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absurdity and extravagance, the natural consequence of to discuss whether this accusation may or may not be attempting to regulate the practice of one art by the justly charged on some of his inferior performances, we principles of another. Bernini, however, had consider- allege, without fear of contradiction, that his groups of able talent; it is only to be regretted that it was not Hercules and Lichas, and of Theseus and the Centaur, better directed. The schools of sculpture continued may challenge equality with any compositions of equal afterwards to fluctuate under different impulses, nor can magnitude in ancient art. At the time when Canova it be said that the principles of true taste began to revive visited England, the Elgin marbles had just been im until the genius of Canova dawned on Italy. The style ported hither, by the taste, patriotism, and enterprise of of Greek sculpture may be said to have been resusci- the Earl of Elgin, and it is almost superfluous to add tated by his example. We have heard it asserted that that thev excited the highest admiration in the Italian his style is frequently meretricious, and without stopping | artist.
[The Theseus.) The two principal statues among the Elgin marbles are the lower line of the ribs in this figure, so admirably those of Theseus, the Athenian hero, and a recumbent expressing its position, from that geometrical arch by figure, supposed to be the river-god Ilissus (numbered which this part of the body is designated in the ordinary in the Synopsis 93 and 99). They are executed in a antique statues, and which is so rarely accommodated to style of extraordinary breadth and grandeur. Theseus the action represented. The principle pointed out in this is represented half reclined on a rock, covered with the instance may be traced throughout the Elgin marbles in skin of a lion, and appears to be resting after some which true art is never superseded by conventional style. mighty labour. The figure of the Ilissus is less robust : We believe that in the opinion of the majority of connoisall his contouræ flow in lines of undulating elegance. seurs, the statue of Theseus is considered superior to that But in both these statues, that which chiefly strikes us, of the Ilissus. Canova, however, preferred the latter; in spite of the dilapidations which they have suffered, is and Raffaelle, who imported designs from Greece, has the vitality which seems to pervade them. In these, not adapted this figure to that of the fallen Coinmander, in only the office and appearance of the muscles, whether his picture of Heliodorus. It is well known that the in action or at rest, but the bearings of the skeleton, are Ilissus was a small stream which ran along the south expressed with an accuracy which could only have re- side of the plain of Athens. The statue in which it is sulted from the most profound science, added to an acute here personified occupied the left angle of the west pediand perpetual observation of nature. The statue of the ment of the Parthenon, and that of the Theseus was Ilissus is especially remarkable for its graceful flexibility, placed opposite to it on the east pediment, next to the and we would observe, without going too technically into horses of Hyperion. the subject, how different is the indentation formed by
THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON IN 1755.
(Continued from No. 45.)
[The Ruins of St. Paul's. From a print by Le Bas, published in 1757, after a drawing made on the spot.) In the midst of our devotions the second great shock | swiftness ; several large boats were turned keel upcame on, little less violent than the first, and completed wards; and all this without any wind, which seemed the ruin of those buildings which had been already the more astonishing. It was at the time of which I am much shattered. The consternation now became so now speaking, that the fine new quay, built entirely of universal, that the shrieks and cries of Miserecordia rough marble, at an immense expense, was entirely could be distinctly heard from the top of St. Catherine's swallowed up, with all the people on it
, who had fled Hill, at a considerable distance off, whither a vast num- thither for safety, and had reason to think themselves ber of people had likewise retreated; at the same time out of danger in such a place : at the same time a great we could hear the fall of the parish church there, whereby number of boats and small vessels, anchored near it, (all many persons were killed on the spot, and others mor- likewise full of people, who had retired thither for the tally wounded. You may judge of the force of this same purpose,) were all swallowed up, as in a whirlpool, shock, when I inform you it was so violent that I could and never more appeared. scarce keep on my knees, but it was attended with some This last dreadful incident I did not see with my own circumstances still more dreadful than the former. On eyes, as it passed three or four stones' throws from the a sudden I heard a general outcry, “The sea is coming spot where I then was, but I had the account as here in, we shall be all lost.” Upon this, turning my eyes given from several masters of ships, who were anchored towards the river, which in that place is near four miles within two or three hundred yards of the quay, and saw broad, I could perceive it heaving and swelling in a most the whole catastrophe. One of them in particular inunaccountable manner, as no wind was stirring. In an formed me, that when the second shock came on, he instant there appeared, at some small distance, a large could perceive the whole city waving backwards and forbody of water, rising as it were like a mountain. It wards, like the sea when the wind first begins to rise ; came on foaming and roaring, and rushed towards the that the agitation of the earth was so great even under shore with such impetuosity, that we all immediately the river, that it threw up his large anchor from the ran for our lives as fast as possible ; many were actually mooring, which swam, as he termed it, on the surface of swept away, and the rest above their waist in water at a the water; that immediately upon this extraordinary good distance from the banks. For my own part, I concussion, the river rose at once near twenty feet, and had the narrowest escape, and should certainly have in a moment subsided ; at which instant he saw the been lost, had I not grasped a large beam that lay on quay, with the whole concourse of people upon it, sink the ground, till the water returned to its channel, which down, and at the same time every one of the boats and it did almost at the same instant, with equal rapidity. vessels that were near it were drawn into the cavity, As there now appeared at least as much danger from the which he supposes instantly closed upon them, inasmuch sea as the land, and I scarce knew whither to retire for as not the least sign of a wreck was ever seen afterwards. shelter, I took a sudden resolution of returning back, This account you may give full credit to, for as to the with my clothes all dropping, to the area of St. Paul's. loss of the vessels, it is confirmed by everybody; and Here I stood some time, and observed the ships tum- with regard to the quay, I went myself a few days after, bling and tossing about as in a violent storm; soine had to convince myself of the truth, and could not find even broken their cables and were carried to the other side of the ruins of a place, where I had taken so many agreethe Tagus; others were whirled round with incredible | able walks, as this was the common rendezvous of the
factory in the cool of the evening. I found it all deep / guard, had all deserted the place, and the only person water, and in some parts scarcely to be fathomed. that remained was the commanding officer, a nobleman's
This is the only place I could learn which was swal-son, of about seventeen or eighteen years of age, whom lowed up in or about Lisbon, though I saw many large I found standing at the gate. As there was still a conéracks and fissures in different parts; and one odd phe- tinued tremour of the earth, and the place where we now nomenon I must not omit, which was communicated to stood (being within twenty or thirty feet of the opposite me by a friend who has a house and wine cellars on the houses, which were all tottering) appeared too dangerous, other side the river, viz., that the dwelling-house being the court-yard likewise being full of water, we both refirst terribly shaken, which made all the family run out, tired inward to a hillock of stones and rubbish : here I there presently fell down a vast high rock near it; that entered into conversation with him, and having expressed upon this the river rose and subsided in the manner my admiration that one so young should have the coualready mentioned, and immediately a great number of rage to keep his post, when every one of his soldiers had small fissures appeared in several contiguous pieces of deserted theirs, the answer he made was, though he were ground, from whence there spouted out, like a jet d'eau, sure the earth would open and swallow him up, he scorned a large quantity of fine white sand to a prodigious to think of flying from his post. In short, it was owing height. It is not to be doubted the bowels of the earth to the magnanimity of this young man that the Mint, must have been excessively agitated to cause these sur- which at this time had upwards of two millions of money prising effects, but whether the shocks were owing to in it, was not robbed ; and indeed I do him no more any sudden explosion of various minerals mixing toge- than justice, in saying, that I never saw any one behave ther, or to air pent up, and struggling for vent, or to a with equal serenity and composure, on occasions much collection of subterraneous waters forcing a passage, God less dreadful than the present. I believe I might remain only knows. As to the fiery eruptions then talked of, I in conversation with him near five hours; and though I believe they are without foundation, though it is certain, was now grown faint from the constant fatigue I had I heard several complaining of strong sulphureous smells, undergone, and having not yet broken my fast, yet this a dizziness in their heads, a sickness in their stomachs, had not so much effect upon me as the anxiety I was and difficulty of respiration, not that I felt any such under for a particular friend, with whom I was to have symptoms myself.
dined that day, and who lodging at the top of a very I had not been long in the area of St. Paul's, when I high house in the heart of the city, and being a stranger felt the third shock, which though somewhat less violent to the language, could not but be in the utmost danger: than the two former, the sea rushed in again, and retired my concern, therefore, for his preservation, made me with the same rapidity, and I remained up to my knees determine, at all events, to go and see what was become in water, though I had gotten upon a small eminence at of him, upon which I took my leave of the officer. some distance from the river, with the ruins of several
(To be concluded in No. 47.] intervening houses to break its force. At this time I took notice the waters retired so impetuously, that some vessels were left quite dry, which rode in seven fathom
STATISTICAL NOTES. water: the river thus continued alternately rushing on
THE SILK TRADE. and retiring several times together, in such sort, that it was justly dreaded Lisbon would now meet the same (33.) The silk manufacture was introduced into England fate which a few years ago had befallen the city of in the fifteenth century. In the reign of Charles II. it Lima *; and no doubt had this place lain open to the sea, appears by the preamble of a statute passed in 1666 to and the force of the waves not been somewhat broken by have given employment to 40,000 persons; and after the winding of the bay, the lower parts of it at least the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, about would have been totally destroyed.
50,000 refugees fled to England, a large proportion of The master of a vessel, which arrived here just after whom settled in Spitalfields, in the silk manufacture, and the 1st of November, assured me, that he felt the shock introduced several new branches of art. It should be above forty leagues at sea so sensibly, that he really con-remarked that at this period foreign silks were freely ad*cluded he had struck upon a rock, till he threw out the mitted; and from £600,000 to £700,000 worth were lead, and could find, no bottom, nor could he possibly annually imported from 1685 to 1692, being the period guess at the cause, till the melancholy sight of this deso- when the British manufacture was making the most late city left him no room to doubt of it. The two first rapid advances. But the refugees in 1692 obtained an shocks in fine were so violent, that several pilots were of exclusive patent for certain articles; and, in 1697, Paropinion, the situation of the bar, at the mouth of the liament, at their solicitation, prohibited the importation Tagus, was changed. Certain it is, that one vessel, at- of French and other European silk goods. This protempting to pass through the usual channel, foundered, and hibition was, in 1701, extended to the silk goods of 'another struck on the sands, and was at first given over | India and China. These facts should particularly be for lost, but at length got through. There was another borne in mind, because they show the utter fallacy of the great shock after this, which pretty much affected the opinion, that we owe the silk manufacture to the proriver, but I think not so violently as the preceding, though hibiting system, the truth being that it had taken firm several persons assured me, that as they were riding on root, and become of great importance long before it was horseback in the great road leading to Belem, one side subjected to the trammels of monopoly. of which lies open to the river, the waves rushed in with (34.) From the beginning of the eighteenth century so much rapidity that they were obliged to gallop as down to 1824, the history of the silk manufacture is a 'fast as possible to the upper grounds, for fear of being series of complaints, on the part of the manufacturers, of carried away
the importation of foreign silks; of impotent efforts on the I was now in such a situation that I knew not which part of Parliament to exclude them; and of combinaway to turn myself; if I remained there, I was in danger tions and outrages on the part of the workmen. In 1773, from the sea ; if I retired further from the shore, the the workmen obtained what is called the Spitalfields Act, houses threatened certain destruction, and, at Last, I entitling the Middlesex weavers to demand fixed wages, to resolved to go to the Mint, which being a low and very be settled by the magistrates. This act having gradually strong building, had received no considerable damage, driven the most valuable branches of the manufacture except in some of the apartments towards the river. from Spitalfields, and done otherwise incalculable misThe party of soldiers, which is every day set there on chief to the trade, was repealed in 1824. Whilst the pro* This happened in 1746.
hubitory system was in force, the manufacture was exposed to considerable vicissitudes, the obvious reason of which it to take unrestrained its own course-expose it to the was, that the monopoly enjoyed by the manufacturers, wholesome breezes of competition—you give it new life, and the Spitalfields Act, put a stop to all improvement, you restore its former vigour. Industry has been well so that the manufacture remained stationary in England, likened to the hardy Alpine plant; self-sown on the mounwhile, on the Continent, it was rapidly advancing. The tain-side, exposed to the inclemency of the season, it spirit of invention, which worked such astonishing re- gathers strength in its struggles for existence—it shoots sults in the cotton manufacture, seems to have been forth in vigour and in beauty. Transplanted to the rich wholly unknown in that of silk.
soil of the parterre, tended by the fostering hand of the (35.) The impolicy of the restrictive system having gardener, nursed in the artificial atmosphere of the become obvious by the experience of 130 years, and the forcing glass, it grows sickly and enervated, its shoots manufacturers of London having petitioned against the are vigourless, its flowers inodorous. In one single existing laws, Mr. Huskisson introduced a new policy in word lies the soul of industry-competition. The an1826, and in that year foreign silks were first admitted swer of the statesman and economist to his Sovereign for importation, on payment of a duty of 30 per cent. ad inquiring what he would do to assist the industry of his valorem. The duties on the raw material had been pre-country, was, Let it take its own way.
Such is my viously reduced, together with the duties on dye-stuffs ; prayer. Relieve us from the chains in which your inand the manufacturers, when the foreign manufactures discreet tenderness has shackled us; remove your opwere first admitted, were enabled to obtain foreign pressive protection; give us the fair field we ask, and thrown silk at a duty of 5s. instead of 14s. 7.d. per we demand no more. The talent, the genius, the enterpound, and raw silk at 3d. per pound instead of prise, the capital, the industry of this great people will 5s. 7fd. During the last five years, it is no exaggeration do the rest." to affirm that the silk manufacture has made a more rapid progress than it did during the whole of the preceding century. Most of the machines and processes known on
THE WEEK. the Continent have been introduced amongst us, and December 25.--The anniversary of the birth of Sir many of them have been materially improved. The Isaac Newton. This illustrious philosopher, the glory plain silk goods manufactured in England are now su- of his country and of his race, was the son of Isaac perior to those of France; and although the ribands, Newton, proprietor of the manor of Woolsthorp, in the figured gauzes, and light fancy goods of France excel ours, parish of Colsterworth, in Lincolnshire; and he was yet even in these departments we have made very great born at the manor-house in 1642. Recent researches advances, and if more attention were paid in this country have made it appear probable that the family was origito the arts of designing and colouring, we might not de- nally from Scotland, Sir Isaac's grandfather having been spair of rivalling the fabrics of Lyons in brightness and one of the many natives of that country who emigrated lustre. The imports of raw and thriwn silk amounted last to the south with James VI. Newton was an only and year to 4,693,517 lbs., being nearly twice the quantity a posthumous child, his father having died a few months (2,432,286 lbs.) imported in 1823, which was the greatest before his birth, at the age of thirty-six. His mother importation that took place in any one year previously about four years afterwards married a second husband, a to the repeal of the prohibitory system. The official Mr. Barnabas Smith, minister of the neighbouring parish value of our silk goods exported in 1823 was £140,320, of North Witham ; and her son was upon this left at his whereas in 1830 it amounted to £437,880, being an ad- paternal estate under the charge of her mother. He was vance of more than three hundred per cent., and we are first put to a small day-school at Skillington, and then rapidly underselling the French in all foreign markets. to another at Stoke; from which last he was removed,
(36.) We recommend those who desire further de- when he had reached the age of twelve, to the grammartails to refer to the official accounts collected in the article school of Grantham, the county town. Here he boarded on silk in M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary, and at the house of a Mr. Clark, an apothecary, the various the parliamentary speeches of Mr. Huskisson and Mr. chemical preparations and other curious contents of whose Poulett Thomson may likewise be consulted with ad- shelves are supposed to have contributed to awaken his vantage. A committee on the silk trade sat during the taste for physical investigation and experiment. His last session, but has not yet maile its report. Whether genius for mechanical invention now began to display it be in the power of the legislature to remedy the evils itself in the construction of many curious pieces of workarising from the uncertainty and Auctuation of the de- manship, among which were a water-mill
, a water-clock, mand for a particular kind of labour, may, perhaps, be a carriage in which he could wheel himself round his doubtsul; and it is to be feared that distress does exist room, and other similar contrivances. lle appears also in several branches of the silk trade, to a lamentable ex- to have already begun the study of geometry, making tent. Silk goods, which can hardly ever become an his way, it is said, through the Elements of Euclid, with article of general consumption, will always be peculiarly so much ease that a rapid perusal of the demonstrations dependent upon the fickleness of fashion; and the fancy in their order sufficed to make him master of them; he of a few ladies of rank may, in this respect, affect the read the work as if it had been a history or a tale. After well-being of thousands of operatives. But it should be he had spent a few years at Grantham, however, his remembered that the silk trade is yet, in point of fact, mother, who had returned to Woolsthorp, upon the only partially free; and that the principle of competition death of her husband, in 1656, took him home, intendcan hardly be said to have had its full operation, whilst ing to employ him in farming the property, which was a iinportation is still restricted in very many ways, and the very small one, that he might lead a country life as his home-manufacturer is still protected by a duty of thirty father and grandfather had done. But occupations of per cent. It is sincerely to be hoped that the govern- this kind had no attraction for the young philosopher : ment may at least never depart from those principles, when he was sent along with a servant to Grantham to which were thus forcibly expressed by Mr. Poulett dispose of the produce of the farm, he used to leave the Thomson in his speech on the silk trade in April, 1829. man to go by himself to market, while he either sat "The very essence of commercial and manufacturing down with a book in his hand by the road-side, or industry is freedom from legislative interference, and repaired to his former lodgings at the apothecary's, and legislative protection. Attempt to assist its course by shut himself up beside a parcel of old books in the legislative enactments, by fostering care-you arrest its garret. At length, convinced that he would never make progress, you destroy its vigour. Unbind the shackles a good farmer, his mother consented to allow him to in which your unwise tenderness has confined it-permit follow the bent of his inclination. He then returned for
nine months to the grammar-school of Grantham ; and In 1688 Newton, who had some time before distinon the expiration of that period, in June 1660, pro- guished himself by his defence of the privileges of the ceeded to 'Trinity College, Cambridge. Here he applied University against certain arbitrary attempts of James himself to his studies, and especially to mathematical II., was returned as one of its representatives to the Conscience, with extraordinary ardour ; and, although the vention Parliament. In 1695 he was appointed to the statement is so wonderful as almost to seem incredible, office of Warden, and in 1699 to that of Master of the appears actually to have completed all the splendid dis- Mint, a place worth about £1,500 a year. He now recoveries which have immortalized his name, within the linquished the teaching of his class to Mr. Whiston, to first six years of his academic course. In 1664 he pur- whom he gave all the emoluments; and in 1703 he rechased a prism, or triangular piece of glass, for the pur-signed the chair. In 1701 he was again returned to pose of trying some experiments suggested by a work of Parliament for the University of Cambridge. In 1703 Descartes; and the investigations upon which he thus he was elected for the first time to the Presidency of the entered led him gradually to his great discovery of the Royal Society; and he was annually re-elected to the composition of light, and the unequal refrangibility of same high office while he lived. In 1705 he received the the different sorts of rays, the doctrine from which nearly honour of Knighthood. The remainder of his life, exthe whole of modern optical science is derived. In or cept while engaged with the duties of his office, was before the year 1666 he had invented his new instrument spent, as the previous portion of it had been, in conof calculation, the method of fluxions, the grand auxiliary stant study, almost every department of human knowto which physical science in almost every department ledge receiving in its turn some new light from his owes its chief triumphs, and without which it would have singularly-gisted intellect. Newton died at his home been comparatively helpless. And it was also in 1666 in Orbell's Buildings, now Pitt's Buildings, ' Kenthat, having retired to Woolsthorp, in order to avoid the sington, between one and two o'clock in the morning plague, which then raged at Cambridge, he was, while of Monday the 20th of March, 1727, in the eightysitting in his mother's garden, struck with the first idea tifth year of his age. of his theory of universal gravitation, by the simple incident of an apple dropping from a tree. He immediately entered into the calculations necessary to verify the hypothesis he had formed, and would have then established its truth if he had possessed accurate measurements of all the distances which he had to take into account; but being misled by certain incorrect statements, which prevented the result of his investigation from turning out what it ought to have done, he desisted in the mean time from the further prosecution of the subject, and it was not till sixteen or seventeen years afterwards that, with rectified data, he resumed it, and soon brought it to a triumphant conclusion. Meanwhile he had taken his degree of B. A. in 1665, had become a junior Fellow of his college in 1667, had graduated M. A. in 1668, and in the same year had obtained a senior Fellowship. In 1669 Dr. Barrow, having accepted the chair of Divinity, resigned the Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics, when Newton was appointed his successor. In January 1672 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and almost immediately after began to contribute to the 'Transactions accounts of his discoveries in optics, which fixed upon him the attention of men of science in every part of Europe. These and his other communications also involved him in many vexatious controversies, into the history of which it is impossible for us to enter here, but which appear to have greatly annoyed and distressed his placid and sensitive disposition, and even at times to have made him almost regret that he had not hidden the
[Portrait of Newton.] light that fell upon him within his own bosom. “ I blame my own imprudence," he exclaims in one of his letters, " for parting with so real a blessing as my quiet, to run The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at after a shadow." He at last requested Oldenburg, the
59, Lincoln's-Inn Fields. secretary of the Royal Society, to prevent the appearance, as far as he conveniently could, of any objections
LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. or philosophical letters that might be sent respecting his Shopkeepers, and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following discoveries. He also expressed the utmost aversion to
Booksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be hnd:the publication of his Principia, the immortal disclosure London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley. Manchester, ROBINSON; and WERB of his philosophy of the universe, when the Society first Birmingham, Drake.
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLET. applied to him to allow them to print it: “Philosophy,” Bristol WESTLEY and Co
Norwich, JARROLD and Sox,
Nottingham, WRIGHT, he says, writing on the subject to Halley, “is such an Derby, Wilkins and Son.
Orford, SLATTER. impertinently litigious lady, that a man had as good be Doncaster, Brooke and Co.
Portsea, HORSEY, Jun. engaged in law-suits as have to do with her.” He was, Exeter, BALLE.
Sheffield, RIDGE. however, eventually prevailed upon to yield; and the Hull, STEPHENSON.
Staffordshire, Lane End, C. WATTS. work appeared in May 1687. His Optics he would not
Edinburgh, OLIVER and Boyp. publish till the year 1704, two years after the death of Lincoln, Brooke and Sons. Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. his pertinacious tormentor Hooke, who, while he lived, Liverpool, Willmer and SMITH. had almost regularly either contested the truth of every discovery Newton announced, or claimed it as his own,
Printed by W.LIAM CLOWES, Stamford Street,
Kendal, HUDSON and NICHOLSON.