens. "Yes," and consumption, are no longer regarded with the ex- replied he,“ my two wheelers are bad, but my Mirabeau is excel

lent!” The third horse, in the middle, was then commonly called the treme terror in which they were once viewed. From

Mirabeau, as he did the most of the work, and provided the Mirabeau 1799 to 1808 the mortality of consumption amounted to was good, they did not care for the rest."-Dumont's Recollections of about twenty-seven per cent. of those who became ill; Mirabeau. from 1808 to 1813 it diminished to twenty-three; and from 1813 to 1822 it still further decreased to twenty-two

Mr. Locke was asked how he had contrived to accumulate per cent." **** As anatomy was more attended to, replied, that he attributed what little he knew, to the not

a mine of knowledge so rich, yet so extensive and deep. He surgery proportionally advanced, until in the days of Har- having been ashamed to ask for information; and to the vey (who discovered the circulation of the blood about the rule he had laid down, of conversing with all descriptions year 1610), bold and importantoperations were attempted. of men, on those topics chiefly that formed their own pecuThe extreme clumsiness and cruelty with which they were liar professions or pursuits. even then performed, could scarcely be credited, had we not in our possession some descriptions of them by those house under the canopy of heaven, has no sooner finished

The Kham of Tartary, who does not possess a single who operated. Thus, Fabricius of Aquapendente, pre- his repast of mare's milk and horse-flesh, than he causes a ceptor of the immortal Harvey, describes what he con- herald to proclaim from his seat that all the princes and sidered an improved and easy operation in the follow-potentates of the earth have his permission to go to dinner. ing terms :-“ If it be a movable tumour, I cut it away with a red-hot knife, that sears as it cuts ; but if it be

ERRATUM Ix No. IV.-In page 30, line 16 of the first column, for April %

read April 25. adherent to the chest, I cut it without bleeding or pain, with a wooden or horn knife soaked in aqua-fortis, with

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST, which having cut the skin I dig out the rest with my

Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following fingers.” It is little more than fifty years ago when Mr. London, GROOMBRIDOR, Panyer Alley, Nanchester, ROBINSON, and WENI Sharpe, one of the most eminent surgeons of London

Birmingham, DRAKE,

Newcastle upon Tyne, CUARNLEY, at that time, denied the possibility of the thigh-borie Bristol, Westley and Co.

Nottingham, WRIGHT. being dislocated at the hip joint, an accident which

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Boyd, occurs daily, and which the merest .bone-setter in the Liverpool, Wollies and SMITA. Glasgow, ATLINSON and Co kingdom can now detect. But it were a task equally

Printed by WILLIAM Clowes, Stamford Street,

Booksellers :

Paternoster Row.

and Sinus.

Dublin, WAKIMAN,

Leeds, BAINES and Co.


Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.



[May 12, 1832.


Old St. Paul's Cathedral-South View : THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. PAUL'S. feet in height. Some additions, whiçlı were made to it The elevated situation of the spot on which St. Paul's after this, were not completed till 1315, in the reign of is built, seems to have pointed'it out from very ancient Edward II., the ninth king after him, in whose reign times for religious or other public purposes. Without the first stone of the pile had been laid. adopting the very doubtful opinion of some antiqua- This was the building we now call old St.Paul's, the ries, that the Romans during their occupation of the immediate predecessor of the present cathedral. It was island had erected a temple to Diana upon this emi- one of the largest edifices in the world, and in its best nence--an opinion which has not even the support of days, before it was deformed by the successive repairs tradition, and which Sir Christopher Wren, when he to which it was subjected, and the various foreign indug the foundations of the present church, became con cumbrances under which it was long buried, it was no vinced had no other support—it seems to be clear that doubt a grand and imposing structure. But, from the these foreigners used it for a cemetery or burial place, causes we have mentioned, its form in the course of if not for any thing more sacred. On the erection of time underwent so many changes that at last it prethe present building many Roman funeral vases, lacry- sented the appearance of little else than a heap of inmatories, and other articles used in sepulture, were congruity and confusion. The spire was of timber , found at a considerable depth under the surface. Next but in 1315 it was found to be so much decayed that to these lay in rows skeletons of the ancient Britons ; the upper part of it had to be taken down and replaced. and immediately above them, Saxons in stone coffins, It was upon this occasion that a ball, surmounted by a or in graves lined with chalk, together with pins of ivory cross, was first fixed upon the termination of the spire.. aud box wood which had fastened their grave clothes. The first accident which befel the church was the The earliest building which is actually recorded to have consequence of a violent tempest of thunder and wind stood on this site was a Christian church, built about which burst over the metropolis on the 1st of February, the year 610, by Ethelbert, King of Kent, the first of 1444. The lightning having struck the spire set it on the Saxon princes who was converted by St. Augustine. fire; and although a priest succeeded in extinguishing It was dedicated to St. Paul, and the old historians tell the flames, a good deal of damage was done, so that it us was indebted for the latest improvements which it was not till the year 1462 that the gilded ball with the received to the liberality of St. Erkenwald, the bishop cross again made its appearance on the summit of the of the diocese, who died in 681. However, it could building. A much more serious disaster than this, scarcely have been a very magnificent or extensive edi- however, happened about a century afterwards. On the fice, if it be true, as is related, that upon its being acci- 4th of June, 1561, a plumber who was employed in dentally burned down in 961, it was rebuilt the same making some repairs, thoughtlessly left a pan of coals year. After this it was again destroyed by fire in the burning within the spire while he went to dinner; the year 1087; when the Norman bishop, Mamki

, who flames from which caught the adjacent wooden work, had just been appointed to the see, resolved to under- and .n no long time set the whole building in a blaze. take its restoration, on a much larger and more splen- In spite of everything that could be done, the confladid scale, at his own expense. Both he and his suc- gration continued to rage till it had consumed every cessor De Belmeis, each of whom presided twenty years thing about the church that was combustible, and over the diocese, are said to have devoted all their re- reduced it to a mere skeleton of bare and blackened venues to this great work; but it was not finished till walls. the time of Bishop Niger, the fourth after De Belmeis, With such ardour, however, did the Queen (Elizabeth), in the year 1240. In 1135, indeed, the uncompleted and, it may be said indeed, the whole nation, promote building had again caught fire, and been nearly burned the scheme of restoring the sacred edifice, all ranks contrito the ground. When the fabric, which might thus be buting to the pious and patriotic work, that in the space of called ancient, even while it was yet new, at last stood about five years it was again opened for worship. But ready for consecration, it exhibited a mass 690 feet in it never recovered its ancient splendour: the spire, in length by 130 in breadth, surmounted by a spire 520 | particular, was not rebuilt at all; and from the shortVol. I,


ness of the time spent in the restoration altogether, it is once more obtained, the work was recommenced on the probable that other parts of the work were hurried over 1st of August, 1663. Three years afterwards, howwithout much attention either to strength or beauty. ever, (in September, 1666,) before it had been nearly By the end of the reign of Elizabeth accordingly, the completed, the great fire, which consumed half the me- i structure had fallen into sad decay; so that it was tropolis, seized in its progress westward upon the ! found in 1608 that it could not be repaired under a cost scaffolding by which the cathedral was surrounded, and, of considerably more than twenty thousand pounds. It after an awful conflagration, left it a mere mass of mins. was not, however, till 1633, in the reign of Charles I., History has recorded no finer instance of national spirit that the repairs were actually begun, the interval having than the noble courage and alacrity with which the been spent in attempts to collect the necessary funds by citizens of London, and the English government, subscription. Meanwhile the cathedral was every year and people generally, rose from this terrible calamity becoming more ruinous. The money subscribed at last and applied themselves to restore all that it had deamounted to above a hundred thousand pounds, and stroyed. In the plans which were immediately taken then the celebrated Inigo Jones having been appointed into consideration for rebuilding the city, St. Paul's to superintend the work, it was, as we have said, pro- was not forgotten. Sir Christopher Wren, who had ceeded with.

been employed in superintending the previous repairs, We shall now mention some particulars to show the was ordered to examine and report upon the state in extraordinary state of neglect and ruin into which this which the foundations of the building were, and so much once proud édifice had been by this time allowed to fall

. of the walls as was left standing. At first it was Towards the close of the sixteenth century it is stated, thought that a considerable portion of the old church that the benches at the door of the choir were commonly might still be found available, but this idea was evenused by beggars and drunkards for sleeping on, and tually given up; and on the 21st of June, 1675, the that a large dunghill lay within one of the doors of the foundation-stone of the present building was laid. church. The place indeed was the common resort of From this time the work proceeded without interrupidlers of all descriptions, who used to walk about in the tion till its completion in 1710. The same great archimost irreverent manner with their hats on even during tect; Sir Christopher Wren, presided over and directed the performance of divine service. More than twenty the work from its commencement to its close. For private houses were built against the walls of the church, this, all that he received was £200 a year; and the the owners of several of which had cut closets out of the commissioners had even the spite and meanness, after sacred edifice, while in other instances doors had been the building was considerably advanced, to suspend the made into the vaults which were converted into cellars. payment of one half of this pittance till the edifice should At one of the visitations the verger presented that “the be finished, under the pretence of thereby better securing shrouds and cloisters under the convocation-house are the diligence and expedition of the architect. In fact, it made a common lay-stall for boards, trunks, and chests, was with no small difficulty that Sir Christopher at last being let out unto trunk-makers; where, by means of got his money at all. The whole expense of rebuilding their daily knocking and noise, the church is greatly the cathedral was £736,000, which was raised almost disturbed.” One house, partly formed of the church, is entirely by a small tax on coals. The church of St stated to have been “ lately used as a play-house;" the Peter's at Rome, which is indeed a building of greater owner of another, which was built upon the foundation dimensions, but to which St. Paul's ranks next even in of the church, had contrived a way through a window that respect among the sacred edifices of Christendom, into a part of the steeple, which he had turned into a

took one hundred and forty-five years to build, was the ware-room; and a third person had excavated an oven work of twelve successive architects, and exhausted the in one of the buttresses, in which he baked his bread revenues of nineteen successive popes. It is worthy of and pies.

remark, that St. Paul's was begun and completed not The first thing which Jones did was to clear away only by one architect, and one master mason, Mr. these obstructions, after which the work of restoration Thomas Strong, but also while one bishop, Dr. Henry proceeded slowly but with tolerable regularity till the Crompton, presided over the diocese. commencement of the civil wars in 1642. In 1643, not only all the revenues of the cathedral, but the funds which had been collected for repairing it, together with all the

AN EMIGRANT'S STRUGGLES. unused building materials, were seized by the Parlia

(Concluded from No. 6.) ment. The scaffolding was given to the soldiers of WHEN we set out upon our expedition, which I Colonel Jephson's regiment for arrears of pay ; on which, have just mentioned, we had two servants with us, no man hindering them, they dug pits in the middle and as many dogs. One man carried some biscuits ;

1 of the church to saw the timber in. Another part another a bottle of rum, a piece of beef, and a little tea of the building was converted into a barrack for dragoons and sugar, with a couple of tea-pots. Immediately beand a stable. Public worship, nevertheless, was still hind my house there is a fine long hill, rising, with an celebrated in the east end and a part of the choir, easy slope, to the height of five hundred or six hundred which was separated from the rest by a brick wall, the feet, and covered, like the country in general, with trees congregation entering through one of the north windows and grass. It has been the practice to allow proprietors of which was converted into a door. At the west end cattle and sheep to graze on the unlocated parts, which Inigo Jones had erected a portico of great beauty, con- they were obliged to quit on settlers coming to occupy the sisting of fourteen columns, each rising to the lofty ground. These herds were generally left in the care of height of forty-six feet, and the whole supporting an one or two men, while the proprietor lived in Hobart entablature crowned with statues. These statues were Town; the consequence of which was, that the cattle thrown down and broken in pieces; and shops were were allowed to stray wherever they chose, and became built within the portico, in which commodities of all sorts altogether wild. This was the case where I have were sold. The wood-cut, at the head of this article, settled; and although the herdsmen have removed represents the cathedral as it was drawn by Hollar in themselves to their assigned limits, the cattle are still 1656.

on my ground, and have been the cause of my In this state things continued till the restoration suffering one of the most serious inconveniences which Soon after that event, the repairing of St. Paul's again can befal a settler. For I had scarcely arrived on

and engaged the thoughts of the king and the public ;

my land when my working bullocks got into the wild subscriptions to a considerable amount having been herd, with which they continue until this day. This

ness, the

I am

has completely baulked my agricultural projects, our passage through it quite laborious. In one part we obliging me to perform by manual labour what the struck a light, and the wind blowing with great keenbeasts of the field should have done for me. But I am


blazed up in a few minutes, the flame again digressing, and tiring you with my misfortunes, extending for nearly half a mile. Our provisions were instead of giving you an account of our journey. As now quite exhausted, and we had to recreate ourselves we approached the river Ouse we found its banks had with tea, and chat beside a beautiful cascade on the been lately burnt by the natives, and the grass and river. In these high regions we found several maple smaller trees were completely consumed. After some trees, with sweet unctuous juice exuding from the bark. search we found a place which we ventured to wade, You can hardly form an idea of the beauty of the but it was with great difficulty we could keep our feet. heavens, as the vault appeared to the eye, while we Sometimes the dogs would kill a kangaroo, and as we reposed on a kangaroo rug on the grass, beside a large had not time or opportunity to make use of it, the huge fire which illumined the trees, and with a fine sweep of crows, which abound in the woods, soon hovered over the river winding its way before us, and reflecting the the carcase in great numbers. These crows are of the silvery beams of the moon. Next morning, after walking same genus as your English ones, but of a different three or four miles, we killed a kangaroo, and fared species. They are very large, and distinguished by a sumptuously on a sticker-up. Thus refreshed, we dewhite ring round the eye: they have even more cunning scended towards home. We had explored in this journey than their brethren of the old world. The banks on the a region which no European had ever seen before, and further side of the Ouse are yet steeper than on this. had ascended to some of the highest ground in the We continued to ascend over the burnt ground, and un- island. I should calculate my habitation to be nearly derneath huge trees, for about five miles, till we arrived two thousand feet above the level of the sea, and I at the stock-keeper's hut, which we discovered by the think we ascended as much more. You may suppose help of the track of horses. Here we found eight men, what romantic rapids and cascades oceur in the course who had been sent up a few days before to erect a hut of a river which falls that height in the course of thirty and stackyard for the cattle. They had sheltered them- miles. Just before my door I have a broad placid selves by branches of trees, and burnt a large fire in stream resembling a lake, over which I have made a front. They had chosen a spot beside a small spring flying bridge, by means of a rope and the elm-tree case of water, in the midst of a large valley, which was almost of my wife's piano, which answers the purpose so well clear of trees. After making some kangaroo soup we that I brought over seven hundred sheep belonging to again set out, and bending our course more to the north, Mrs. Smith, the other day, by twenty at a time. so as to keep near the river, we arrived at sun-set on completely at my own command, for if a visitor comes he the border of a beautiful lake. It appeared about seven must hail on the opposite side before I slacken my rope, miles long, and proportionably broad, with two lofty and allow him to pull the boat over. isiands in the midst of it. The water was very soft and We have no fish in these rivers, excepting some fresh clear ; its bed seemed to be composed of fine sand, and water craw-fish, such as are found in the Thames, some very shallow. Having formed our encampment near eels, and a small thing not worth catching. We someits brink, and lighted three very large fires to keep our- times, however, shoot a wild duck or a widgeon, which selves warm, we commenced making tea. One of the are both large and good. We have also a kind of piparty fired a shot over its surface; the discharge was geon, which is very fine eating, and many other smaller succeeded by a long and lasting peal like thunder, birds, besides cockatoos. innumerable, both black and which had a sublime effect. We therefore named this white, and some beautiful parrots and paroquets. But piece of water Lake Echo. We were now on very high the bird which chiefly enlivens the grove is a species of ground, and seemed to overlook all the mountains magpie, which sings two regular bars of music, of the around us.

In the morning, at peep of day, we took clearest and sweetest notes you can imagine. On leave of this enchanting scene, which we had admired taking possession of my grant, my plan was to build a at the two periods most favourable to the display of its rough hut for my servants, which I should inhabit beauty with the rising and the setting sun. The surface whilst a better one was erecting for myself, but the loss remained as even as glass, and the shadows of its of my bullocks made me fain to make the best of my banks and islands gave a soft serenity to the landscape. first habitation. It is entirely built of the materials on the A fine open valley led us down to the river, but we ground, excepting the nails, which came from England, traversed it with difficulty, for during the wet season and the window-frames, which were made in Hobart Town the water had so lodged in it that it was now full of The walls are composed of logs or planks split out of holes, and we were never sure of a step. We passed the trees, of about a foot broad, and two or three inches many recent encampments of the natives, and saw their thick. These are sunk two feet in the ground, and fires at a little distance. As we approached the river nailed to a beam at the top; they are then plastered the dog started a large kangaroo, and hunted it down over with a mixture composed of sand, clay, and grass on the plain. This was a seasonable supply. We im- cut short, and the wall is complete. The roof is covered mediately commenced cooking ; cutting off some steaks, with shingles, which are also split out of the trees round we strung them on a stick, and set them before the the house, and have exactly the appearance of slates. fire; when one side was done we turned the other;—this I have not yet been able to make a floor, we therefore is what they call a sticker-up, and our manner of cooking walk at present upon the bare earth. As I cannot afthem is called bush-fashion. The slang nomenclature ford to buy another set of bullocks (for they cost 871.) which the convicts have imposed on this land is in many I must wait patiently till I recover them when the wild instances unpleasant and vulgar, but sometimes appro- herds are got in. This of course throws me into great priate. Having made a comfortable meal we again crossed difficulties. I have, however, upwards of one hundred the Ouse, but with still greater difficulty than we had en- sheep, two cows, and three or four young ones, a gcat, countered the day before. The intermediate space be- and a pig, besides eight hens. These last thrive tween the rivers is here still more mountainous than be- amazingly, chiefly owing to the number of grasshoppers hind my house, and is covered with large rugged stones, which they eat. and fine lofty trees. We passed several encampments of I have just heard of an opportunity to send off a letthe natives.' Pursuing our way, we soon came to the ter, and I therefore hasten to a conclusion. It is Shannon, which we crossed, as the eastern side afforded strange, when I reflect upon it, that any vicissitudes of the best walking. Here we entered on an extensive plain, life should have induced me voluntarily to undergo sebut so rough, and so obstructed with rushes, as to render paration from my friends ; to desert their company for

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