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the most able men of the city to attempt the solution. I rical poem, descriptive of the body and mind of man, Not repulsed, however, by the tone and manner of the which he entitles • The Purple Island,' written (although learned Professor, Des Cartes requested to be favoured not published) before Harvey announced his discovery, with a translation of the placard, which he had no gives the following account of the manner in which the sooner received than he calmly remarked that he body is watered and fertilized by the different channels thought he should be able to answer the challenge. that pervade it :Accordingly next day he presented himself again before « Nor is there any part in all this land, Beckman (that was the name of the Professor) with a

But is a little isle; for thousand brooks complete solution of the problem, greatly to the asto

In azure channels glide on silver sand; nishment of that distinguished person."

Their serpent windings and deceiving crooks,
At last Des

Circling about and watering all the plain, Cartes left the army, and travelled through a great part of Empty themselves into the all-drinking main, Europe, visiting England among other countries. He And creeping forward slide, but ne'er return again." then fixed his residence in Holland, where he wrote the Nobody imagined that there was any circulation of greater number of his works. They relate to meta- the blood, till Harvey demonstrated that the same blood physics, geometry, and various departments of natural which the veins brought to the heart the arteries immephilosophy. He is now principally remembered for diately carried away again from it. Harvey lived fom the impulse which his works gave to the study of many years to enjoy the glory of this discovery; dying metaphysics in Germany, and for his ideas being now, at Hampstead, in Essex, on the 3d of June, 1658, in m a great degree, the foundation of what is called the eighty-first year of his age. the Ideal School of Philosophy, as opposed to the Sensual, or Material. His celebrated axiom was

EXCELLENCE NOT LIMITED BY STATION. gito, ergo sum," (I think, therefore, I exist). His as- There is not a more common error of self-deception tronomical speculations were very singular and extra- than a habit of considering our stations in life so illvagant. He explained the constitution of the heavens suited to our powers, as to be unworthy of calling out a by means of a multitude of vortices, or elementary full and proper exercise of our virtues and talents. whirlpools, of which the sun and every other fixed As society is constituted, there cannot be many emstar, accorcķing to him, had one, forming as it were its ployments which demand very brilliant talents, or great system, and supporting and keeping in motion the other delicacy of taste, for their proper discharge. The great lighter bodies that circle round it. Notwithstanding bulk of society is composed of plain, plodding men, who these fancies, Des Cartes was a most profound and move “right onwards” to the sober duties of their calling. ingenious mathematician ; and the science of optics is at the same time the universal good demands that those also greatly indebted to him. Having been invited by whom nature has greatly endowed should be called from Christina, Queen of Sweden, to take up his residence in the ordinary track to take up higher and more ennobling Stockholm, he repaired to that capital in 1648; but died duties. England, happily for us, is full of bright exthere of an inflammation of the lungs on the 11th of amples of the greatest men raised from the meanest situFebruary, 1650, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. ations; and the education which England is now begin

April 1.-All-Fools'-Day, like many other days that ning to bestow upon her children will multiply these exwere once observed by most people, has no honours amples. But a partial and incomplete diffusion of knownow but in the gaiety of school-boys. The old custom ledge will also multiply the victims of that evil principle of sending individuals on this day on a fool's errand is which postpones the discharge of present and immediate not peculiar to England. Scotland has her April gowk, duties, for the anticipations of some destiny above the and France her Poisson d'Avril (April fish). It is pro- labours of a handicraftsman, or the calculations of a shop bable that the custom is a relic of a high and general keeper. Years and experience, which afford us the opPagan festival, in which the wildest spirit of frolic ex- portunity of comparing our own powers with those of pressed the universal gladness. It is to be remembered others, will, it is true, correct the inconsistent expectations that the year anciently began about the time of the vernal which arise from a want of capacity to set the right value equinox, when the awakening of all the powers of na- on ourselves. But the wisdom thus gained inay coine lure from their wintry sleep—the leafing of trees, the too late. The object of desire may be found decidedly budding of flowers, and the singing of birds—made men unattainable, and existence is then wasted in a sluglook forward with joy to a season of long days and gish contempt of present duties; the spirit is broken ; sunny skies. In simple ages rough jokes, given and the temper is soured; habits of misanthropy and pertaken without feelings of unkindness, form one of the sonal neglect creep on; and life eventually becomes a most usual expressions of hilarity. There is a festival tedious and miserable pilgrimage of never-satisfied deamongst the Hindoos, called the Huli, which is held in sires. Youth, however, is happily not without its guide, March, in honour of the new year, in the observance of if it will take a warning from example. Of the highlywhich the practice of sending persons on errands which gifted men whose abandonment of their humble calling are to end in disappointment, forms a prominent feature. has been the apparent beginning of a distinguished career, This circumstance would show that the custom, which we do not recollect an instance of one who did not pursue still remains with us, is one which has its origin in re- that humble calling with credit and success until the occamote ages, and is derived from a common source, ac- sion presented itself for exhibiting those superior powers cessible alike to the Hindoo and the Briton.

which nature occasionally bestows. Benjamin Franklin April 2.-On this day, in the year 1578, was born was as valuable to his master, as a printer's apprentice, at Folkstone, in Kent, Dr. William Harvey, the disco- as he was to his country as a statesman and a negotiator, verer of the circulation of the blood. Harvey published or to the world as a philosopher. Had he not been so, this important discovery in 1620: Before this time it | indeed, it may be doubted whether he ever would have was universally believed that the arteries, or vessels taken his rank among the urst statesmen and philosophers through which the blood flows from the heart, did not of his time. One of the great secrets of advancing in contain blood at all, but only air ; and, indeed, the life is to be ready to take advantage of those opportuword artery was originally used to signify the wind- nities which, if a man really possesses superior abilities, pipe, and an air-tube. The body, it was thought, are sure to present themselves some time or other. As was fed with blood entirely through the veins, which the poet expresses it, “ There is a tide in the affairs of carried it at last to the heart, where it was in some men,”—an ebbing and flowing of the unstable element way or other absorbed or drunk up. Thus, one of on which they are borne,-and if this be only “taken our old poets, Phineas Fletcher in a curious allego- at the flool," the “full sea” is gained on which “ this

voyage of their life" may be made with ease and the Drospect of a happy issue.

But we should remember, that for those who are not ready to embark at the moment when their tide is at its flood, that tide may never serve again ; and nothing is

likely to be a hindrance at such a moment than the distress which is certain to follow a neglect of our ordinary business.



[From Crabbe's Parish Register.] One of the most eminent of our modern poets died a few weeks ago, the Reverend George Crabbe. Mr. Crabbe was born in 1754, at Aldborough in Suffolk, and, consequently, at the time of his death, had reached the advanced age of seventy-eight. Although his last work, his Tales of the Hall, in two volumes, was published so lately as 1819, he had been for many years by far the oldest of our living poets ; for his first production, The Library, was published so long ago as the year 1781. His poetical career, therefore, reckoning from this commencement to his death, had extended over more than the long space of half a century. A second poem, entitled The Village, however, which quickly followed the Library, was the only additional work which he produced during the first half of this period. It was not till 1807 that he again came before the world as an author, by the publication of two volumes of poems, comprising the Parish Register and other pieces. This publication was followed by another poem, entitled The Borough, in 1810; by two volumes of Tales, in 1812; and, as already mentioned, by his “ Tales of the Hall,” the last work which he gave to the press, in 1819. Mr. Crabbe had been Rector of Trowbridge, in Wiltshire, for eighteen years before his death.

Notwithstanding considerable peculiarities, and some obvious faults of manner, it is impossible to peruse any of Crabbe's productions without feeling yourself to be in the hands of a writer of great power, and a true poet. In some of his pieces he has displayed both a soaring imagination and a delicate sense of beauty; but he is most popularly known as the poet of poverty and wretchedness,--the stern explorer and describer of the deepest and darkest recesses of human suffering and crime. Perhaps he has occasionally painted the gloom of thie regions in which he was thus accustomed to wander with somewhat of exaggeration; but it would be easy to select abundant proof from his writings, that if he delineated with an unsparing pencil both the miseries and the vice's of the poor, he could also sympathise with their enjoyments and estimate their virtnes as cordially as any mani that ever lived. The following passage from the Third Part of his Parish Register, that in which he reviews the list of burials, is an aclmirably drawn picture of a lofty character in humble life. The writer, it will be observed, speaks in the character of the clergyman of the parish. He has related the lives and deaths of two of his female parishioners, after which he proceeds thus:

Next to these ladies, but in nought allied,
A noble peasant, Isaac Ashford, died;
Noble he was, contemning all things mean,
His truth unquestioned, and his soul serene.
Of no man's presence Isaac felt afraid ;
At no man's question Isaac looked dismayed :
Shame knew him not, he dreailed no disgrace ;
Truth, simple truth, was written in his face;
-Yet while the serious thought his soul approved,
Cheerful he seemed, and gentleness he loved.
To bliss domestic he his heart resigned,
And with the firmest, had the fondest mind :
Were others joyful, he looked smiling on,
And gave allowance where he needed none;
Good he refused with future ill to buy,
Nor knew a joy that caused reflection's sigh;
A friend to viriue, his unclouded breast
No envy stung, no jealousy distressed;
Yet far was he from Stoic pride removed
He stk humanely, and he warmly loved.

I marked his action, when his insant died,
And his old neighbour for offence was tried ;
The still tears, stealing down that furrowed cheek,
Spoke pity, plainer than the longue can speak.
If pride were his, 'twas not their vulgar pride,
Who, in their base contempt, the great deride,
Nor pride in learning, though my clerk agreed,
If fate should call him, Ashford might succeed ;
Nor pride in rustic skill, ahhough we knew
None his superior, and his equals few :
But if that spirit in his soul had place,
It was the jealous pride that shuns disgrace
A pride in honest fame, by virtue gained,
In sturdy boys, to virtuous labours trained;
Pride in the power that guards his country's coast,
And all that Englishmen enjoy and boast ;
Pride, in a life that slander's tongue defied,
In fact, a noble passion, misnamed Pride.

He had no party's rage, no sectary's whim;
Christian and countryman was all with him :
True to his Church he came; no Sunday shower
Kept him at home in that important hour;
Nor his firm feet could one persuading sect
By the strong glare of their new light direct;
• On hope, in mine own sober light, I gaze,
"But should be blind and lose it, in your blaze.'

In times severe, when many a sturdy swain
Felt it his pride, his comfort, to complain ;
Isaac their wants would soothe, his own would hide,
And feel in that his comfort and his pride.

At length, he found, when seventy years were run, His strength departed, and his labour done; When, save his honest fame, he kept no more ; But lost his wife, and saw his children poor , 'Twas then a spark of—say not discontentStruck on his mind, and thus he gave it vent:

Kind are your laws ('tis not to be denied) i That in yon house for ruined age provide ;

And they are just ;-when young, we give you all,
"And then for comforts in our weakness call.
Why then this proud reluctance to be fed,
To join your Poor and eat the Parish bread ?
But yet I linger, loathe with him to feed,

Who gains his plenty by the sons of need;
• He who, by contract, all your Paupers took,
And gauges stomachs with an anxious look!
On some old master I could well depend,
See him with joy, and thank him as a friend;
But ill on him, who doles the day's supply,
And counts our chances, who at night may die;
• Yet help me, Heaven! and let me not complain
Of what befails me, but the fate sustain.'

Such were his thoughts, and so resigned he grew;
Daily he placed the Workhouse in his view;
But came not there; for sudden was his fate,
He dropt expiring, at his cottage-gate.

I feel his absence in the hours of prayer,
And view his seat, and sigh for Isaac there;
I see no more those white locks thinly spread,
Round the bald polish of that honoured head;
No more that awful glance on playful wight
Coinpelled to kncel and tremble at the sight;
To fold his fingers all in dread the while,
Till Mister Ashforil softened to a smile:
No more that meek and suppliant look in prayer,
Nor the pure faith (to give it force) are there :
But he is blest; and I lament no more
A wise good man contented to be poor.

A QUAINT SERMON. Mr. Dodd was a minister who lived many years ago a few miles from Cambridge ; and having several times been preaching against drunkenness, some of the Cambridge scholars (conscience, which is sharper than ten thousand witnesses, being their monitor) were very much offended, and thought he made reflections on them. Some little time after, Mr. Dodd was walking towards Cam. bridge, and met some of the gownsmen, who, as soon as they saw him at a distance, resolved to make some ridicule of him. As soon as he came up, they accosted him with “Your servant, sir!" He replied, “ Your servant, gentlemen.” They asked him if he had not been preaching very much against drunkenness of late ? He answered in the affirmative. They then told him they had a favour to beg of hini, and it was that he would preach a sermon to them there, from a text they should choose. He argued that it was an imposition, for a man ought to have some consideration before preaching. They said they would not put up with a denial, and insisted upon his preaching immediately

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(in a hollow tree which stood by the road side) from the 11,000; the population of the whole thirteen being word M.A.L.T. He then began, “ Beloved, let me crave equalled by the aggregate population of three or four of your attention. I am a little man-come at a short notice the Lancashire or Yorkshire towns. to preach a short sermon-from a short text-to a thin

The maps contain congregation-in an unworthy pulpit. Beloved, my text bited merely by the peasant cultivators of the soil, and by

a multitude of names of miserable wooden villages, inha is Malt. I cannot divide it into sentences, there being none; nor into words, there being but one; I must therefore, of a few shop-keeping Jews. Of the 451 towns of the necessity, divide it into letters, which I find in my text to be kingdom, 353 are more than half, and 83 wholly, of these four-M.A.L.T.

wood; and but a very few towns contain a supply of the M-is Moral.

ordinary articles of consumption by persons in easy cirA-is Allegorical.

cumstances. The common articles of ladies' wearing L-is Literal. T-is Theological.

apparel are obliged to be procured either from Warsaw "The Moral, is to teach you rusticks good manners:

or Vienna, and it is common, in great families, to keep therefore M-my Masters, A–All of you, L-Leave off, memorandum books, in which the inmates of the family T- Tippling

enter their wants, from time to time, which are supplied The Allegorical is, when one thing is spoken of, and altogether at intervals of some months. In respect of another meant. The thing spoken of is Mait. The thing all those comforts and conveniences of life which denote meant is the spirit of Malt, which you rusticks make, the progress of refinement, Poland is, perhaps, behind all M-your Meat, A-your Apparel, L-your Liberty, and other nations of Christian Europe. T-your Trust. The Literal is, according to the letters, M-Much, A

The rate of increase of the Polish population, since Ále, L-Little, T-Trust.

1815, has been stated at 100,000 individuals annually, “The Theological is, according to the effects it works or about two and a half per cent. in some, M-Murder—in others, A-Adultery-in all,

The Catholic religion is specially protected by the L-Looseness of life; and, in many, T-Treachery. government, without imposing any disabilities on the

“I shall conclude the subject, First, by way of Exhortation. members of other faiths. The Catholic establishment
M-my Masters, A-All of you, L-Listen, T-To my consists of an Archbishop of Warsaw, eight Bishops, and
Text. Second, by way of Caution.
A-All of you, 1-Look for, T-the Truth. Third, by way 354 Priests. Next to the Roman Catholics, however,

Memy Masters, 2,740 Clergy. The Greek Catholics have a Bishop, and of Communicating the Truth, which is this:-A Drunkard is the annoyance of modesty; the spoil of civility; the the Jews are of the most importance, and their numbers destruction of reason; the robber's agent; the alehouse's are stated to be fast increasing. They have, of late, been benefactor; his wife's sorrow; his children's trouble; his very unpopular, and have been charged with many malown shame; his neighbour's scoff ; a walking swill-bowl; practices, in monopolizing trade, and otherwise. The the picture of a beast; the monster of a man!"

native writers have, for some time past, been in the habit

of reproaching them as the ruin of their country, but DESCRIPTION OF POLAND.

sometimes, possibly, with more prejudice than reason. The

religious statistics are as follows: The kingdom of Poland, which has lately been the

Roman Catholics

3,400,000 theatre of so disastrous a war, was established in 1815, Greek Church

100,000 by the treaty of Vienna, and was composed of four terri Lutherans

150,000 tories placed respectively under the following sovereign



Jews. ties, viz. :

400,000 Other Sects

5,000 1. Gallicia; assigned to Austria. 2. The Grand Duchy of Posen, including the Western

4,060,000 Palatinates bordering on Silesia ; surrendered to Prussia.

The class of nobles in Poland is to that of the plebeians 3. The city and district of Cracow; constituted a free as one to thirteen. But this class is composed of persons republic; and

of such various degrees of wealth, that the poorer nobles 4. The remainder of ancient Poland, eomprising the are often glad to be employed as stewards by the richer, bulk of what was before the Grand Duchy of Warsaw; and their wives and daughters take occupations as humble made to revert to Russia.

as nurses and ladies' maids. The peasantry are still in a The kingdom was divided into eight Palatinates : viz., state of modified slavery, or villeinage, cultivating the land Masovia, Cracow, Sandomir, Kalisz, Lublin, Plotsk, and for the benefit of their lords, and not being allowed to reAngustowa. The population, according to the last census move from it without giving up their tenements. They of 1829, was, exclusive of the army 4,088,290, which are assigned a certain portion of the produce of the estate; have been thus classed :

the whole live and dead stock upon which belongs to Employed in agriculture (householders, 1,871,259

the landlord, who lends the use thereof to the peasants, Their families and servants

2,221,188 compelling them to take care of, and account for, it. The In manufactures

140,377 peasantry in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw have been no. Their families


minally emancipated; but their condition has hitherto Tradesmen

49,888 Their families


hardly been sensibly ameliorated thereby. Landed Proprietors

4,205 The exports of Poland consist chiefly of corn, cattle, Copyholders.

1,886 timber, and other articles of raw produce; and the imFreeholders in towns


ports are wines, colonial produce, and articles of luxury. Einployed under government

8,414 Patienis in the 592 public hospitals

The manufactures of woollen cloth, linens, carpets, and

5,376 Prisoners in the 76 prisons ,


leather have increased since 1815, and the breweries and

distilleries are on a very extensive scale. Agriculture is; The population of the towns is, to that of the country, as however, by far the largest source of occupation for the one to five. The towns are small and far removed from people ; but suffers, at the present time, from a depression each other, which has been a main cause of retarding the of prices, and has permanently to contend against the progress of civilization, commerce, and manufactures. effects of a six months' winter of frost and snow. There are only thirteen towns in Poland containing up- proximity to the cold regions of Russia, and the exposure wards of 10,000 people each: viz., Warsaw, containing to the sharp north-east winds from Siberia and the polar about 120,000 ; Dantzic

, about 50,000; Wilna, 30,000; regions, render the climate incomparably colder than that Lemberg, 29.000 ; Cracow, 28,000.; Kiev, 20,000; of England, though the situation of Poland is not more Posen, 20,000; Brady, 15,000; Witepsk, 13,000; Lublin, northward. In the summer the heat is very great, tł. 13,000; Mahilev, 12,500; Kalisch, 12,000; Kharkof, forests bstructing the free circulation of air

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POWER OF STEAM.-It is on the rivers, and the boatman A friend called on Michael Angelo, who was finishing a may repose on his oars; it is in highways, and begins to statue. Some time afterwards he called again; the sculptor exert itself along the courses of land-conveyance; it is at was still at his work. His friend, looking at the figure, exthe bottom of mines, a thousand feet below the earth's claimed, You have been idle since I saw you last. By no sursace; it is in the mill, and in the workshops of the trades. means, replied the sculptor, I have retouched this part, It rows, it pumps, it excavates, it carries, it draws, it lifts, and polished that; I have softened this feature, and brought it hammers, it spins, it weaves, it prints. — From Webster's out this muscle; I have given more expression to this lip, Lectures.

and more energy to this limb. Well, well, said his friend, A POPULAR ERROR.-It is not at all an uncommon thing but all these are trifles. It may be so, replied Angelo, for even well-informed people to consider one event the but recollect that trifles make perfection, and that perfection cause of another, because the one has immediately preceded is no trifle. the other in the order of time. A curious instance of this error occurred in the last century. The fish, on which

A POSTSCRIPT TO OUR FIRST READERS. many of the inhabitants of Norway depended for sub- It is said that amongst the Dahomedans the following sistence, suddenly vanished from their coasts; the practice curious custom is observed :--they never destroy any of inoculation for the small-pox had just then been intro- fragment of paper, however small, which chance may duced, and was instantly fixed upon as the cause of the place in their way. For this custom, which may appear calamity; and as the people considered the risk of that in its practice to be ridiculous, a remarkable reason is disorder 'a trifle in comparison with starvation, nothing assigned : _“It is the duty,” say the Mahomedan teach could exceed their righteous indignation against all who ers, of every true Believer to throw away no opportunity undertook to prevent their taking the small-pox.

INSTRUCTION and AMUSEMENT are more blended than the of communicating to his fellow-creatures a knowledge of world in general is apt to imagine. Uninstructive amuse the one God and of his Prophet. The few words which ment may be afforded for a moment by a passing jest or a express the short and comprehensive article of our Faith ludicrous anecdote, by which no knowledge is conveyed to may be written on any the smallest fragment of paper". the mind of the hearer or the reader ; but the man who let not true believers lose this opportunity which Allah would amuse others for an hour, either by his writing or his himself presents to them! neglect not, destroy not that conversation, must tell his hearers or his readers something fragment. Let the word of the Prophet be written upon that they do not know, or suggest to them some new reflexion it, and the winds of Heaven will, under the direction of upon the knowledge they have previously acquired. The more the knowledge bears upon their pursuits, upon their Providence, convey it into the hand of some one whose occupations, or upon their interests, the more attractive it memory needs to be refreshed from the fountain of will be, and the more entitled to be called useful.

Truth, or whose mind's eye hath not seen the light of The Secret of GREAT WORKERS.-M. Dumont, in his

Heaven." Recollections of Mirabeau,' the leading orator of the French

In the desire, and certainly in the power of enlightenRevolution, thus describes the persevering industry of our ing their fellow-creatures, the Christian need fear no illustrious countryman, Sir Samuel Romilly :-"Romilly, comparison with the Mahomedan World; but, in the always tranquil and orderly, has an incessant activity. He mode of accomplishing this object, the custom alluded to never loses i minute: he applies all his mind to what he is affords a lesson for study, and an example for imitation. about. Like the hand of a watch, he never stops, although

By a Society which has undertaken the task of contrihis equal movements in the same way almost escape obser- buting, as far as lies in its power, to the diffusion of usevation." DevotioN OF A GREAT MIND TO ITS DUTIES.-Milton,

ful knowledge, no means should be neglected by which the poet of Paradise Lost, who, during an active life in the instructive amusement can be afforded. Timid (although most troublesome times, was unceasing in the cultivation of well-meaning) persons might perhaps be inclined to cenhis understanding, thus describes his own habits :-“Those sure such a society, should it set the example of applying morning haunts are where they should be, at home; not the powers of the press to the production of a Penny sleeping or concocting the surfeits of an irregular feast, but Periodical Magazine. They might object that the inup and stirring; in winter, often ere the sound of any bell strument which is intended for good might be used for awake men to labour or devotion ; in summer as oft with evil; that publications in form so cheap as to be accessithe bird that first rouses, or not much tardier, to read good ble to the lowest class of readers, would soon fall into the authors, or cause them to be read, till the attention be weary; hands of the lowest class of writers. We doubt this, alor memory have its fuli fraught; then with useful and generous labours preserving the body's health and hardiness, though we know it is the opinion of many excellent perto render lightsome, clear, and not lumpish obedience to sons; we have good and substantial reasons to assign the mind, to the cause of religion and our country's liberty." for our doubts, but into those reasons we shall not now

enter; the time for them is past. The evil (if it be an An era is fast approaching, when no writer will be read evil) is already in being. The demand of the public has by the great majority, save and except those who can effect already called into existence penny periodical publicathat for bales of manuscript, that the hydrostatic screw performs for bales of cotton, by condensing that matter tions, of which eight or ten have established a reguinto a period that before occupied a page.-Colton,

lar sale. It will be cheering intelligence to those who

would have dissuaded from this undertaking, that the Two painters undertook a portrait of Hannibal; one of most noxious of them have been hitherto the least sucthem painted a full likeness of him, and gave him two eyes, cessful. The channel, then, is open. Through its course whereas disease had deprived him of one. The oiher must flow much of the information conveyed to the ininds painted him in profile, but with his blind side from the of a large and increasing class of readers


We are spectators. He severely reprimanded the first, but hand called upon to pour into it

, as far as we are able, clear somely rewarded the second

waters from the pure and healthy springs of knowledge. The petty sovereign of an insignificant tribe in North That duty we will not neglect: in the attempt to fulfil it America every morning stalks out of his hovel, bids the sun we think that we ought not to fail. good morrow, and points out to him with his finger the The success of our undertaking will be the measure of course he is to take for the day.

its utility. When the air-balloon was first discovered, some one flip

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. pantly asked Dr. Franklin what was the use of it? The Shopkeepers and Harckers way be supplied Wholesale by the following doctor answered this question by asking another : "What is the use of a new-born infant ? It may become a man."

London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley
Birmingham, DRAKE.

Edinburgh, OLIver and Bord, The Chinese affect to despise European ingenuity, but I.ceds, Baines and Co.

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. they cannot mend a common watch ; when it is out of order, Liverpool, WILMER and S1111. they say it is dead, and barter it away for a living one.

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWIS, Stamford Street,

Booksellers :,

Manchester, Ronixsox.
Dublin, WAKEMAN.



Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.



[APRIL 7, 1832.

In many


there, was like digging in a quarry of very hard stone. The descent into the places cleared is like the descent into a quarry or mine, and you are always under ground, lighted by torches.

But Pompeii was covered by loose mud, pumice-stone, and ashes, over which, in the course of centuries, there collected vegetable soil. Beneath this shallow soil, the whole is very crumbly and easy to dig, in few spots inore difficult than one of our common gravel-pits. The matter excavated is carried off in carts, and thrown outside of the town; and in times when the labour is carried

on with activity, as cart after cart withdraws with the (Restored View of Pompeli.)

earth that covered them, you see houses entire, except The volume on Pompeii," lately published in the Library of their roofs, which have nearly always fallen in, make Entertaining Knowledge, contains every authentic detail of the their appearance, and, by degrees, a whole street opens destruction of that city by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D.79; to the sun-shine or the shower, just iike the streets of any and the second volume, which will be shortly published, will complete the descripcion of the remains of public and private build

inhabited neighbouring town. It is curious to observe, ings, and of articles of domestic use, which have been discovered as the volcanic matter is removed, that the houses are in the ruins. The following observations on this interesting subject principally built of lava, the more ancient product of the are from an intelligent correspondent, who has had the advantage of same Vesuvius, whose later results-buried and concealed visiting the spot.

Pompeii for so many ages. It is certainly surprising, that this most interesting city should have remained undiscovered until so late a period, and that antiquaries and learned men should have so long and materially erred about its situation. places masses of ruins, portions of the buried theatres, temples, and houses were not two feet below the surface of the soil; the country people were continually digging up pieces of worked marble, and other antique objects; in several spots they had even laid open the outer walls of the town; and yet men did not find out what it was, that peculiar, isolated mound of cinders and ashes, earth and pumice-stone, covered. There is another circumstance which increases the wonder of

Mama w Pompeii remaining so long concealed. A subterranean canal, cut froin the river Sarno, traverses the city, and is seen darkly and silently gliding on under the temple of Isis. This is said to have been cut towards the middle

(Implements of building found at Pompeii.) of the fifteenth century, to supply the contiguous town of In the autumn of 1822 I saw Pompeii under very the Torre dell'Annunziata with fresh water; it probably interesting circumstances. It was a few days after an ran anciently in the same channel. But, cutting it, or eruption of Vesuvius which I had witnessed, and which clearing it, workmen must have crossed under Pompeii was considered by far the grandest eruption of recent from one side to the other.

tinies. i From Portici, our road was coated with lapillan As you walk round the walls of the city, and see how or pumice-stone, and a fine, impalpable powder, of a the volcanic matter is piled upon it in one heap, it looks palish grey hue, that had been discharged from the as though the hand of man had purposely buried it, by mountain, round whose base we were winding. In many carrying and throwing over it the volcanic matter. This places this coating was more than a foot deep, but it was matter does not spread in any direction beyond the pretty equally spread, not accumulating in any particular town, over the fine plain which gently declines towards spot. As we drove into Pompeii our carriage wheels the bay of Naples. The volcanic eruption was so con- crushed this matter, which contained the principal comfined in its course or its fall, as to bury Pompeii, and ponents of what had buried the city: it was lodged on only Pompeii: for the shower of ashes and pumice-stone the edges of the houses' walls, and on their roofs, (where which descended in the immediate neighbourhood cer- the Neapolitan government had furnished them with any); lainly made but a slight difference in the elevation of the it lay inches thick on the tops of the pillars and truncated plain.

columns of the ancient temples ; it covered all the floors Where a town has been buried by lava, like Hercu- of the houses that had no roofs, and concealed the laneum, the process is easily traced. You can follow the mosaics. In the amphitheatre, where we sat down to reblack, hardened lava from the cone of the mountain to fresh ourselves, we were obliged to make the guides the

sea, whose waters it invaded for “many a rood,” and clear it away with shovels-it was every where. Looking those who have seen the lava in its liquid state, when it from the upper walls of the amphitheatre, we saw tho flows on like a river of molten iron, can conceive at once whole country covered with it-trees and all were coated how it would bury every thing it found in its way with the pale-grey plaster, vor did it disappear for many There is often a confusion of ideas, among those who months after. have not had the advantages of visiting these interesting Some ignorant fellows at Naples pretended the fine places, as to the matter which covers Pompeii and ashes, or powder, contained gold ! Neapolitans began Herculaneum : they fancy they were both buried by to collect it. They found no gold, but it turned out to lava. Herculaneum was so, and the work of excavating be an excellent thing for cleaning and polishing p):*



Vol. 1

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