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readily. These are afterwards spread upon mats and another fourth, there being onry 502,216, or a few more exposed to the sun's rays until perfectly dry, when the than the half of the whole, who reach the age of twenty. nusk is broken with large heavy rollers made either of At the end of forty-five years, there will remain only wood or of stone. The coffee thus cleared of its husk is 334,072, or not many more than one-third of the whole again dried thoroughly in the sun, that it may not be million. Not quite so many as one in ten will reach the liable to heat when packed for shipment.
age of seventy-two, nor will one in a hundred reach that The method employed in the West-Indies differs from of eighty-six. Rather more than one in a thousand will this. Negroes are set to gather such of the berries as live to be ninety-five years old, and rather more than are sufficiently ripe, and for this purpose are provided one in five thousand may reach the age of a hundred. each with a canvas bag having an iron ring or hoop at After the lapse of a hundred and ten years, the probaits mouth to keep it always distended, and this bag is bility is, that the whole million will be in their graves. slung round the neck so as to leave both hands at liberty. It is proper, however, to observe, that this table is calAs often as this bag is filled, the contents are transferred culated from facts collected a considerable number of to a large basket placed conveniently for the purpose. years ago, and that there can be no doubt the results It is the usual calculation, that each bushel of ripe ber- are not so favourable as would be derived from obserries will yield ten pounds weight merchantable coffee. vations made at present. Indeed, it is ascertained that,
In curing coffee it is sometimes usual to expose the owing partly to the introduction of vaccination, and berries to the sun's rays in layers, five or six inches deep, partly to the increased comforts and improved mode of on a platform. By this means the pulp ferments in a living of the people, the mean or average duration of few days, and having thus thrown off a strong acidulous human life in France is fully three years greater now moisture, dries gradually during about three weeks: the than it was before the Revolution, the date for which husks are afterwards separated from the seeds in a mill. this table is constructed. Instead of twenty-eight years Other planters remove the pulp from the seeds as soon and three quarters, which the mean duration was then, as the berries are gathered. The pulping mill used for it is now about thirty-two years and one-tenth. this purpose consists of a horizontal fluted roller, turned Another table furnishes us with the actual number of by a crank and acting against a moveable breast-board, births, marriages, and deaths, that took place in France so placed as to prevent the passage of whole berries be- during the year 1829, the last for which the returns tween itself and the roller. The pulp is then separated have been made up. The whole population of the from the seeds by washing them, and the latter are country in 1820, when the last census was taken, was spread out in the sun to dry them. It is then necessary 30,451,187; and, in 1829, it was, probably, fully thirtyto remove the membranous skin or parchment, which is two millions. The number of marriages, then, which effected by means of heavy rollers running in a trough took place that year among this population, was wherein the seeds are put. This mill is worked by 250,342, so that rather more than one person out of cattle. The seeds are afterwards winnowed to separate every sixty-four was married in the course of the year. the chaff, and if any among them appear to have es The total number of deaths was 806,723, or somewhat caped the action of the roller, they are again passed more than one for every forty of the whole inhabitants. through the mill.
But to supply this waste, the number of births, in the The roasting of coffee for use is a process which re course of the year, was 964,343, or 157,620 more than quires some nicety; if burned, much of the fine aromatic the deaths. In several preceding years the excess had flavour will be destroyed, and a disagreeable bitter taste been still larger. Indeed, it had only been so small substituted. The roasting is now usually performed in twice during the preceding twelve years; namely, in a cylindrical vessel which is continually turned upon its 1826 and 1828. In 1821, the excess had been so high axis over the fire-place, in order to prevent the too great as 212,144 ; and both in 1823 and 1824, it was more heating of any one part, and to accomplish the continual than 220,000. Taking the average of thirteen years, shifting of the contents. Coffee should never be kept the annual increase of the population thus occasioned for any length of time after it has been roasted, and had amounted to about 186,000 souls. At this rate should never be ground until it is required for infusion, the population of France will not double itself in less or some portion of its fine flavour will be dissipated. than 116 years. The number of persons of the age of
The quantity of coffee consumed in Europe is very one hundred and upwards, who died in France in great. Humboldt estimates it at nearly one hundred 1829, was 158. and twenty millions of pounds, about one-fourth of Of the 964,343 children who were born this year, which is consumed in France. Since the time when 69,416, or nearly one in every fourteen, were illegitithis estimate was made, a vast increase has been expe- mate. Of the legitimate children 460,549 were males; rienced in the use of coffee in England. This was at | 434,378 females. Of the natural children, 35,365 first occasioned by the very considerable abatement were males ; 34,051 females. Upon the whole number made in the rate of duty, and the public taste has since of births in France, the males appear to be to the been continually growing more and more favourable to females nearly as 17 to 16; a proportion considerably its consumption.
different from that which has been usually assumed.
It has been commonly reckoned that 22 boys were born POPULATION OF FRANCE.
for every 21 girls The Annuaire (or Almanac) for 1832, published by The Annuaire also contains an account of the prothe Board of Longitude in France, contains, as usual, gress of the population of Paris for the year 1830. a mass of information on the subject of the population The number of marriages which took place this year in of that country. The tables and observations which are the French capital was 7324; the number of births given under this head occupy about forty-five pages of 28,587; and the number of deaths 27,466. Of the the present volume.
children born 10,007 were illegitimate; and of these, The first table presents us with a view of the law of 7749 were abandoned by their parents. Of the deaths mortality in France; that is, of the rate at which it has 524 were occasioned by small-pox.
1069 persons, been ascertained that the inhabitants of that country die namely 395 men, and 674 women, are enumerated as in any given number of years. From this table it ap- having attained to the age of between eighty and a hunpears, that of a million of children born in any parti-dred years. On the other hand, of the whole number cular year, 232,475, or not many fewer than one-fourth of children born, 2615 males and 2184 females, making of the whole number, will probably die before they are a 4799 in all, are stated to have died before they were a year old. The next nineteen years carry off very nearly year old. Of these, only 54 were cut off by small-pox.
AN EMIGRANT'S STRUGGLES.
every eye was at work, and every glass in requisition, to Hermitage, on the Shannon, Van Dieman's Land, examine the favorite spot of our adoption. At first its
30th September, 1823. aspect was steep and wild, presenting little to the view Let not those who go down to the sea in ships” flatter but hills on hills, covered with trees of a dusky brown themselves that they are about to leave the load of life
colour, the naked white stems of which gave them their cares, their sorrows, and their vanities-behind an uninviting appearance. But the sail up the Derwent them, and to embark only their hopes, their pleasures, to Hobart Town is very beautiful, the vessel being geand their gentler affections. The Greek and Roman nerally land-locked, and fine inlets and bays continually poets, who wrote some two thousand years ago, when opening as the breeze impels it. Trees of different sizes, human nature was pretty much the same as now, in- of a handsome shape and deeper green, diversified the struct us that our passions and opinions cling to us landscape. They stood at wide distances, and bethrough every change of place and clime—that we can tween them the ground was often smooth, and covered not by crossing the high seas shake off our proper
with grass, which, though of a brownish hue, seemed to selves; and Horace, in particular, describes care as invite us to repose or to expatiate on its surface. The boarding the galley, and mingling in the race-as fleeter sea-birds played around us, and shoals of porpoises tuineven than the deer or the wind. But to quote Horace bled past the ship. Little farms, and small patches of in this unclassic soil would be highly penal. If, there- cultivation, were discovered here and there, with the fore, you have not the original at hand, you must be stumps of trees appearing among the corn. It is imcontent with a few staves from my expatriated muse, possible to describe to you the pleasure which filled my composed in the short intervals of labour, between the heart, as my eye, wearied with the sea and sky of so long strokes of the axe, and the gratings of the saw: a voyage, roamed along these banks.
The heat of my
imagination overlooked the first fatigues of settling, and We urge in vain the courser's pace, The stag's device in vain we learn
created for itself, in the bosom of one of those beautiful While Care maintains an equal race,
bays, a tasteful cottage, garden, and farm, the sudden While dogg'd by fate at ev'ry turn.
gift of happy industry. My spirits were exhilarated. I In vain we rear the soaring mast,
trod the deck, as the ship glided up the river, with a liveAnd spread the swelling sail in vain,
lier, lighter step; and I chalked out the future without Care, swiiter than the viewless blast, O’ertakes us on the stormy main.
any blot or blemish. I did not allow myself to reflect
on the time and labour which must intervene before my For not a vessel cleaves the tide But misery finds a cabin there,
prospects of rural happiness could be realized. I did Love, malice, envy, climb her side,
not calculate that some years must elapse before the And freight her with corroding care.
ground could contribute much to the support of my fa'Tis well to praise her burnish'd deck,
mily, and that it must be maintained in the mean time at Her gallant trim, and hearts of oak
a very heavy expense. I have since, however found it Oh! many a heart has suffer'd wreck,
out, and will tell you all as I proceed. And many a lender cord is broke.
With joy we set our foot on shore; and as wa ked What then remains, is hope be vain,
along the wharl, which led us up to the town, I examined From canvas wing, and breezes fair ? Reverse the sage's moral strain *.
the ground with eagerness, thinking to find a marked Confront the sell pursuer-Care !
distinction in even the earth of so newly discovered, and
so distant a world. But the general appearance of nature We
is everywhere the same; and though I have not found ning of Norember. As we entered the bay, the Table one indigenous vegetable or animal of a similar species ning of Norember. As we entered the bay, the Table to those in England, yet there is sufficient to remind me Mountain, with the clouds resting and rolling on its that I am an inhabitant of the same ball
of earth. Hosurface, like a table-cloth, produced an effect somewhat bart Town is situated in a nook of the Derwent, at the sublime. We ascended it with great labour, but the foot of a Table Mountain, which is three quarters of view from these very high hills is not always so fine as the view of them. "Cape Town is surrounded by high the town, turning several flour mills in its passage,
a mile high. A rivulet flows from it, and waters romantic hills of an arid barren appearance. The inhabitants are a mixture of Dutch, English, Malays, and The land in the immediate vicinity is therefore steep and Negro slaves. The town is built in the Dutch style, and barren, and admits of no farming operations. A two has some fine streets and houses, but the climate is very villas and farms, and New Town has already much
or three miles off, however, there are some 'seautiful stormy, and clouds of dust continually blow. No slave the appearance of an English parish. Hobart Town is allowed to go out after dark without a lantern, which is scattered over a large surface, each building having has a curious effect on the parade at eight o'clock when orginally a quarter of an acre attached to it. There the band plays. The Malays, like the French, are particularly neat in decorating their church-yards, in which that so much had been done in so short a time. The
were many decent houses erected, and I was astonished they have gardeners always at work, converting the Loathsome dreary sepulchre into an inviting place of re- streets, though lined out, are scarcely formed in many ligious instruction. I think Stoke church-yard, with its parts; and the roots of trees, which everywhere appear in umbrageous yew tree, so eulogized by Gray, is the only
them, show their recent formation. With much difficulty one I was ever pleased with in England. There is a
we hired a cottage. It was covered with shingles or daily market at day-break, where the country people pieces of wood, split in the form of slates, and was but bring all their produce for sale. I was amused at seeing an imperfect defence against the keen air at day-break, the waggon-loads of tigers' and lions' skins, bitter aloes, which, though in summer, sometimes roused us shiverwalnuts, oranges, &c. The waggons are built light, and ing from our beds. Provisions, and every kind of ladrawn by twelve or twenty oxen, or sometimes horses.
bour, were very expensive; and as I was therefore desiThe mutton has no fat but on the tail, which has some
rous to get my family into the country as quickly as times twenty-five pounds of it. Constantia, ten miles possible, I lost no time in waiting on the Lieutenant from the town, is the grand place for beauty of scenery found my letters of introduction of the greatest service.
Governor, who received me very courteously, and I and luxuriant trees, but I had not time to visit it.
About six weeks after leaving the Cape of Good The Governor is a man of polite easy manners, and has Hope we discovered land. As we approached the shore, sation discovers at once how much he has the good of
a strong claim to be considered a scholar; his conver• " And since 'tis vain to combat, learn to fly."
the colony at heart. Indeed its prosperity seems to be
his constant and only study. The usual way is to give it runs placid, and “gentle, yet not dull,” it is of the in a list of the property you have to embark on the land, size of the Thames a little above Windsor; in other when an order is immediately sent to the surveyor to parts, it dashes with impetuosity over rocks, forming measure the quantity to which it entitles you, as soon as cascades and rapids of the most romantic kind. It is you have chosen the spot.
said to take its rise from a large lake in the interior of Four of us set off together attended by a guide to look the island. The water is so pure that you can everyfor land. There is but one road from Hobart Town, on where see the bottom, and so soft that it may be used which there is considerable traffic for a few miles. In the in washing without soap. I have chosen my land close vicinity of the town the trees are nearly all cut down and to its banks, at the mouth of a fine valley, which slopes consumed for fire-wood. As we proceeded, however, the for half a mile down from the hills; the opposite banks landscape became more wooded, and hills on hills arose are high and rocky, forming a kind of barrier. Within constantly to our view. The prevailing tree is a species of half a mile of my western boundary flows another river, the Eucalyptus, which the prisoners have called the as large as the Shannon, called the Ouse or Big River, white gum, from the dead appearance of its bark. It is so that I am seated on a peninsula, for these rivers meet not a picturesque feature, owing to its total want of under about two or three miles below; and if the hypothesis branches, the foliage being entirely confined to the top, be correct, which derives both rivers from the same great and its denuded trunk and limbs exhibiting a blasted lake, I am situated on an internal island, about thirty and melancholy aspect. In some parts, however, the miles long, and from two to five broad. view is much more warm and pleasing, where another As soon as the hurry and bustle of settling are abated species of the same genus abounds, called the blue or I
propose an exploratory expedition, making a circuit of black gum tree, which very much resembles the Eng- this island. I have already been twenty miles up, on a lish elm, excepting that its leaves are less verdant, and, small three-day tour, with Mr. Scott, the surveyor, and like all the trees in the island, evergreen. When the we then found ourselves on the highest land of the whole eye, therefore, ranges over the tops of the trees, the view island. As it may amuse you, I will briefly relate the is rich and pleasing, so far as fine woods, and sloping particulars of our journey. Mr. Scott was furnished hills, destitute of buildings and of cultivation, can make with a Scotch cloak bundled on his back, and I with a it. The natives have a custom of burning the land in rug or blanket, formed of about twenty or thirty kanthe dry season, in order to hunt the kangaroos, opos-garoo skins, sewed neatly together with the dried sinews suins, and other animals, on which they subsist. This of the tail. You must here allow me to introduce, by practice has had the effect of thinning the woods, and way of episode, a short description of this interesting anitotally eradicating the underwood; but while it deprives mai—the kangaroo. the trees of those fine hanging spreading branches, so beautiful in our English parks, it has yet covered the whole surface of the island with grass and pasturage. The natives, who are truly a wandering race, have also the custom of stripping the bark off the largest trees as high as they can reach, in order to build their huts. This of course kills the tree, which the next fire burns down. Their huts they also burn after a few days, having exhausted the game around them; they then decamp to a little distance, and repeat the process. Thus, you may form an idea of the general face of the country, everywhere clothed with grass of a dry withered appearance, and presenting at every step, trunks and branches of trees, either dead and half-consumed, or, if still alive, robbed of their under-foliage, and partially burnt; yet in some parts, where the valleys and plains are clear of wood, the landscape is very beautiful, and the mind cannot for a while be reconciled to the idea that it has never yet been the settled abode of man. At nine miles from Hobart Town we crossed the Derwent by a ferry-boat, and took the Launceston road. The river Jordan, a small stream, like the Brent above Brentford, winds and meanders among the valleys, watering many fine farms in its progress. Obeying, I
[Kangaroos.) know not what impulse, I pursued my way towards the I have a tame one now before me, lapping tea out Clyde, distant about forty-five miles from Hobart Town, of a saucer, and picking a bone like a monkey. They -a river which, though twice the size of the Jordan, are about the size of a large sheep ; their head and was hardly sufficient to satisfy my passion for water. fore-quarters small; their ears in constant motion, like I, therefore, pushed onward to a larger river, ten miles those of a hare or rabbit ; the fore-legs are short ; the further up the country, beyond every settler, and at last paws furnished with five fingers, and used as hands, determined to spend the remainder of my days on its for they are never employed in walking. The hind foot banks. It is called the Shannon, and its banks are terminates in one large hoof. By means of the hind legs, regarded as the classical ground of Van Dieman's which are as long as the body, assisted by the tail, they Land, having been the resort of all the noted bush- proceed by leaps, so fast as frequently to outstrip the rangers for many years, and the scene of the death of their hounds. Thus, except when grazing, they are always leader, Michael Howe, which occurred within a mile of upright, and, as a country convict, whom I have in the my nouse. I remember when I used to look at Evans'
house, says, “they stand up like a mon." There is Map of this island, and see the fine square measure- something so agile and buoyant in this animal's mode ment, I thought the land was level and fertile, but it is of leaping and standing, that it is in my opinion a very of a very different character. My land presents a very handsome creature. The flesh is not fat, but very sauneven surface, being composed throughout of hill and voury, and easily digested. They are very numerous vale. The Shannon is a mountain stream, with more in the country, and their paths and trails are of great of the character of a torrent, than of a river, Where assistance in travelling through the woods. The female,
C. M. f.
in common with the other quadrupeds of this region, votes, that the Easter light should be lighted. This being has a pouch in which she carries the young, and within done, the candle was placed in the lower part of a large which the udder and teats are. I am now busy in hollowed pumpkin ; a few holes were then made in the fencing a lawn of about two acres before my door, in upper part of the pumpkin, which was put on and which I propose keeping several of these interesting fastened to the lower part, enclosing the candle as in a creatures.
lantern. For my sensible old friend Z to laugh at (To be concluded in our next.)
this clumsy incantation would have been dangerous at TAE WEEK.
such a moment: in the madness of their terror and MAY 8.—The birthday of Dr. Beilby Porteous, Bishop superstition they might have thrown him into the Black of London. This learned and pious prelate was born in Sea as an unbelieving heretic; but when he heard that the city of York, in 1731. He entered the university which it would dissipate the thick fog, should the candle
this pumpkin was to be let down to the waves, from of Cambridge as one of the humblest order of students, in it only continue to burn for a short time, knowing the or what is there called a sizer. His industry and talents, however, soon brought him distinction; and especially advantage of keeping up the sailors' courage, and seeing after the production of his English poem on Death,' that the candle was already going out for want of air, he which gained the Seatonian prize in 1759, he took modestly proposed to make a few more holes in the top his place in public estimation as one of the chief orna
of the pumpkin, to admit more air. This intervention, ments of the university. Having thus honourably made as being of an opposite church (the Catholic), was not his way by his own merits to one of the fellowships The lantern, fastened in the centre of a small board, was
taken in good part, and his advice was neglected. in his college, he soon after obtained the patronage of Archbishop Secker, who in the first instance made carefully lowered to the level of the stormy waters, him his chaplain, and eventually conferred upon him, which it had scarcely touched ere it expired! A cry of among other appointments, the rectory of Lambeth and dismay followed the ill success of the charm. What was a prebend in the cathedral of Peterborough. In 1776 to be done now? A short time passed in consultation ; he was promoted to the bishopric of Chester, and in they were just going to light “ Christmas," when, oddly 1787 was translated to that of London, which he held enough, a sudden change of wind blew the fog from the till his death in 1908. The printed works of Bishor dark sea, and they clearly saw, a short distance a-head, Porteous, besides his poem already mentioned, consist the Cape of Karabournu, on the European side, and chiefly of Sermons, Charges, and other compositions on their way into the channel of the Bosphorus. According theological subjects.
to their own exclamations and alarms they had considered May 9.-The birthday of the celebrated modern their essay as a complete failure, but now they stoutly musician Giovanni Paesiello, who was born at Tarento,
maintained to Z that the candle had floated alight in Italy, in the year 1740. Paesiello, who passed his that it and it alone had dissipated the dangerous life principally in his native country, with the exception gloom, and that there was nothing like the charm of an
Easter candle ! of a residence of nine years in Russia, in the service of Catherine II., and another period of three years which
ANCIENT USE OF TORTURE. he spent in Paris, and who died at Naples in 1816, was a composer of great elegance and sweetness, and his The frequent interference of the prerogative of the works have attained extensive popularity. He is the Crown with the undoubted principles of the common author of above seventy operas, besides a very great law, especially in state prosecutions, is a remarkable number of shorter pieces.
feature in the history of the administration of justice in
this country in ancient times. This may be well illusSUPERSTITION OF GREEK SAILORS IN THE trated by the instance of Torture. The practice of obBLACK SEA.
taining confessions or evidence by means of torture-a My old friend Mr. Z some twenty years ago, took practice as absurd as it is cruel and unjust-has been a passage from Odessa to Constantinople on board a always considered by writers on jurisprudence, both Greek brig. It was winter. They had not been long ancient and modern, as totally repugnant to the fundaat sea when a favourable wind sprung up, but it was mental laws of England. Fortescue, who wrote his unfortunately extremely violent, and accompanied by book on the laws of England so early as the reign of those thick fogs which prevail in the Black Sea during Henry VI., mentions the absence of torture as one of the bad season. The vessel flew on, but not a yard the advantages of the English law over the civil law, before them could they see clearly. They were at length, and the laws of most other nations. Lord Coke refers according to the Captain's calculation, near the dangerous to this passage of Fortescue, and declares that the Boghaz, or mouth of the narrow channel of the Bos infliction of torture is against Magna Charta, and the phorus (not twenty miles from Constantinople), but how principles of the constitution; and says, that “ there is to hit that narrow opening was the difficulty! Every no one opinion in our books or judicial records for the minute might throw them on a rocky shore. Whether maintenance of it." Sir Thomas Smith, who was a they were on the Asiatic or European coast they knew philosopher and a man of literature, as well as a statesnot. The dense vapours, worse than a fog in the British man and lawyer, in his book on the English Govern. channel, hung over them and around them—they could ment, written in the early part of Queen Elizabeth's see nothing ! Their situation would have been critical reign, says, “ It is against the law of England to torture, even to the most scientific seamen; but it was not by for the purpose of eliciting a confession of guilt; the science and skill, but by the following charm that they practice savours too much of slavery for a free people. attempted to extricate themselves.
It is 'natural to an Englishman to despise death, but he They lighted additional lamps before the picture of cannot endure torture ; hence the lightest kind of their patron, Saint Nicholas, which occupied the post of torture is more abhorrent to our people than death itself, honour in the cabin; they next produced two famous for in no country do malefactors go to execution more wax candles that had been duly blessed and sanctified in intrepidly than in England.” It is quite clear, upon their church at home; and here arose a long and noisy these and many other authorities which might be mendispute, animated with oaths and curses, about which oftioned, that by law the application of torture was unithe two candles should be employed; the one conse- versally admitted to be unjustifiable ; but what has been crated at Christmas, the period of our Saviour's birth, the practice? There is no period of the history of or that consecrated at Easter, the period of his suffering England anterior to the Commonwealth (before 1648), and resurrection. At last it was settled by a majority of in which torture has not been used as a matter of course
in all state prosecutions, ať the mere discretion of the legality of torture, in the case of Felton, who had Privy Council
, and uncontrolled by any law besides the stabbed the Duke of Buckingham. The following are will of the Sovereign. With the strong language of related as the circumstances under which this opinion the authorities above cited in his mind, the reader may was given :-“ Afterwards Felton was called before the possibly be startled at this assertion ; it will, therefore, Council, where he confessed much concerning his inducebe proper to adduce some evidence to prove its truth. ment to the murder. ; The Council much pressed him to
In 1468, not many years after Fortescue wrote, Sir confess who set him on to do such a bloody act, and if Thomas Coke, Lord-Mayor of London, was tried for the Puritans had no hand therein. He denied they had, high treason, and found guilty of misprision of treason, and so he did to the last, that no person whatsoever upon the single testimony of one Hawkins, given under knew anything of his intention or purpose to kill the torture. Hawkins himself was convicted of treason Duke ; that he revealed it to none living. * Doctor upon his own confession on the rack, and executed. In Laud, Bishop of London, being then at the Council 1571, the Duke of Norfolk was found guilty of high table, told him, if he would not confess he must go to treason, chiefly upon the evidence of his servants, who the rack. Felton replied, 'If it must be so, he could were examined under torture. There were many other not tell whom he might nominate in the extremity of instances of torture in the reign of Elizabeth, sometimes torture; and if what he should say then must go for applied on very slight occasions. Lord Bacon relates truth, he could not tell whether his Lordship (meaning of her, that once, when she could not be persuaded that the Bishop of London), or which of their Lordships he a book, containing treasonable matter, was really written might name, for torture might draw unexpected things by the person whose name it bore, she said, with great from him.' After this he was asked no more questions, indignations, that “she would have him racked, to produce but sent back to prison.” his author.” Bacon replied, “Nay, madam, he is a Notwithstanding the formal opinion of the Judges, doctor, never rack his person, rack his style; let him in the case of Felton, there is no doubt that the practice have pen, ink, and paper, and help of books, and be continued during the whole reign of Charles I. as a enjoined to continue his story, and I will undertake, by warrant for applying the torture to one Archer, in 1640, collating his style, to judge whether he were the author." is to be seen at the State-Paper-Office - This, how.
In the reign of James I. the practice was still con ever, appears to have been the last occasion on which tinued. Two warrants from the Privy Council, dated this odious practice was resorted to. There is no trace the 19th and 20th April, 1603, before the King's of it during the Commonwealth; and in the reign of arrival in London, for applying the torture to one Charles II., where we might have expected to find it, Philip May, are to be found in the State-Paper-Office; there is not a single well-authenticated instance of the one of which is directed to the Lord Chief Justice application of the torture. (Popham), the Attorney. General (Coke), and the The following account of the kinds of torture chiefly Solicitor-General (Fleming); and is signed by several employed in the Tower is taken from a note to the members of the Privy Council, and amongst others, by eighth volume of Dr. Lingard's History. Lord-Chancellor Ellesmere, and the Archbishop of 1st. The rack was a large open frame of oak, raised Canterbury. It is not certain that Guy Fawkes was three feet from the ground. The prisoner was laid unactually placed upon the rack, though it is very probable der it on his back on the floor ; his wrists and ancles that he was; for the King's warrant for the torture is were attached by cords to two collars at the ends of still preserved, which concludes in these remarkable the frame; these were moved by levers in opposite diwords: “using the gentler torture first, et sic per rections, till the body rose to a level with the frame, gradus ad ima tenditur, (and thus by degrees we may Questions were then put, and, if the answers did not proceed to extremities), and so God speed you in your prove satisfactory, the sufferer was stretched more and good work.” The original depositions of Fawkes at the more till the bones started from their sockets. State-Paper Office furnish a very strong argument that 2d. The scavenger's daughter was a broad hoop of he actually suffered the torture. The signature “Guido iron, so called, consisting of two parts, fastened to each Fawkes' to the earlier depositions, in which he con other by a hinge. The prisoner was made to kneel on fesses nothing material, is written boldly and firmly; the pavement, and to contract himself into as small a but the name subscribed to the last and fullest state compass as he could. Then the executioner, kneeling ment, in which he declares his accomplices, is written on his shoulders, and having introduced the hoop under in so faint and trembling a hand as scarcely to be his legs, compressed the victim close together, till he legible. On inspecting the signature, the impression was able to fasten the extremities over the small of the is almost irresistible that it was inade by a man in great back. The time allotted to this kind of torture was an bodily agony.
hour and a half, during which time it commonly happened that from excess of compression the blood started from the nostrils; sometimes, it was believed, from the extremities of the hands and feet.
3d. Iron gauntlets, which could be contracted by the
aid of a screw. These were also called Manacles. In 1614, Peachum, who was accused of high treason They served to compress the wrists, and to suspend the for certain passages in a sermon written by him, and prisoner in the air, from two distant points of a beam. found in his study, but never preached or published, He was placed on three pieces of wood piled one on the was examined upon interrogatories " before torture, in other, which, when his hands had been made fast, were torture, between torture, and after torture.” There is successively withdrawn from under his feet. “I felt," a warrant from the Privy Council in 1620, still extant, said F. Gerard, one of the sufferers, “the chief pain in by which Sir Allen Apsley, the Lieutenant of the my breast, belly, arms, and hands. I thought that all Tower, Sir Henry Mountague, Lord Chief Justice of the blood in my body had run into my arms, and began the King's Bench, and Sir Thomas Coventry, the to burst out of my finger ends. This was a mistake; King's Solicitor-General, are authorized to examine one but the arms swelled, till the gauntlets were buried within Peacock, and to put him to the torture “either of the the flesh. After being thus suspended an hour, I faintmanacles or the rack.” This warrant is signed both by ed, and when I came to myself, I found the executioners Lord Chancellor Bacon and Sir Edward Coke.
supporting me in their arms; they replaced the pieces So soon after this transaction as the year 1628, the of wood under my feet : but as soon as I was recovered, Judges delivered an unanimous opinion against the removed them again. Thus I continued hanging for