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he suffered the laurel to escape from his grasp, which crew in safety; and we know by numerous narratives has deservedly crowned the better fortunes of Sir Edward that even the most dreary climes afford the means of Parry, yet his resumption of the scheme on his private preserving life for several years. The interesting narresources, when it had been laid aside by government, rative of the loss of the Albany and Discovery on Marble indicates a feeling which must engage the sympathy of Island, originally told by Hearne, and more recently by all who are capable of appreciating the courage and Mr. Barrow in his History of Arctic Voyages, has been high sense of honour which, it is to be hoped, will long lately so fully laid before the public that I need merely continue to characterize British seamen.
allude to it. For the same reason I shall but just menThe progress of science enables us to overcome diffi- tion the four Russian seamen who being unexpectedly culties which could not be surmounted in a preceding left on Spitzbergen, with only twelve charges of ammuage; and we ought therefore to hesitate in declaring any nition, managed to maintain themselves there for six scheme impracticable until all the means in our power years and three months. From these and similar narhave been tried. We have no reason to conclude from ratives, we are warranted in supposing, that though the reports of arctic voyagers that the sea is permanently Captain Ross's vessel may be lost or disabled, he and frozen beyond the 83d parallel
. The prevalence of par- his crew may be still in existence. If the Victory has ticular winds may no doubt impact drift ice in narrow been forced ashore like the Fury by the pressure of the straits, which may be thus closed up for several seasons ; ice, the crew would naturally remain by her as long as but the great obstacles to the navigation of the arctic the provision and stores lasted ; and we may even picseas are the fields of ice, in which, when a sailing vessel ture the survivers, like those of the Albany~" daily is enclosed, she is becalmed and powerless; and unless ascending a rock during the summer- looking earnestly extricated by a concurrence of favourable circumstances to the east and south in expectation of relief, and when may drift along a whole summer at the mercy of the nothing appeared, sitting down close together and currents, as has not unfrequently been experienced by weeping bitterly.” “It is impossible," says Mr. Barrow, whalers. Sir Edward Parry on his first voyage, with on a similar occasion, in the work alluded to, " to the determination of conscious talent, “ took the ice,” as contemplate their forlorn situation without the deepest it is technically termed, and, boldly sawing his way emotion for the unhappy fate of so many wretched beings through the field which annually obstructs the traverse cut off from all human aid, and almost from all hope of of Baffin's Bay, found a free passage into Barrow's being able to leave their dark and dismal abode.” Straits. The power of steam is eminently calculated to It formed part of Captain Ross's plan to visit the do what Sir Edward performed by manual labour. Im- wreck of the Fury in the first instance, that he might mense masses of ice, floating in a medium differing only supply himself with coals and such provisions and stores about one-tenth part of density from themselves, may as were available ; and to return and winter beside it, if be moved by a very small force, where such a fulcrum in the course of the summer he was unable to penetrate as the paddle of a steam-vessel can be procured. Im- to the westward. It is, therefore, in Regent's Inlet, that pressed with similar notions, most likely founded on the search for him is most likely to be successful; and more extensive information than I possess, Captain Ross an expedition which shall reach the wreck of the Fury, embarked his fortunes and fame in his steam-vessel. by ascertaining whether he has been there or not (and he Circumstances which he could not control deprived him could scarcely fail to leave some memorial of his intenof part of his equipment; and he sailed from England tions), will be directed as to the ulterior steps it may be without the tender he had engaged to accompany him. necessary to take. In crossing the Atlantic the Victory was dismasted by a By a reference to the map, then, it will be seen that storm ; but the damage being repaired from the wreck of Regent's Inlet trends towards a portion of the main coast a whaler, she wintered on the west coast of Greenland, lying between the 90th and 100th meridian ; and, in all and by the last accounts was seen, in the summer of 1830, probability, it fortunately happens that the Thloo-ee-choh, standing across Baffin's Bay. Her crew were then in or Great Fish River, must fall into the Arctic Sea within excellent health and high spirits; and the Victory, in her the same limits; being, from the unanimous report of Captain's estimation, was in better trim than when she the Indians, not only a larger stream than the Copperleft the port of London. Captain Ross fixed the autumn mine, and more navigable for boats, but flowing through of the present year as the period of his return, his pro- a better wooded country, frequented by vast herds of visions being calculated to last so long. That period is deer. It is in fact to its banks that the Indians of Slave now past; and as he would not venture to prolong his Lake resort for their principal supplies of provisions ; stay another summer, through dependence upon casual and Hearne, who crossed it near its source, says, “We supplies, there is but too much reason to fear that his were here joined by upwards of two hundred Indians vessel has proved unequal to the pressure she has had from different quarters ;” and “the deer were so plentiful to sustain. But although the steam-ship may have that our party killed great numbers merely for their fat, foundered, we are not thence to conclude that the crew marrow, and tongues.” He also mentions that numerous likewise perished. A ship is seldom, in these high lati-lakes in the neighbourhood abound with fish. The tudes, crushed so suddenly as to afford no time to launch access to its banks from Great Slave Lake is likewise the boats, with a supply of arms and provisions on the easy by a chain of lakes and portages, so that it affords, ice; and we learn, accordingly, that though several on every account, excellent situations for a winter resiwhalers are annually lost the crews are generally saved. dence, whence, during the summer, the sea-coast may Captain Ross had many resources in the event of such explored in every direction. From the general agreean accident. He was provided with boats peculiarly ment of the maps drawn by the Indians, with one long light and manageable, being those used by Sir John ago obtained from the Esquimaux who visit Fort Franklin in his last expedition ; his crew were practised Churchill, we may further conclude that the Great Fish in the navigation of an icy sea ; and his nephew, Com- River falls into an extensive bay, whose west side is mander James Ross, must be known to many members bounded by a promontory running far to the north and of the Geographical Society, as an officer of the greatest separating this recess from Coronation Gulf and its east promise, the companion of Parry on all his expeditions, side by Melville peninsula.
The Indians also describe and his second in command on the last and the most three islands as lying off the mouth of the river, and its adventurous one that has been recorded in the annals Indian name impiies that its estuary is frequented by of naval enterprise. So seconded, it is not likely that whales. As both the Indians and Fort Churchill EsquiCaptain Ross supinely yielded to despair on the destruc- maux cross these peninsulæ in journeying from bay to tion of his vessel, without using every effort to place his bay, their extent northwards is unknown to them, but it
is possible, and even not very improbable, that the western state that i: is intended that it shall consist of two offipeninsula may be either continuous with North Somerset cers and eighteen men ; part of them, including two on which the Fury was wrecked, or at least separated good boat carpenters, to be engaged in this country, and from it only by a chain of islands and narrow straits ; | part in Canada-all of them inured to fatigue, and well and if such be the case, the progress of a boat from Fish accustomed to the duties they will have to perform ; and River to the wreck of the Fury will be greatly facilitated. it is not a little gratifying to me, that several of my late It is also evident that in pursuing this main object of the companions on Sir John Franklin's last journey have expedition in boats, much light will necessarily be thrown already volunteered to embark on the present enterprise. on the existence of a north-west passage, Sir John We must leave Liverpool early in February, so as to Franklin: and Dr. Richardson, in their several surveys, reach Montreal by way of New York by the 10th of found the sea washing the shores of the main land April. Some days will be spent in engaging Canadian between the 107th and 150th meridians every where voyageurs as steersmen and guides, and in preparằng the open towards the end of August ; so that a steam-vessel usual equipment. The route to be pursued is the ardihaving once attained Coronation Gulf would meet with nary one for the fur traders, by the Outaway, French Jittle obstruction on its way to Behring's Straits. The River, the Great Lakes, Lake Winepeg, &c., to Great great difficulty lies to the eastward, where, from the vici- Slave Lake, being a distance from Montreal of about nity of a number of large islands, straits are formed, in 2500 miles, which we may hope to accomplish early in which currents and prevalent winds pack the drift ice, so July. The mode of travelling on the lakes is in a large that it may remain there for years unless detached by a birch-rind canoe, termed." canot de maitre," which at concurrence of favourable circumstances. The researches Fort William is changed for smaller canoes, named that have hitherto been made do not, however, disprove“ canots de nord,” adapted for river navigation. At the existence of a navigable passage ; but on the contrary Cumberland-house the party will embark in batteaux, the expedition which terminated in consequence of the which are better calculated for conveying the pemmican*, loss of the Fury, strengthened the hopes of finding one, which is to be taken in there. At Slave Lake Indian the sea being particularly clear of ice at the time Sir guides and hunters will be obtained to accompany the Edward Parry bore up for England. And there appears party to the banks of the Great Fish River. The most then to be no more certain way of discovering the eligible spot for a winter residence having been selected, passage, if it exist, than of coasting the main shore a certain number of the people will be appointed to erect in a boat; and there is certainly no plan so economical the necessary buildings, and the hunters and fisheriren or so safe.
employed to store up provisions, while I proceed myself It has been asked, would not Captain Ross endeavour without loss of time down the river in a light canoe, to make his way to the southward ? But it may be re- with a crew of eight men well armed. As the river flows plied, that if driven ashore any where near the Fury, he through the barren lands of nearly equal elevation with would be induced to remain there as long as he found those north of Fort Enterprise, we may expect its course, means of subsistence, that being the point to which like that of the Coppermine, to be interrupted by rapids assistance would be most likely directed; and I may here or cascades. This canoe excursion will enable me to take occasion to remark that, though occupied with the survey these, so that on my return to the winter establishobjects and interests of civilized life, the public may for ment we may construct boats combining the qualities a season overlook such an enterprise as Captain Ross's, requisite for the river and sea navigation. As far also and forget that it has been undertaken, such an idea as the season will permit, my visit to the sea may give finds no place in the minds of the adventurers them- me an opportunity of communicating with the Esquiselves, their undertaking is of first-rate importance in maux, and of obtaining, if not intelligence of Captain their own eyes, they look for their reward in the appro- Ross, at least much information for the direction of my bation of their countrymen, and for aid when in distress course the following summer. Having passed the first winto their sympathy. The hope, therefore, of active exer- ter, we shall start for the sea the moment the ice breaks tions being made in their favour, will cling to them to up; and if an opinion, which I have been led to entertain the last moment of their existence, and detain them near from an inspection of the maps traced by the Indians, of the spot where they expect to be sought for,
the mouth of the river being between the 68th and 69th It has also been said that we should ere this, if Cap- parallels of latitude be correct, we shall then be less tain Ross survived, have heard of him through the me than 300 miles distant from the wreck of the Fury, and, dium of the Esquimaux and the Hudson's Bay Com- under favourable circumstances, little or no doubt can be pany. But I may state that the Esquimaux tribes entertained of our being able to reach it. If, contrary to residing on the shores of the continent between Melville our hope, no traces of Captain Ross should be discovered peninsula and Behring's Straits have no intercourse on arriving at the wreck of the Fury, and the season whatever with the Hudson's Bay Company; and with should be far advanced, it will be necessary for us to the exception of the hordes that frequent Mackenzie's retrace our way to our winter quarters ; and in so doing River, none communicate even with the Indians. Since we should embrace every opportunity of erecting landthe Chepewyans gave up their war excursions against marks and signal-posts on peaks and capes to arrest the the Esquimaux, upwards of twenty years ago, no Indian attention of the wanderers to the notes deposited behas visited the coast to the eastward of the Coppermine; neath, detailing the position of our fort, and the means and the Churchill Esquimaux who formerly, though not adopted for their relief. But on the disruption of the ice of late years, have had occasional traffic with their coun- in the following spring, the expedition would again be trymen residing at the embouchure of the Fish River, did on the shores of the Polar Sea, and its researches would not visit the Fort last year. Supposing the latter chan- be resumed in a different direction from that previously nel of communication then to remain open, intelligence taken. Every Esquimaux hut would be minutely inof the wreck of a vessel in Regent's Inlet would not spected in the hope of finding some token of the fate of reach Churchill till the second winter at the very ear. our countrymen; and the gratification which the proliest, but more probably not till the third, nor conse- moters of the expedition will experience, should even a quently England till the succeeding autumn; so that single British seaman be rescued from his melancholy had the Victory even been seen by the Esquimaux in 1830, there has been no opportunity as yet of learning
* Pemmican is flesh of buffalo, moose, or rein deer, dried and the fact.
pounded with a proportionate quantity of fat; and, when well preHaving mentioned these facts and opinions as the substantial and best adapted food for the nature of the country and
served, will keep good for several years, being decidedly the most ground-work for originating the expedition, I proceed to service.
fate by their means, will amply repay them for their exer- | tion resulting from a course leading nearly over one of tions and outlay. While even if no such happy fortune the magnetic poles, will, it is to be hoped, show that the should attend our researches, the geographical know- enterprise has not, even in this case, been undertaken ledge that must be obtained, and the scientific informa- | altogether in vain.
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Adam Smith, notice of, page 93.
Felix Neff, memoir of, reviewed, 174.
Ferdinand of Naples, recollections of, 103.
of time at the, 224.
Constantinople, description of, 193, 201. Fidelity, remarkable proof of, in a dog, 320.
Fingal's Cave, account of, 236.
Co-operative labourers, observations re- Firemen's dog, singular propensity of the,
190; further particulars, 224.
Firmament, lines on the, by Habington, 24.
Corn, fluctuation in the price of, 38. Fishes, migration of, from the Black Sea,
Courier, Paul Louis, adventure of, 229. Flattery, 8.
Cowper's poem on civilized and savage life, Flaxman, John, notice of, 126.
69; lines on his mother's picture, 254, Flemish language, notice of the, 273, 282.
Florist, sagacious rebuke of a, 200.
Flower-garden for June, 112.
Flute-player, a tale, 78.
Foals, Bedouin treatment of new-born, 128.
Foreign Manufactures, error of discouraging
the use of, 179.
Cuckoo, lines to the, by Wordsworth, 55. Forks, account of, 79; on the use of, 139.
Fractions, nature and use of, 285.
France, population of, 50
writings, 71; his moral code, 74.
Debtor and creditor, Arab account of, 144, Frugality, advantages of, 16; its uses for
young people, 115.
Gallery of Portraits, No. 1, notice of the, 87.
Decisions in courts of justice, importance Gambling and Trading, difference between,
of a public declaration of the reasons 293.
Gardens, beauty and utility of, 55.
Detection of fraud, curious instance of, 96. Gellert (C. F.), notice of, 125.
Genius and industry, remarks on, 111.
Geography, advice on the study of, 112.
Deity, dependence of the Turks on, 120. St. George's day, 29.
George IV.'s Gate, Hyde Park, 172.
Ghost Story, by Judge Powell, 24.
308; destroyed by a lion, a poem, 309.
Gladness of Nature, a poem, 104,
Goat, dexterity of a, 101.
Good companion, worth of, 99,
Drunkenness, effectual cure of, 80; how Good Friday, notice of, 21.
Good old times, remarks on, 144.
Gout, a cure for, 72.
Gratitude, an example of, 208.
Great men, laborious habits of, 99; duty of
a nation towards its, 152.
Great minds, growth of, 80.
Earthenware and porcelain, manufacture workers, the secret of, 8.
Greatness, sonnet on, by Wordsworth, 79.
Earthquake at Lisbon, in 1755, 366, 373, 379. Greeks, marriage festival of, 70.
Greenwich, account of, 97.
Grillo, a ship saved by a, 312,
Grotius, notice of, 13.
Economy, benefits of the practice, 207. Guana, account of the, 332.
Economy of machinery and manufactures,
HABIT, force of, 16.
Education, progress of, in Asia Minor, 74; Hall (Capt, B.), review of his Fragments of
inquiry into the nature of, 109; neces. Voyages and Travels, 45.
sity and benefit of, 192.
Harcourt, patent of Lord Chancellor, 84.
Elephant, fossil remains of, in New Hol. Harvey (Dr.), notice of, 5.
Health and Longevity, c, Thackrah's Re.
ancient mode of catching, in India, 267. Hector and Andromache, the parting of, 306.
Highgate Church, notice of, 81.
Elizabeth, queen, anecdote of, 75; Hentz Hippopotamus, method of killing the, 68.
Historical associations, force of, 167.
Elgin Marbles, account of the, 228; opinions Holiday Walks, suggestions for, 30.
concerning the, 371; their inestimable Holly Tree, poem on the, 224.
Holyrood House, account of, 188.
Emigration to the North American colonies, Holy Thursday, 75
information respecting, 17; to Upper Home Colonies, remarks upon, 47.
Honesty, recommendation of, 110.
Horse, mode of curing a vicious, 128.
England and Wales, statistical notes of, 26, House of Fame, Chaucer's, 190.
90, 98, 106, 305, 351, 362.
Housewifery, good and evil, 40.
English manners, old, a German's account Hungerford Market, account of, 169.
Hunter, Dr. W., notice of, 70.
Epicurism of Quin the actor, 203,
John, notice of, 141.
Hydrostatic bed for invalids, 214.
Europe in the dark ages, state of, 96. Hymn of the City, a poem, 120.
Excellence not limited by station, 5.
ICELAND, account of a volcano in, 288 ;
farming in, 288.
Idleness, its danger, 168.
Ignorance, degradation of, 80
Falls of the Clyde, description of, 253.
Inattention, means of overcoming, 272,
Favourite author, good effects of a predilec. India, Sketches in, noticed, 135.
India-rubber, account of, 242.
Indian Gold Coin, a poem, 360,
Industry and economy, good effects of, 168. PAESIELLO, Giovanni, notice of, 53.
Silk trade, introduction and progress of, 374.
Singing of Birds, remarks on, 56.
Singular escape, relation of a, 91.
Slave ship, account of the, 336.
Sociable Grosbeak, account of, 100.
Social condition, improvement in, 126.
Soldiers, pay of, time of Edward III., 326.
Somerset House, account of, 17.
ward Dyer, 203.
Song of David, Christopher Smart's, 363,
Speaking, advantage of public, 270.
Steam Engine, Lardner's Lectures on the, 262.
statue of, 320; review of the life of, 312. Stillingfleet, Bishop, notice of, 20.
Stirling Castle, account of, 364.
Stormy Petrel, a song, 144.
Pewter spoon, emotions produced by a, 267. Stratford-on-Avon, account of, 220.
Sugar, account of, 25.
Suspension Bridges, account of, 84.
Pitch Springs, account of natural, 162. Swallow, account of, 12.
Swimming, the art of, 143,
Plants, fecundity of, 246.
Poesie, by George Wither, with notice, 15. TARANTULA, dance of the, 139.
Poetry of Common Life, notice of, 326. Tasso, anecdote of, 91.
Tea, account of, 33.
Temper, example of an even, 200,
Teinple Church, account of, 116.
Thames Tunnel, account of, 257, 340.
Thebes, in Egypt, account of, 113.
Thomson, James, notice of, 231.
Threat, singular meaning of a, 199.
Tillotson, Archbishop, notice of, 256.
Time, the true test, 80.
Pride, meanness of, 40; a Spaniard's, 199. Tivoli, description of, 273.
Tobacco, use of by the Hottentots, 120; ac,
count of, 148.
Torture, ancient use of, 53.
Trade, protection of, 23 ; and manufactures,
Franklin's remarks on, 155.
Property, advantages acquired by, 139. Tristram Shandy, mistake respecting, 120.
Truth, importance of, 152; agreeableness of,
167 ; and reason, benefits of, 232.
Public servants, an emperor's hint to, 219. Turenne, Marshal, notice of, 239.
Turkey-Buzzard, account of, 271.
QUADRATURE of the circle, notice of, 250. Turtles, mode of catching, 281.
Quadrupeds, large headed, account of, 199.
UNITED STATES, notice of Ouseley's work
RAFFAELLE, notice of, 13; account of the VAN DIEMEN'S LAND, progress of the colony
Cartoons of, 349.
at, 2; geography, products, and commerce
of, 10; condition of convicts in, 162.
Vanity, remarks on, 8.
Real heroism, anecdote exemplifying, 103. Venomous serpents, in South Africa, 235.
Richard II., account of his death, 183. Village poor-house, notice of, 170.
Virginia, natural bridge of, 105.
Vulture, the black, account of, 271.
Vultures, distinctions of rank amongst, 160.
Ross, Dr. James, his struggles as an emigrant
WALKER, Robert, history of, 166.
Captain, proposed expedition to ascer. Warwick Castle, description of, 177.
tain the fate of, 387.
Warwick Vase, account of, 233.
Wasp, singular nest of, 317.
Royal George, account of the loss of the, Watt, James, statue of, 209.
127; Cowper's poem upon, 127.
Wealth of nations, notice of, 118.
in the National Gallery, 382.
Weaver's Song. by Barry Cornwall, 139.
Wesley, John, notice of, 110.
Westminsier Abbey, account of, 140.
Wesminster Bridge, account of, 217.
Scilly Isles, state of literature in, 203. Westminster Hall, account of, 153.
Whit Sunday and Monday, notice of, 101.
Wisdom, way to acquire, 183.
Scurvy, effects of, on board, 326.
Wise man, the kingdom of, 80.
Witchcraft, former credulity respecting, 199.
Selden, John, notice of, 367.
Wonderful stories, 114.
Working classes, the wants of the, 187.
Works, ancient and modern, 155.
Sheep in Greece, 274.
Writing, surprise of savages, at the use of,
Shield of Achilles, description of the, 241.
Ship of War, requisites for a, 80.
YOUTH and Age, lines on, by Southey, 55.
Zoological Gardens, notices of the, 4.
Zoological Society, notice of the, 131,