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possession of the property; but the original castle was have escaped the distaste and disuse into which they burnt to the ground in 1554 by the English forces, which have since fallen. The figure of Peace is that of an in that year attacked the Scottish capital and ravaged agreeable female; maternal in character and occupation, the surrounding country. The building, of which the for she gives nourishment to an infant : various figures ruins now remain, seems to have been nearly all erected surround her, symbolical of the blessings attendant on a since that disaster. In the old castle, William St. Clair, pacific policy; a beautiful nymph presents her with a the Baron of Roslin, who among other titles bore those coffer filled with gems and gold; a satyr empties fruit of Earl of Caithness and Prince of the Orkneys, is at her feet from an abundant horn; and a panther, recorded to have lived in a style rivalling the magnificence throwing itself sportively before him, plays with the of royal state. The following is the description of his vine tendrils which fall from the cornucopia. The artist's housekeeping given by an old writer: “ He kept a great intention here was, no doubt, to hint at the effect pro court, and was royally served at his own table in vessels duced by a state of social prosperity, in softening and of gold and silver; Lord Dirleton being his master- civilizing the most rude and intractable natures. On household, Lord Borthwick his cup-bearer, and Lord the right is seen a group of lovely female children, a Heming his carver; in whose absence they had deputies part, it is said, of Rubens's own family; a winged to attend; viz., Stewart, Laird of Drumlanrig; Tweddie, genius, or Cupid, and a youthful Hymen attend them, Laird of Drumerline, and Sandilands, Laird of Calder. the latter holding over their heads a garland in token He had his halls, and other apartments, richly adorned of prospective happiness. Mars and his accompanying with embroidered hangings. He flourished in the reigns demons advance from the back-ground, but are repelled of James I. and II. His Princess, Elizabeth Douglas, by Minerva, who guards the throne of Peace. In the was served by seventy-five gentlewomen, whereof fifty- choice, or rather in his mode of treating this subject, three were daughters of noblemen, all clothed in velvet Rubens has given full scope to his exuberant fancy; and silks, with their chains of gold, and other ornaments; he has mixed up, without discordance, the most familiar and was attended by two hundred riding gentlemen in images of actual life with the visionary creations of all her journeys; and, if it happened to be dark when poetry and mythology, and displayed his just and disshe went to Edinburgh, where her lodgings were at the criminating execution through infinite diversities of age, foot of the Black Friars' Wynd, eighty lighted torches sex, and character; the entire scene teems with picwere carried before her.”—(MS., written by a Mr. Hay, turesque variety, and the different actors, human and in Advocates' Library, quoted in Grose's Antiquities of superhuman, beautiful, grotesque, or savage, are placed Scotland.)—It was this splendid feudal chief (who in the happiest juxtaposition, so as to give force and flourished in the middle of the fifteenth century) that efficiency to each other. The whole composition, alerected the exquisitely beautiful chapel which stands in though of the utmost richness and complexity, developes the neighbourhood of Roslin Castle. In the heart of itself with surprising fluency and clearness, a result the ruins of the castle, but concealed from view by the produced in part by the fine arrangement of chiaro old walls and the trees, a small dwelling-house was scuro in its colouring. This picture is, we think, someerected some years ago, for the occupation of the person what less glowing than is usual with Rubens, and the to whom the grounds are let, which are mostly devoted execution is marked by decision rather than delicacy. to the growing of strawberries, a fruit for which Roslin That want of refinement in the delineation of the has long been famous. It is a favourite holiday enjoy-human form, with which Rubens is justly charged, is ment of the inhabitants of Edinburgh to make an excur- perhaps less visible in the picture which we have just sion to eat this fruit in the sweet sylvan vale where it described than in most of his performances. In the is produced

work opposite to it, however, the “ Rape of the Sabines,"

this defect is exceedingly conspicuous : the group of THE NATIONAL GALLERY.

young females in the upper part of the picture, who

gather round and cling to their mothers, are not indeed Ir is only in works of large dimensions that the genius of deficient in that sort of beauty which is constituted by Rubens is seen in its full magnificence: his faculties, as clear complexions and sunny locks. They look, to use Sir Joshua Reynolds has justly observed, seem to ex- the phrase applied to Rubens's women by a modern

with the size of his canvas. The evidence of his critic, like “hillocks of roses," but those in the forepower, however, is less in that fluent execution with which ground are both aged and ugly. The whole picture, he sweeps through an infinite series of objects, than in however, is full of spirit and novelty; for when was the grasp and comprehension with which he binds and Rubens common-place? One of the most striking ainalgamates them into one harmonious whole. The groups is that wherein an armed warrior is listing a lady pictures in the cathedral at Antwerp, and those painted on his horse; and although the silk and satin draperies for Catherine de' Medici, formerly in the Luxembourg, in which she and some of her companions are habited, and now in the Louvre at Paris, are, perhaps, the finest are a little at variance with our notions of historical proexamples of what Rubens was capable of accomplishing, priety, we are reconciled to those anachronisms by the when acting in a sphere proportioned to his capacity. general splendour of the effect. Splendour, indeed, was The ceiling of the banqueting-house at Whitehall a quality indispensable to Rubens, and which he inva might once, perhaps, have competed with these extra- riably determined to secure, with truth or without it. ordinary productions, until neglect and reparation had The small picture of the “Holy Family," with two done their joint office in impairing its original beauty. saints, is said to have been a great favourite with Rubens In the mean time, we are happy in possessing in the himself, which we readily believe, for there is nothing National Gallery five pictures from the pencil of Rubens, more charming among all his compositions. The Virgin which, if not of sufficient magnitude to exhibit the highest and Child are beautifully disposed, and one of the female power of his genius, are nevertheless genuine and saints has an air even of courtly elegance.

The serene beautiful performances, and the subjects so varied as to and gentle character of this picture is forcibly contrastid furnish happy examples of that versatility which was by that of St. Bavon, (a sketch no doubt for a larger his peculiar characteristic. The principal one, an alle- work,) which is full of variety and bustle, and admigory of Peace and War, was painted during the time rably indicative of the times in which the event touk place. that Rubens officiated in this country as envoy from A bishop, attended by his ecclesiastics, awaits to receive, Flanders, and was presented by him to Charles I. but does not advance towards, the monarch, who ascends Allegories were the fashion of that day, and if those the steps of the cathedral. The latter is followed by a subjects had been frequently treated with the grace and numerous train ; everything appertaining to which, is gorperspicuity evinced in this picture, they might, perhaps, i geous, chivalric, and befitting the retainers of royalty,


The scene is enlivened and embellished by a group of ignorant of the usages of civilized life, and did not ladies, who stand on a canopied platform to view the cere- understand the rights of property. I will complain of mony, and in demonstration of the beneficence, as well as your conduct,” said he,“ to Major Somerset, the comthe dignity of the church, a group of indigent persons, mander of the frontier, who will soon show you the difgiving a most striking variety to the scene, are gathered ference between an elephant and a deer.” To this taunt round the entrance, to receive what appears to be a daily Macomo replied calmly—" I know that Somerset is dole, as an almoner is distributing it among them. The stronger than I am. He is an elephant, but neither I mild authority with which one of the officers in attend- nor my father have been called deer. You say that your ance reproves their importunities, is admirably expressed. people are wiser than ours: you do not show it in The subjects of these four pictures are full of graphic appealing from reason to force. When you return to interest, and Rubens has the praise of having made the the Colony, the landdrost will decide between you: here most skilful use of favourable materials; but it would it can go no further. Give him the ox," he added, “it appear that he selected the subject of the remaining will be better for you.” The Doctor yielded. picture, a "landscape and figures,” in order to display the abstract powers of his pencil in giving picturesque

THE WEEK. beauty to a scene in itself utterly devoid of interest. Here is a Dutch landscape, with its usual characteristics, a JANUARY 1.- The birth-day of EDMUND Burke. This tract of flat land, made up of swamp and meadow, and illustrious writer and orator was born at Dublin, in the intersected by rows of willows, ditches and close-cut year 1730, and was a younger son of an attorney in exhedges. In the foreground the objects are somewhat tensive practice in that city. Being of delicate health more varied, but even here everything has the stamp of from his infancy, he was taught to read at home by his individuality. A large tree has been blown down; on mother; and was then sent to reside with his grandfather, one side a fowler is taking aim at a covey of partridges, at his country-seat in the county of Cork. He was put on the other we perceive a butcher's cart on its way to to school at the neighbouring village, and here he began market. From these components, Rubens has pro- the study of Latin. From his earliest years he was a duced a work which we can never gaze on but with devoted reader. “ While we were at play,” his elder renewed admiration; not that admiration merely which brother Richard long afterwards declared, “ he was results from the analysis of technical skill, but we are always at work.” In his twelfth year, having been actually exhilarated, while we look on it with the balmy brought back from his grandfather's, he was sent to the and buoyant feelings excited in us during a walk in academy of Ballitore, in the county of Carlow, conthe country on a fine spring morning. Although the ducted, and, as it appears, with great ability and on an various objects in this picture are nowhere slurred or admirable system by the Shackletons, a Quaker family. touched indistinctly, we do not recollect, among all the He remained here till 1744, when he proceeded to works of Rubens, one in which the general effect is more Trinity College, Dublin, of which lie was emiered a penlarge and comprehensive.

sioner. Here he took his degree of A.B. in 1748, and that of A.M. in 175). Meanwhile, being destined for

the English bar, he had been enrolled as a student of AN AFRICAN JUDGE AND EUROPEAN SLAVE- the Middle Temple in 1747, and he proceeded to London HOLDER.

to keep his terms early in 1750. It has been com[From a Correspondent.]

monly said of Burke, sometimes by way of reproach and In the year 1824, an English naturalist, in the course of sometimes by way of commendation, that he set out in a tour in Cafferland, had an opportunity of witnessing life a mere penniless adventurer. But this is quite a the justice and impartiality of the Caffer chiefs, in their mistake. His father was possessed of very considerable capacity of judges. Being dissatisfied with the conduct property, and he was never subjected while pursuing his of his slave, whom he had brought with him from the studies to the necessity of seeking a maintenance by his Cape Colony, after some altercation and the infliction of own exertions. The class of students in which he was a few blows with his sjamboc (whip of rhinoceros hide), placed at college was that next to the highest, and his he carried the man before Macomo, the head of a tribe necessary expenses there were £150 per annum. After near the river Keissi.

Here the master and slave filed he commenced the study of the law, his father allowed cross bills against each other. The slave produced wit- him an annuity of £200. And it is ascertained that in nesses to prove that his master had struck and abused one way or other, the sums he derived from his family him without cause: the master accused the slave of in the course of his life did not amount to less than laziness, insolence and disobedience, and demanded that £20,000. He is by no means, therefore, to be reckoned he should be punished by a severe flogging. Macomo, among those persons who have had unusual difficulties after hearing both parties, informed them that in Caffer- to contend with in the commencement of their career. land there were no slaves; he must, therefore, consider He seems to have soon become tired of the law. In 1752 them merely as two men who had made a bargain with or 1753 he offered himself as a candidate for the Profeseach other. "Now it appears,” said he to the English- sorship of Logic in the University of Glasgow, but was man, “that you have struck this man and otherwise illo unsuccessful, a Mr. James Clow obtaining the appointtreated him, but you can show no proof that he had ment. His thoughts, however, were now entirely turned injured you hy offering you violence. I therefore declare to literature and politics. Soon after this he appears to your bargain at an end ; he is free to go where he have begun to write in the newspapers and other periodipleases; and you shall pay him an ox for the wrong you cal works. flis first separate and avowed production, have done him.” At this decision our countryman was however, was his · Vindication of Natural Society, which highly incensed, and refused to submit. “ He deserved was published in 1756. It is an ironical imitation of Lord punishment, not reward," said he, “ for his insolence." Bolingbroke, whose style and manner of thinking are so * You have not proved that,” said Macomo ; " but had happily mimicked, that many, when it first appeared, beit been so, you should have brought him to me. Why lieved it to be a serious argument, and from his Lordship's do I sit here from sun-rise to sun-set, if need be? It is pen. It was followed in a few months by the celebrated to decide between man and man, in cases where their Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and anger blinds them, and hinders their judgment. If men Beautiful. This work the author is said to have begun use their hands in secret, instead of their tongues before when he was nineteen, and to have kept by him for nearly the judge or the old men, whose life would be worth a seven years before he published it. It immediately introhusk of corn ?" The traveller replied that he would not duced him into general notice, and to the acquaintance of argue the matter with him, " for he (Macomo) was many of the most distinguished literary men of the day. Soon after this he married. For the next two years he effect produced by a passage in the speech which he appears to have written an account of the European delivered at the bar of the House of Lords on opening Settlements in America, in two volumes, published ano- the impeachment of Mr. Hastings. He was describing nymously in 1757 ; an Abridgement of the History of the atrocities committed by Debi Sing, alleged to be one England, from the Roman Invasion to the reign of of the agents of the accused. 'A convulsive sensation King John; and the first volume of Dodsley's Annual of horror, affright, and smothered execration,' says Mr. Register, a work which he continued to superintend Prior, ' pervaded all of the male part of his hearers for many years. It was in 1759 that he was made and audible sobbings and screams, attended with tears known by Lord Charlemont, to Mr. William Gerard and faintings, the female. His own feelings were Hamilton (commonly called single-speech Hamilton), scarcely less overpowering ; he dropped his head upon who, on being appointed, in 1761, secretary to the Lord his hands, and for some minutes was unable to proceed; Lieutenant, took Burke with him to Ireland, in the he recovered sufficiently to go on a little further, but, capacity of his assistant. This formed the introduction being obliged to cease from speaking twice at short of the latter to public life. In 1765, on the accession to intervals, his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, tc power of the Marquis of Rockingham, he was appointed relieve him, at length moved the adjournment of the by that minister his private secretary, and brought into House. Alluding to the close of this day, the writer of parliament for the borough of Wendover. From this the history of the trial says- In this part of his speech time the life of Burke belongs to the general history Mr. Burke's descriptions were more vivid, more harrowof the country, and involves too extended a catalogue ing, and more horrific, than human utterance, or either of events, to be related even in the most abridged form, fact or fancy, perhaps, ever formed before. The agitawithin the limits to which we are confined. All our tion of most people was very apparent. Mrs. Sheridan readers have probably heard of the extraordinary emi- was so overpowered that she fainted ; several others nence to which he attained, as a parliamentary orator. were as powerfully affected.' Mrs. Siddons is said to His opposition to the infatuated measures which led to have been one of the number.

The testiand prolonged the contest with America—his advocacy of mony of the accused party himself is, perhaps, the the freedom of the press-of an improved libel-law-of strongest ever borne to the powers of any speaker of Catholic emancipation-of economical reform—of the any country. · For half an hour,' said Mr. Hastings, abolition of the slave-trade-his impeachment of Mr. I looked up at the orator in a reverie of wonder; Hastings—and his denouncement of the French revolu- and during that space I actually felt myself the most tion-are some of the most mémorable passages of his culpable man on earth;', adding, however, .but I repolitical course. Among the works which he sent to curred to my own bosom, and there found a consciousthe press may be mentioned his Thoughts on the Causes ness that consoled me under all I heard and all I sufof the present Discontents, published in 1770, — his fered." Speech on American Taxation, delivered 19th April, 1774,—his Speech on Economical Reform, delivered Ilth February, 1780,--his Speech on retiring froin the poll at Bristol, the same year,—and his Reflections on the French Revolution, published in November, 1790. Mr. Burke died on the 8th of July, 1797, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The following notices, extracted from the account of his life by Mr. Prior, place in a striking light the powers of this wonderful man:-

“What Johnson termed 'Burke's affluence of conversation,' and which he so highly prized and frequently talked of, often proved, as may be supposed, a source of mingled wonder and admiration to others. Few men of education but were impressed by it, and fewer still who had the opportunity of being in his society frequently, forgot the pleasure they had thus enjoyed. Many years after this period (1760), Mr. Burke and a friend travelling through Lichfield for the first time, stopped to change horses, when being desirous to see more of a place which had given birth to his friend Johnson than a casual glance afforded, they strolled towards the Cathedral. One of the Canons, observing two respectable strangers making inquiries of the attendants, very politely came up to offer such explanations as they desired, when a few minutes only had elapsed before the feeling of superior information on such matters, with which he had met them,

[Portrait of Edmund Burke.] became changed to something like amazement at the splendour, depth, and variety of the conversation of one The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at of the strangers. No matter what topic started, whether architecture, antiquities, ecclesiastical history, the reve- LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. nues, persecutions, or the lives of the early ornaments and shopkeeperi and Hawkers may be supplied Wwlesale by the following leading members of the church,-he touched upon them all | London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley. | Manchester, Robinson; and Webb and with the readiness and accuracy of a master. They had Bith: Sommaso

Birmingham, DRAKE.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLEY. not long separated when some friends of the Canon met him hurrying along the street: 'I have had,' said he, Derby, WILKINS and Sox.

Carlisle, THURNHAM; and SCOTT, Nottingham, WRIGHT.

Oxford, SLATTER, quite an adventure ; I have been conversing for this Devonport, BYERs.

Plymouth, NETTLETOX. half hour past with a man of the most extraordinary

Sheffield, RidoE. powers of mind and extent of information, which it has Falmouth, Philp.

Staffordshire, Lane End, C. WATTS ever been my fortune to meet with, and I am now going Kendal, Hudson and NICOLSON. Dublin, WAREMAX. to the inn to ascertain if possible who this stranger is.'

Leeds, Barnes and NEWSOME,

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Boyd. Lincoln, BROOKE and Sons.

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. * * * * Of the powers of his eloquence some notion Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITR. may be formed from the account that is given of the

Printed by WILLIAN CLOWES, Stamford Street.

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Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.

Norwich, JARROLD and Son,

Doncaster, BROOKK and Co.
Ereter, BALLE.

Purtsea, HORSEY, Jun.

Worcester, DETOHTON,

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[Interior of Crosby Hall.] This building is the only considerable monument of the cost. It is, as we have said, one of the very few ancient domestic architecture of the fifteenth century now re- edifices the city now possesses ; indeed the only one, we maining in London. Attention has recently been called believe, which can now be pointed to as a sample of the to this interesting relic of past times, by the announce- domestic mansions of our more wealthy citizens at the ment of the formation of a committee of noblemen and era to which it belongs. The great fire in the middle of gentlemen for effecting its restoration, or at least its pre- the seventeenth century swept away all the chief remains servation from further decay and injury, by means of a of the past that were then in existence. Most of what public subscription. We are glad that this step has this devastation spared has since been gradually removed been taken ; and we trust that the liberal contributions by the hand of innovation and improvement, no where of the lovers of our national antiquities will speedily so active as in this busy metropolis. It is, however, enable the committee, in the list of which we observe singular, and may also be considered fortunate, that notthe names of several persons distinguished in art and withstanding all this change and destruction, London literature, to commence the prosecution of their laudable still possesses in Crosby Hall perhaps the finest and intention. The present is honourably distinguished most magnificent specimen of her old civic palaces. from the last age by its regard and affection for relics of What now remains of this ancient residence occupies this description, which appeal with so much force to all the western and northern fronts of the irregular quadminds of cultivation and refinement in a double charac- rangle, called Crosby Square, on the east side of Bishopster, at once as memorials of the past, and as works of gate Street, and immediately to the south of the betterart, admirable on account of their intrinsic beauty. In known opening of Great St. Helen's. On the west is both these respects they form not the least valuable por- the principal apartment, the great Banqueting Hall, tion of what we may call the public inheritance of the measuring 55 feet in length, by 27} in breadth, while the country—of that diversified wealth with which we find height from the original floor to the crown of the ceiling the land we live in covered by the labours of the succes- is 40 feet. The principal ornament of this room is its sive generations who have tenanted it before us. It is noble oaken or chesnut roof, of an elliptical forın, and the fashion with many to speak of our ancestors as if we divided in the ancient style into quadrangular compartowed them nothing : we owe to them, in fact, whatever ments with pendants. It is regarded as a work of great distinguishes the present appearance of this island from skill and beauty, and, fortunately, it still remains nearly the appearance of New Zealand.

perfect. Between this roof and the original pavement In London, especially, the preservation from ruin or two wooden floors have been erected at different times ; demolition of such a structure as Crosby Hall, would and the whole space is at present divided into an upper seem to be an object well worth a little exertion and I and lower apartinent. The Hall is lighted by twelve



lofty windows, six in the east and six in the west front | tenanted in succession by several wealthy merchants. commencing at the height of seventeen feet from the Sir John Langham, who was Lord Mayor in the time floor, and divided each into two parts by beautifully of the Protectorate, was the last person by whom it carved mullions. In the northern wall is an immense was used as a dwelling-house. It appears also to have chimney, a rare, perhaps singular instance of such an formed occasionally the residence of foreign ambassadors. accommodation in these old banqueting halls; where the It had thus, in 1603, the honour of being occupied for a fire was usually placed in the centre of the room, and short time by the celebrated Duke of Sully, then bearing the smoke allowed to escape through an opening in the the name of M. de Rosny. In the latter part of the sevenroof. At the north-west corner of the Hall is a semi-teenth century the greater portion of the building was octagonal recess, measuring about nine feet in diameter, destroyed by an accidental fire ; and in 1677 other houses, of the kind commonly called an oriel, of the same height those now occupying the site, were built on the ruins which with the hall, and having also a window in each of its the fire had occasioned. In 1672 the Hall was converted four sides. The taste and skill of the architect have been into a Presbyterian meeting house. After the dissoluexerted with the happiest effect in finishing both the tion of this society, another congregation of dissenters outside and the interior of this ornamental projection. met in it till 1778. It was afterwards let as a warehouse ; Crosby Place, as it was formerly called, seems to have and the lease having expired last year, it is at present originally extended round the square; but the only other untenanted. part of the building which now remains is the wing, forming the north front, which consists of two apart- [The following interesting Article is the substance of a Paper read

ARCTIC LAND EXPEDITION. ments, one over the other, the uppermost of which has

before the Royal Geographical Society, on 26th Nov. 1832, by been commonly called the Council Chamber.

For a

Captain Bacu, R. N. description of these rooms, which are in a very dilapi- The public sympathy having become deeply interested dated state, as well as for accounts of some vaults which in the fate of Captain Ross and his gallant companions, are still to be found under the Hall and in the vicinity, we the object of the following paper is to lay before the must refer to the ' Antiquarian and Historical Notices' Society a sketch of the plan of the expedition which has lately published by Mr. Carlos, one of the committee for been projected for the purpose of ascertaining their fate, restoring the building.

and enabling them, if found, to regain their native land; Crosby Place was erected soon after the year 1466, and which, there is reason to believe, will be now libeon a lease for ninety-nine years, then obtained from the rally supported by his Majesty's Government and the Prioress and Convent of St. Helen, by Sir John Crosby, public. It is generally known that Captain Ross hav. of whom little more is known than that he was a grocering, with the aid of a munificent friend, equipped the and woolınan, that he attained the dignities of Alder- steam-vessel, Victory, at a very great expense, left Engman, Sheriff, and Warden of his Company, represented land in the summer of 1829, accompanied by his nephew, the city in Parliament, and, after accumulating a large Commander Ross, and a crew of eighteen able seamen. fortune in trade, died in 1475. But Crosby House de- His wish was to complete the discovery of the Northrives its chief celebrity from having, after his death, west Passage ;— his motive, the honest desire of the become the residence of the Duke of Gloucester, after-fame that would result from the promotion of his counwards Richard III. It is introduced as such by try's naval glory (for the parliamentary reward having Shakspeare in the interview in the first act of his play been suppressed he could derive no pecuniary advantage between the Duke and Lady Anne, and again in the from success); and his object, thus, such as a British first scene of the third act, where, in dismissing Catesby seaman might legitimately exert his energies and hazard the Duke mentions it as the place where both him- his life to attain-since the discovery of the North-west self and Buckingham would be found in the evening. Passage has been a favourite project with England for It is strange that Mr. Carlos, in a publication designed more than three centuries. In its prosecution, from to excite an interest in this old mansion, should have Sebastian Cabot downwards, a host of seamen have been fallen into the blunder of denying that the great drama- formed, who will shine, to use the emphatic words of tist had any better foundation for making Crosby Hall old Fuller, as marine worthies" while the annals of “the scene of any of the transactions in which this naval adventure continue to be read : North America usurping and unscrupulous prince was engaged,” than was thus also discovered, and the cod fishery, fur trade,

some association existing in his own mind,” derived, and Davis' Straits whale fishery, were laid open to Brithis writer is pleased to imagine, merely from his having tish commercial enterprise. The exertions of the goveru

seen and admired its beauties," when " he had been ment, or of individuals, have, from time to time, been admitted on some occasion in the humble guise of a renewed to explore the passage; and with various sucplayer, to entertain the guests assembled in the ban cess, but seldom without some progress being made; queting hall." No historical fact can be better estab- nor, although intervals of repose may occur either froin lished than that of Richard's connection with this house. the public interest being exhausted by repeated failures, The old chroniclers mention it as his residence; and or its attention drawn for a time to other objects, is it Sir Thomas More expressly informs us that it was here likely that such attempts will cease until either a navihe held that secret council of his partizans the object of gable route be discovered, or its impracticability unequiwhich was to thwart the measures of the other council vocally proved. Any officer might therefore be parwhich he kept assembled elsewhere, under a show of doned for engaging, even somewhat rashly, in an entermaking preparation for the coronation of the young king. prise which has called forth the exertions and skill of a This is the double dealing to which in Shakspeare's Cabot, a Frobisher, a Davis, a Baffin, a Hudson, and play Buckingham alludes in the scene already referred a Cook; and, doubtless, when Captain Ross was orito, where he says to Catesby

ginally selected by the Admiralty to renew the attempt, “We to-morrow hold divided councils,"

his heart beat high with the hope of gratifying that

thirst for distinction which his subsequent conduct shows after having desired him to summon Lord Hastings to him to have felt. He thus retraced the course of Baffin, the Tower

and brought again to our knowledge the discoveries of " To sit about the coronation.”

that adventurous seaman, which the lapse of time and Probably the room called the Council Chamber has the imperfections of the records of his voyage had caused derived its name from having been the scene of these to be forgotten or discredited. And, although by putdark consultations.

ting too much confidence in the reality of what proved At the dissolution of the religious houses Crosby an optical delusion,-a delusion, however, which has frePlace was confiscated to the crown. It was afterwards quently deceived those who navigate in high latitudes,

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