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* FRAGMENTS OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. where, and advocates with great warmth. The comfort, By CAPTAIN BASIL HALL, R. N.

and general well-being of the sailor seem continuaky To a nation like England, whose greatness and present to his mind; and he is right, when he maintains, prosperity depend so immediately on navigation and that it is only by attention to these, and by instilling

intercourse with foreign lands, books of voyages and respect and confidence (we might almost say affection; travels will always be particularly interesting. The into his crew, that the commander, let him be bold and people of other countries, distant from the sea, or cut skilful as he may, can hope for a career of success and off from foreign commerce, may peruse them from mo- glory, or even for the maintenance of discipline on tives of mere curiosity; but to ourselves and other board his ship. The naval service, as far as the sailor maritime people, they offer information essential to our is concerned, has been very materially improved within pursuits, and are of real and most important use as these last fifteen years. The power of tyrannising, so instructors and guides. Of late years our supply of hardly separated from absolute command, has been resuch works has been plentiful; and there has been, duced almost to nothing; yet the most admirable moreover, a considerable improvement both in their discipline has been maintained. Indeed it would be manner and matter. The silly stories of idle and cre- difficult to find a more perfect picture of order and cleandulous travellers, the prejudiced remarks of such as liness, general comfort, and cheerfulness, than that hurried through a country as fast as post-horses could which a British man-of-war now presents. This imcarry them, and the vapid diaries of tourists whose ideas provement has been mainly owing to intelligent and hu. were absorbed by dinners and beds, courts and operas, mane officers; and as it is matter of the highest imporhave given place to the more correct and substantial tance that the system now adopted should be persisted accounts of men of science, patience, and industry, who in, and gradually made even better than it is, we thank had eyes and understandings to see and to judge for Captain Hall for what he has done, and we shall repeat themselves, and a proper sense of what was worth re- our thanks to all like him, who will from time to time lating, and what ought to be passed over in silence. keep the subject alive.

The officers both of our army and navy having, in We can readily conceive the pleasure with which our the course of the general progress of intellectual im- honest tars will peruse and listen to these volumes : not provement, acquired a taste for letters, have very ma- a mess“ on board of his Majesty's ships, or a single terially contributed to our stock of information, and vessel in the merchant's service, but ought to club and afforded many details which professional men only could get a copy of them." give. Among these gentlemen Captain Basil Hall oc- There will be found in the pages of this “sea' cupies a very distinguished post, and he ranks deservedly moralist”—(Captain B. Hall has invented the phrase, as one of our best and most entertaining writers of and is worthy of having it applied to himself)-not voyages and travels.

only practical information, but amusing speculations of His work, however, at present under our notice various kinds, and a good, cheerful, every-day philois rather the · Sketch-Book of a sailor's life at sea sophy, suited “ to all hands on board,” and, we inay - a sort of · Manual for young Mariners'— than a add, to all classes on shore. Indeed, the whole tenor book of voyages and travels; though it is enriched of the work is calculated to chase away despondency with many lively descriptions, and much valuable in- and ill-humour, to make men contented with their situformation regarding different lands where he has been, ations and with themselves, and to keep up a lively and and where many an English seaman is likely to be a determined spirit for the enjoyment of existence, and again. The whole is given with infinite spirit, and with the discharge of duty; or, in his own words, – so much brevity, that it is surprising how much can be “To impart to others similarly circumstanced, a portion of that learned from it in a few minutes. The work consists spirit of cheerfulness, and determination to make the most of things, of two series of three volumes each ; the size of the which, after thirty years of activity and enjoyment in foreign climes, volumes is conveniently small, and so is their price,

have landed me in perfect conteniment at home."-Vol. i. p. 30. being only five shillings each volume. We can most cheerful, buoyant spirit:

We select another delightful specimen of the same conscientiously, and we do most warmly, recommend this work to our readers.

"Oh the joy! the relief unspeakable! of feeling one's self fairly

under weigh, and of seeing the white cliffs of old England sink fast We fancy indeed that tuere are few of the countrymen in the north-eastern horizon right to windward ! Let the concocters of

of romances, and other imaginary tales, say what they please of the -"Nelson, Howe, and Cook, and Jervis,"

joys of returning home; give me the happiness of a good departure, but will contrive to get at least a peep of this work. For, of debt and out of love, or only moderately involved in either of these

and a boundless world of untried enjoyments a-head! If a man be out putting aside those active spirits, among our youths, who delicate predicaments ; if he have youth and health and tolerable prosmay be engaged in the naval service on board of men-of- pects, a good ship under his foot, a good officer above him, and good war, or in merchant vessels, or such as are anxious to enter those he leaves behind? Or rather, why need he grieve to part from

messmates to serve with, why need he wear and tear his feelings about that line of life, and to obtain an insight into it, how those who are better pleased to see him vigorously duing his duty many have a near relative or dear friend, embarked on than idling in other peopic's way'at home? Or wherefore should be the world of waters?—who is there but is interested in sigh to leave those enjoyments in which he cannot honourably particiknowing “how sailors live at sea,” and their duties and patt till he has earned his title to them by hardy service ?"_Vol. i. relaxations, their discipline, their habits, and modes of obtaining comfort in their calling, and an honourable dis

We must conclude our notice of Captain Basil Hall's tinction amidst their hardships and dangers ? Now

new series with two or three axioins in the same in these handy little' volumes all this and more

temper :-is given by one who is not only a sailor himself, charge his duties ; and I believe that few who do what they can to

" No one can be permanently cheerful who does not otherwise disbut a very distinguished member of the profession. discharge all their duties will fail to be cheerful.—Vol. ii. p. 286. He regards his vocation with enthusiasm, indeed, but “True checrsulness is suitable for every day and every hour, for without prejudice ; and he, moreover, possesses lite company or for solitude, for labour or for relaxation, for sickness or rary talents of a high degree that enable him to con

for health. It possesses also the important and distinguished charac

teristic of being so admirably adapted to all occupations and to ail vey his information in a clear, forcible, and most amus- times, that the transition from the gayest to the gravest occupations of ing manner. To the young' midshipman, to the man life may be made by the happy man who enjoys it, not only without before the mast—to all classes and ranks in the service, aty abrupt shock, but with eminent advantage to his different occufrom the highest to the lowest,—these sketches must be pations." --- Vol. ii. p. 290. useful; and we cannot but approve of the generous, I thing; and by honourable means and manly exertions there are few

“There is a consolation, if not a complete remedy, for almost every. humane sentiments, which Captain Hall introduces every difficulties which may not be surmounted !"—Vol. ii. p 211

p. 123.

Distance from the Sun.

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TRANSIT OF MERCURY.

tude in either case; and those who live to the west of We intend occasionally to notice remarkable astronomi- London must deduct at the same rate. cal events, and to accompany our notices with such The phenomenon of the passage of a planet over explanations as will, we trust, prove interesting and the sun's disc was quite unattended to before the useful to our readers, and be the means in time of con- invention of the telescope by Galileo, in the beginveying much information on the science of astronomy. ning of the seventeenth century. Even three iransits That we may be the more readily understood by those of Mercury, which happened in 1615, 1618, and who have not had opportunities of attending to this 1628, all subsequently to the invention of that instru. subject, we shall avoid the use of technical terms, and ment, were allowed to pass unheeded, although that shall omit to notice many nice distinctions, which, how- of 1618 might have been seen from various places in ever important to the accomplished astronomer, form no Europe. But in 1629 the great Kepler awakened the essential part of a general knowledge of the science. attention of astronomers to the subject, by announcing

On Saturday next the 5th of May, if the sun be in a paper, which he published at Leipsic, that there examined through a darkened glass about nine in the would be a transit of Mercury in 1631, one of Venus morning, a dark spot will appear on one side of the the same year, and another of Venus in 1761. Kepler sun's face, which, if watched, will be found gradually to died in November, 1630, and had not therefore the sapass across, and finally to disappear on the opposite side tisfaction of seeing any of the particulars of his predicabout nine minutes before four. This appearance, tion fulfilled ; but the transit of Mercury was in fact which is of very rare occurrence, is called a transit (or seen at Paris by the celebrated Garsendi, on the 6th of crossing) of Mercury.

December, 1631. This was the first observation of a Mercury is one of the primary planets, by which term transit. The transit of Venus, which Kepler had calis meant a number of bodies similar to the earth, which culated would take place this year, was not seen ; but move in circular orbits round the sun. The following another transit of that planet, which he had not foretold, are the principal primary planets with the distances of was observed on the 4th of December, 1639, at Pool, each from the sun, and the length of the year of each, near Liverpool, by Jeremiah Horrox, an English astroor the time which each occupies in making a complete nomer, then only in the twentieth year of his age, but revolution.

who had already acquired a distinguished reputation, and

Length of year. Mercury 37 millions of miles. About 88 of our days.

given promise of the most brilliant success in the high walk Venus

225 ditto

of science upon which he had entered. Horrox, whose The Earth

365) ditto knowledge of astronomy was self-acquired, lived only Mars 144 ditto

687 ditto

so long as to finish his treatise, entitled · Venus in Sole Jupiter 490 ditto

12 of our years. Visa,' (Venus seen in the sun,) being an account of the Saturn 900 ditto

30 ditto The Georgian planet} 1800 ditto

phenomenon which he had observed, accompanied with 84 ditto

many original and ingenious deductions. He died on As Mercury and Venus are nearer to the sun than the 3rd of January, 1640, only a few days after he had our own planet, it follows that they must sometimes pass completed this work. But the first person who thobetween us and the sun. On Saturday next Mercury roughly investigated the theory of these transits, and will pass exactly between the earth and the sun—the pointed out the full importance of the results to be oblittle dark spot of which we have spoken is therefore tained from the observation of them, was the great Mercury. At this time Mercury is of course nearer to English Astronomer, Halley, so celebrated for many the earth than the sun is by its own distance from the other services of the highest value to the science which sun, namely, thirty-seven millions of miles. Still, owing he cultivated. He showed that the transit of Venus, if to its smallness when compared with the sun (the dia- observed under certain circumstances, would afford the meter of Mercury being little more than three thousand, means of determining with accuracy what all the efforts while that of the sun is nearly nine hundred thousand, of astronomers had hitherto failed to ascertain, the dismiles) it will appear to be an exceedingly minute spot tance of the earth from the sun. Halley died at a on the sun's face, perhaps invisible to all but the best great age in 1742, after having confirmed Kepler's eyes, unless assisted by a telescope.

announcement that the next transit of Venus would take As Mercury moves round the sun four times in one of place in the beginning of June, 1761, and also calculated our years, it might perhaps be expected that transits of the dates of a succession of subsequent phenomena of this planet should be of very frequent occurrence: such the same kind. Our countryman, Dr. Maskelyne, was however is not the case. The last transit of Mercury sent in 1761, at the expense of Government, to St. Hevisible in this country, was on the 9th of November, lena, to observe the appearance which had been thus so 1802; the next will be on the 8th of May, 1845. There long foretold; but the clouds which covered the sky on was a transit in 1815, and another in 1822 ; but, as the important day prevented the transit from being seen these took place in our night, they were of course invi- on that station. It was, however, observed by able sible in this country. A transit in the year 1835 will astronomers in various other places, of which some were not be seen here for the same reason. We shall endea- sufficiently distant from each other (for that was essenvour in a future number to explain why a transit is not tial) to afford the requisite data or materials for the seen every revolution, and shall at the same time enter deduction as to the sun's distance suggested by Halley. more fully on some other of the scientific parts of the The next instance of the occurrence of this rare phenosubject. At present we shall confine ourselves to a few menon was in the beginning of June, 1769; and on this practical directions for observing the transit.

occasion also the English Government, with honourable To protect the eye from the light of the sun a liberality, lent its powerful aid to forward the interests of darkened glass should be used. Small telescopes, which science, by sending an expedition to the South Seas, will be very useful on this occasion, are seldom furnished principally for the purpose of obtaining an observation with such glasses, but they may readily be made by of the transit in that distant quarter. This was the first holding a piece of window-glass in the flame of a candle of the three expeditions conducted by the celebrated till it is smoked. The exact time at which the transit Captain Cook; by whom, and the scientific gentlemen will commence, as seen from Greenwich, is thirty-two who accompanied him, the transit was very favourably seconds before nine o'clock; the exact time at which it observed on the 3rd of June at the island of Otaheite. will terminate is fifty-one minutes and one second These three are the only transits of Venus that have yet after three. Those who live to the east of Greenwich been observed. The next will occur in 1874 and 1882. must add about four minutes for each degree of longi- The transits of Mercury are much more common, hap

pening generally to the number of fourteen or fifteen in | however, is made on the supposition that Government a century. In the present century the phenomenon has would also, as has been done in Holland, allow the coalready occurred in the years 1802, 1815, and 1822; lonists exemption, where practicable, from taxes direct and besides that which will take place on the 5th of and indirect on the articles consumed by them, together May, there will be other transits of Mercury in 1835 with freedom from tithes. If the plan were thus set on and 1845, as already stated ; and in 1848, 1861, 1868, foot, we are entitled, it is argued, looking merely to 1878, 1881, 1891, and 1894.

financial results, to expect that the colonists after a few HOME COLONIES.-SKETCH OF A PLAN FOR years would be able both to pay a high rate of interest on

THE GRADUAL EXTINCTION OF PAUPERISM the capital advanced, and also to contribute every year AND THE DIMINUTION OF CRIME. By Row something considerable for its repayment. A fair rent,

LAND HILL. 8vo. London, 1832. Pp. 52. Price 18.6d. it is maintained, would also be obtained for the land, alMost of our readers have probably heard of the Home though it might be such as is at present quite uncultiColonies, as they have been called, of Holland and vated and useless, but to the full as capable of improveBelgium, or the agricultural settlements which have ment as that upon which the Dutch settlements have been formed in those countries within the last few been formed. Of this description of land there are not years for the employment and maintenance of a certain less than fifteen millions of acres in the British Isles, and number of the pauper population who had previously nearly three millions and a half in England alone, partly been supported wholly by charity and in idleness. The the property of the crown. establishments in question contain at present about ten

It is well remarked by the author, in reference to the thousand individuals. “These people," says the writer effect that would be produced by even the partial introbefore us,

were placed on waste soils, which they duction of his plan, that “the number of paupers that have brought into a state of considerable fertility. They may in a short time be withdrawn from the different are occupied chiefly in cultivating the land, but partly parishes for the home colonies, will by no means represent in manufactures ; they supply nearly all their own

the extent to which pauperism will be reduced.” Perhaps wants, and have a considerable surplus for sale. The political economists have not usually stated so strongly capital advanced for their complete establishment was

as they might have done the immense effect that may be on an average about 21l. per individual; and the co

produced on the rate of wages, or in other words on the lonists have hitherto paid annually an interest of 5% per comfort of the labouring classes, by the very smallest on as I

excess in their numbers. Suppose that in a certain dually extinguish the whole debt; besides this, many parish the quantity of employment that can be given paupers have saved sufficient capital of their own to be bears such a proportion to the number of the labourers able to leave the colony, and establish themselves in that each of them receives for his wages two shillings independence and comfort*.

and sixpence a day, the arrival of even a single new The object of the present publication is to urge our hand might operate a reduction of wages over the whole government to make an experiment upon a compara- parish; for rather than want employment altogether, this tively small scale, with the view of ascertaining the prac- supernumerary will be willing to work for something less ticability and desirableness of introducing into this than what the others receive: he will offer his labour, country the plan for the diminution and eventual ex

we shall say, at two shillings a day. This will be at tinction of pauperism which has thus been tried in the once temptation enough for some one to employ him, Netherlands. The writer, whose pamphlet is pervaded and in order to make room for him, to dismiss another by a benevolent spirit, supports his views with ability, man to whom he has been paying the higher rate of and at the saine time with a calmness of temper becom- wages. But the evil will not thus be removed. The ing the discussion of such a subject.

person who has been dismissed finds himself now exactly It is not, however, a mere imitation or repetition of in the same situation in which the new-comer was. He what has been done in the Netherlands which Mr. Hill is now a supernumerary. In order therefore to obtain proposes should be attempted here. He conceives that employment and bread, he must just do as the other did; in transplanting hither the system of our neighbours, we

he must offer to work for a reduced rate of wages. His might both add in an important degree to its efficiency of the high-paid men is displaced, who again resorts to

offer is of course accepted, and in consequence another and give it altogether a higher aim. mental colony,” he says, “great advantage might be a similar method of recovering employment for himself taken of the experience gained in the Netherlands; at the expense of somebody else; and thus the process considerable improvements, particularly as regard mo- goes on till in the end all the labourers in the parish have tives to good conduct, might, it is thought, be intro- been forced to consent to work for two shillings a day. duced. Superior economy might be adopted in the Practically, indeed, the matter would be still more expéconstruction and arrangement of the buildings, and in ditiously managed ; for on the first announcement by the preparation of food ; and the whole body, adults one of the masters to his men, that in consequence of the as well as children, might be usefully educated.” The offer of the new-comer he meant to dismiss whoever of last-mentioned suggestion is by far the most important them would not accept of the reduced rate, the uselessof the innovations which the author would make upon ness of attempting to stand out would be universally the original scheme; and as such it is treated by him perceived, and two shillings a day would at once become throughout his remarks.

the rate of wages throughout the parish. But the He proposes that the experiment should be instituted depreciation might not end even here." After the reducin the first instance upon such a scale as to comprehend tion in question had been made, the one supernumerary about eighty families, or about five hundred and fifty labourer would still remain as at first ; and by offering individuals; a number which, he calculates, if God again to work for something less than the current rate of vernment would afford the requisite quantity of land, say wages, might operate a second general reduction. And six hundred acres, from the crown lands, might be lo- thus things would proceed, until the competition among cated, provided with cottages and furniture, implements the labourers, and the consequent declension of their of husbandry, mechanical implements, seeds to com- wages, were put a stop to together, either by the diminu. menee with, provisions for one year, a cow, a pig, poul- tion in the cost of production, which the latter circumtry, &c. for each, for the sum of 10,0001. This estimate, stance had occasioned, enabling the master to employ • It has been statel to us upon good authority, that the Pauper Cor down to so low a point as just to sustain existence.

more hands, or by the gains of the men being ground lonies of Holland have not been so successful, in a pecuniary point of view, as had beeu adticipated ; and that in point of fact they are not Now if so great an effect in one direction may be likely to repay the capital advanced upon them,

produced by so small an excess in the number of the labourers, it is evident that a very small diminution of | MONTHLY NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. their number might produce an equally great effect in the The number of communications that have been addressed opposite direction. If there were employment even for to the Editor of the Penny Magazine" is so considerable, only one man more than could be got to hire, the rate that a portion of the writers must not think themselves neg. of wages would be inevitably forced up to the point at lected, if no public notice is taken of their suggestions, which either the profits of the masters would no longer and if their contributions are not inserted. It is by no enable them to give the same quantity of employment; courage correspondents; on the contrary, they feel grateful

means the wish of the conductors of this little work to disor the increased temptation would attract an additional for every hint and every offer of assistance. But it is evisupply of labour to the market. We can here of course dent that on account of the very limited space which these only indicate the tendency of the principle in this general columns afford, many articles, not unfitted for publication, way, and cannot attempt to examine how far its ac- must be omitted for want of room alone; and it is also tual operation is modified by the poor laws and the manifest that it would not be doing justice to thousands of other institutions which prevail in an artificial and com- readers to enter into explanations with regard to all contriplicated state of society. But what we have said is butions, because in most instances such explanations could enough to place in a strong light the extent of the effect only be interesting to the individual correspondent. Nor

can the conductors undertake to return the articles which that would be produced by the removal, either in the way are sent to them, except in very particular cases. All that which our author proposes, or in any other mode, such as they can generally engage to do is, to examine every comemigration, of even a very small number of individuals munication with candour and attention; and from this from any of our overcrowded departments of industry. anxiety to render justice to their correspondents, it will

Mr. HiH does not notice the objection against the often result that the object of a writer will be effectually employment of the poor in the cultivation and im- attained, although no direct acknowledgment of the obligaprovement of inferior soils, drawn from the considera- tion may take up that space which could ill be spared for tion, that it must necessarily be unprofitable to bestow

personal civilities. labour upon ground of a worse quality than the worst

The story of The Firemen's Dog' shall be inquired into. which is at present in cultivation ; and of such a descrip- The writer who speaks so contemptuously of the people tion must be that upon which the paupers are to be and government of the United States, must be informed located, else, it is lent, they would only, wherever they that it is no part of our object to foster national prejudices; were settled, displace an equal number of other cultiva- but that we hope to do something towards correcting errotors. This is indeed an objection which bears with equal and therefore the general prosperity, of all mankind.

neous opinions, so as to promote the peaceful intercourse, force against every other scheme as well as the present for employing the poor in the cultivation of such of our lands Mr. William Lymington, was the inventor of the steam

We cannot enter into a controversy whether Fulton, or at home as have not yet been brought under the plough. boat. What has been said of Arkwright may apply It is, in fact, just the consideration which is conceived to to Fulton :-"The several inventions which his patent emdecide the question between liome colonization and emi- braced, whether they were his own or not, would probably, gration ; although we believe Mr. Hill does not advert to but for him, have perished with their authors; none of it even in the remarks which he makes towards the con- whom, except himself, had the determination and courage clusion of his famphlet upon the comparative advantages

to face the multiplied fatigues and dangers that lay in the of these two methods of disposing of our superabundant way of achieving a practical exemplification of what they

had conceived in their minds." population. It may certainly, however, be maintained

P. S. on High Duties will appear. that this objection does not hold as applied to the parti- The gentleman who complains that six or seven articles in cular case of paupers. The portion of our population, the Penny Magazine of Saturday, April 6, had previously whom it is here proposed to employ in the cultivation of appeared in the New Entertaining Press' of Wednesour waste lands, are persons who are at present supported day, April 3, and who suspects, therefore, that the Society in absolute idleness, who do no work whatever, and are

for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge was in this way sinply a burden upon the national resources. In other compelled to find matter for popular instruction, is informed words, on the one side of us is the useless land, on the that the greater number of these articles were written ex other are the equally unproductive paupers. It appears days before the day of publication, that the great demand for

pressly for this Magazine—that they were sent to press ten therefore reasonable to conclude, that a sure gain, of our little work might be supplied—and that some person some amount, however small, would be obtained by connected with the New Entertaining Press' by accibringing these two separated masses together, by setting dent obtained the number in question, and thus frauduthe paupers to plough and sow the land, instead of lently appropriated a portion of its contents. This conduct keeping them standing by its side merely to look upon

has not been repeated. it. 'Take the most unfavourable supposition; let it be bronze horse at Charing-Cross has a girth. It is stated in

It is affirmed, by half a dozen correspondents, that the allowed that they will neither be able to pay any rent, all the histories of London that the same horse has not a nor even to raise more food than will suffice for half their girth; and it is added, by some, that the sculptor hanged maintenance; still to that amount the other classes of himself on account of the omission. The article in our society are relieved from the burden of supporting them. Magazine was written by a person of very competent antiWe do not disincumber ourselves of the whole load of quarian knowledge, and we therefore relied upon his authoour pauperism ; but we lighten it hy one half. It is the rity: We now believe, however, that the horse has two same thing as when a parent embraces the opportunity, girths, although they are so faintly marked as to be recogwhen his children have arrived at a certain age, of reliev- nized with difficulty by the eye from below. ing himself, if not of the whole cost of maintaining them, accompanying the note of W. R., we shall be glad again

to

Without pledging ourselves to insert the contribution at least of part of it, by setting them to employments at hear from him, as we respect his motives, and would gladly which they may earn some wages, however small. He assist his plan to a limited extent. He must see that, from does not think that he derives no benefit at all from what our narrow space, our extracts even from the very best they earn, although their gains may not suffice for their standard works must be necessarily few. entire support ; and so with regard to the employment

LONDON:--CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. of our paupers on our waste lands. Let each individual

Shopkeepers and Haukers may be supplied Wholesale by the following so employed make but a penny or a farthing a day, and still it is evident that the result would be so far more London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Manchester, ROBINSON, and WEBB and profitable than that of the present system.

Birmingham, DRAKE

Newcastlo-upon-Tyne, CHARNLEY. Upon the whole we recommend the present pamphlet Bristol, Westley and Co., Nottingham, WRIGHT. to the study of all who take an interest in the important | Leeds, Baines and Co.

Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd. subject of which it treats. The views of the author will Liverpool, Willmer and Smith. Glasgow, ATKINSON ard Co. be found to be in many respects both novel and valuable.

Printed by WILLIAN CLowes, Stamford-Street,

Booksellers :

Paternoster-Row.

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 6.] PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

[May 5, 1832. and it was not until the year 1554 that coffee was publicly sold at Constantinople.

Soon after its introduction into the capital of Turkey, the ministers of religion having made it the subject of solemn complaint that the mosques were deserted while the coffee-houses were crowded, these latter were shut by order of the Mufti, who employed the police of the city to prevent any one from drinking coffee. This prohibition it was found impossible to establish, so that the government laid a tax upon the sale of the beverage, which produced a considerable revenue.

The consumption of coffee is exceedingly great in Turkey, and this fact may be in a great measure accounted for by the strict prohibition which the Moslem religion lays against the use of wine and spirituous liquors. So necessary was coffee at one time considered among the people, that the refusal to supply it in reasonable quantity to a wife, was reckoned among the legal causes for a divorce.

Much uncertainty prevails with respect to the first in troduction of coffee into use in the western parts o. Europe. The Venetians, who traded much with the

Levant, were probably the first to adopt its use. A let. (Coffee, with the Flower and Berry.j

ter, written in 1615 from Constantinople, by Peter de la COFFEE.

Valle, a Venetian, acquaints his correspondent with the Corpee is the seed contained in a berry, the produce writer's intention of bringing home to Italy some coffee, of a moderate-sized tree called the Coffea Arabica, which he speaks of as an article unknown in his own and which has also been named Jasminum Arabicum. country. Thirty years after this, some gentlemen returnThis tree grows erect, with a single stem, to the height ing from Constantinople to Marseilles brought withi of from eight to twelve feet, and has long, undivided, them a supply of this luxury, together with the vessels slender branches, bending downwards: these are fur required for its preparation ; but it was not until 1671 nished with evergreen leaves, not unlike those of the that the first house was opened in that city for the sale bay-tree. The blossoms are white, sitting on short foot of the prepared beverage. stalks, and resembling the flower of the jasmine. The Coffee-houses date their origin in London from an fruit which succeeds is a red berry, resembling a cherry, earlier period. The first was opened in George Yard, and having a pale, insipid, and somewhat glutinous Lombard Street, by one Pasqua, a Greek, who was pulp, inclosing two hard oval seeds, each about the size brought over in 1652 by a Turkey merchant named of an ordinary pea. One side of the seed is convex, Edwards. while the other is flat, and has a little straight furrow The first mention of coffee that occurs in our statute inscribed through its longest dimension; while growing, books, is found in the act 12th Car. ii. cap. 24, (in the the flat sides of the seed are towards each other. These year 1660,) by which a duty of fourpence per gallon, to seeds are immediately covered by a cartilaginous mem- be paid by the maker, was imposed upon all coffee made brane which has received the name of the parchment. and sold: three years after this, coffee-houses were

Botanists have enumerated several varieties of this directed to be licensed by the magistrates at quartertree as existing in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. sessions. These varieties result from accidents of soil and climate, Coffee cannot be cultivated to advantage in climates and must have been produced subsequently to the natu- where the temperature at any time descends below ralizing of the plant in America, since it is pretty cer- 55 degrees of Fahrenheit's scale. The trees flourish tainly shown, that all the coffee-trees cultivated there are most in new soils on a gentle slope, where water will the progeny of one plant, which so recently as the year not lodge about the roots. In exposed situations it is 1714 was presented by the magistrates of Amsterdam to necessary to moderate the scorching heat of the sun by Louis XIV., King of France. This plant was placed planting rows of umbrageous trees at certain intervals at Marly under the care of the celebrated Mons. de throughout the field. Jussieu, and it was not until some years after this that The trees begin bearing when they are two years old; plants were conveyed to Surinam, Cayenne, and Marti. in their third year they are in full bearing. The aspect nico. The cultivation must have afterwards spread of a coffee plantation during the period of flowering, pretty rapidly through the islands, since in the year 1732 which does not last longer than one or two days, is very the production of coffee was considered to be of sufficient interesting. In one night the blossoms expand themconsequence in Jamaica to call for an act of the legisla-selves so profusely as to present the same appearance ture in its favour.

which has sometimes been witnessed in England when The use of coffee as an alimentary infusion was known a casual snow-storm at the close of autumn has loaded in Arabia, long before the period just mentioned. All the trees while still furnished with their full complement authorities agree in ascribing its introduction to Megal- of foliage. The seeds are known to be ripe when the leddin, Mufti of Aden, in Arabia Felix, who had become berries assume a dark red colour, and if not then gathered acquainted with it in Persia, and had recourse to it will drop from the trees. The planters in Arabia do not medicinally when he returned to his own country. The pluck the fruit, but place cloths for its reception beneath progress which it made was by no means rapid at first, the trees, which they shake, and the ripened berries drop VOL. I

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