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first object I perceived in the room was a woman sittingmake me totally despair. I proceeded on as fast as I conon the floor with an infant in her arms, all covered with veniently could, though with the utmost caution, and dust, pale and trembling. I asked her how she got having at length got clear of this horrid passage, I found hither, but her consternation was so great that she could myself safe and unhurt in the large open space before give me no account of her escape. I suppose that when St. Paul's church, which had been thrown down a few the tremor first began, she ran out of her own house, minutes before, and buried a great part of the congreand finding herself in such imminent danger from the fall- gation, that was generally pretty numerous, this being ing stones, retired into the door of mine, which was almost reckoned one of the most populous parishes in Lisbon. contiguous to hers, for shelter, and when the shock in- Here I stood some time, considering what I should do, creased, which filled the door with dust and rubbish, ran and not thinking myself safe in this situation, I came to up

stairs into my apartment, which was then open : be it the resolution of climbing over the ruins of the west end as it might, this was no time for curiosity. I remember the of the church, in order to get to the river's side, that I poor creature asked me, in the utmost agony, if I did not might be removed as far as possible from the tottering think the world was at an end; at the same time she houses, in case of a second shock. complained of being choked, and begged, for God's This, with some difficulty, I accomplished, and here I sake, I would procure her a little drink. Upon this I found a prodigious concourse of people of both sexes, went to a closet where I kept a large jar with water, and of all ranks and conditions, among whom I ob(which you know is sometimes a pretty scarce commo- served some of the principal canons of the patriarchal dity in Lisbon,) but finding it broken in pieces, I told church, in their purple robes and rochets, as these all go her she must not now think of quenching her thirst, but in the habit of bishops ; several priests who had run saving her life, as the house was just falling on our from the altars in their sacerdotal vestments in the midst heads, and if a second shock came, would certainly bury of their celebrating mass; ladies half dressed, and some us both. I bade her take hold of my arm, and that without shoes; all these, whom their mutual dangers I would endeavour to bring her into some place of had here assembled as to a place of safety, were on their security.

knees at prayers, with the terrors of death in their counI shall always look upon it as a particular providence, tenances, every one striking his breast and crying out that I happened on this occasion to be undressed, for incessantly Miserecordia meu Dios. had I dressed myself as I proposed when I got out of Amidst this crowd I could not avoid taking notice bed, in order to breakfast with a friend, I should, in all of an old venerable priest, in a stole and surplice, probability, have run into the street at the beginning of who, I apprehend, had escaped from St. Paul's. He the shock, as the rest of the people in the house did, and was continually moving to and fro among the people, consequently have had my brains dashed out as every exhorting them to repentance, and endeavouring to one of them had. However, the imminent danger I was comfort them. He told them, with a flood of tears, that in did not hinder me from considering that my present God was grievously provoked at their sins, but that if dress, only a gown and slippers, would render my they would call upon the blessed Virgin, she would ingetting over the ruins almost impracticable: I had, tercede for them. Every one now flocked around him, therefore, still presence of mind enough left to put on a earnestly begging his benediction, and happy did that pair of shoes and a coat, the first that came in my way, man think himself, who could get near enough to touch which was every thing I saved, and in this dress I hur- the hem of his garment; several I observed had little ried down stairs, the woman with me, holding by my wooden crucifixes and images of saints in their hands, arm, and made directly to that end of the street which which they offered me to kiss, and one poor Irishman, opens to the Tagus. Finding the passage this way I remember, held out a St. Antonio to me for this purentirely blocked up with the fallen houses to the height pose, and when I gently put his arm aside, as giving of their second stories, I turned back to the other end him to understand that I desired to be excused this which led into the main street, (the common thorough- piece of devotion, he asked me, with some indignation, fare to the palace,) and having helped the woman over a whether I thought there was a God. Į verily believe vast heap of ruins, with no small hazard to my own life; many of the poor bigoted creatures who saved these just as we were going into this street, as there was one useless pieces of wood, left their children to perish. part I could not well climb over without the assistance. However, you must not imagine that I have now the of my hands as well as feet, I desired her to let go her least inclination to mock at their superstitions. I sinhold, which she did, remaining two or three feet behind cerely pity them, and must own, that a more affecting me, at which instant there fell a vast stone from a totter- spectacle was never seen. Their tears, their bitter sighs ing wall, and crushed both her and the child in pieces and lamentations, would have touched the most flinty So dismal a spectacle at any other time would have af- heart. I knelt down amongst them, and prayed as ferfected me in the highest degree, but the dread I was in vently as the rest, though to a much properer object, the of sharing the same fate myself, and the many instances only Being who could hear my prayers to afford me any of the same kind which presented themselves all around, succour. were too shocking to make me dwell a moment on this

[To be continued in No. 46.] single object. I had now a long narrow street to pass, with the

THE WEEK. houses on each side four or five stories high, all very old, the greater part already thrown down, or con- DECEMBER 16.-On this day, in the year 1584, was tinually falling, and threatening the passengers with in- born at Salvington, near Tarring, in Sussex, the most evitable death at every step, numbers of whom lay killed learned, able, and patriotic John Selden.

After combefore me, or what I thought far more deplorable--so mencing his education at the grammar-school of Chibruised and wounded that they could not stir to help chester, he removed to Hart Hall, Oxford ; and when themselves. For my own part, as destruction appeared he left the university, he entered himself first of Clifford's to me unavoidable, I only wished I might be made an end Inn and afterwards of the Inner Temple, with the view of at once, and not have my limbs broken, in which case of being called to the bar, which he was in due course. I could expect nothing else but to be left upon the spot, His labours as an author commenced about the same lingering in misery, like these poor unhappy wretches, time with his professional career. He was yet only in without receiving the least succour from any person. his twenty-third year when he published his . Analectum

As self-preservation, however, is the first law of na- Anglo-Britannicum,' a learned treatise on the form of ture, these sad thoughts did not so far prevail as to the English Government before the Norman Conquest.

This production was followed by a long succession of guage of the English Scriptures rather than to the other works, of which we cannot here afford even to original, for the reasons of any of their propositions. enumerate the names. But among them were his "Perhaps," he would say, “in your little pocket bibles • Titles of Honour,' published in 1614, which is still a with gilt leaves (alluding to such copies, which they were standard authority upon the subject of which it treats ; in the habit of pulling out and appealing to on every his treatise · De Diis Syriis,' a most elaborate and eru- emergency) it may be so written, but the signification of dite investigation of the ancient Oriental idolatry; his the Greek, or the Hebrew, is thus"-pointing out to * History of Tythes,' in refutation of the doctrine of their them the true meaning. We must not infer, however, divine right; his ‘Marmora Arundelliana,' the first pub- from this anecdote, which is told by Whitelock, another lication of the celebrated 'Parian Chronicle,' and his lay member of the assembly, that there were not among • Mare Clausum,' a defence of the British right of domi- the presbyterian majority, to whom Selden was opposed, nion over the surrounding seas, in reply to the Mare many individuals of profound learning as well as of disLiberum of Grotius. The History of Tithes, which tinguished ability. The result of their labours abundantly was published in 1618, although it allowed tithes to be proves this, whatever difference of opinion there may be legally due to the clergy, and only denied that they were as to the soundness of some of the views which they exigible under the authority of a special grant from adopted. In 1645 Selden was appointed by the House Heaven, gave such offence to the dominant party of the of Commons one of the twelve commissioners to whom day as to draw down their most violent enmity and per- the affairs of the Admiralty were intrusted; and the secution on the head of the author. He was brought year following the sum of £5000 was voted to him in before the High Commission Court, and compelled to acknowledgment of his many services. After this he express his sorrow for having published the work. Sel- took but little part in public affairs. His death took den sat as a member of the parliament which, after his place on the 30th of November, 1654, when he had unconstitutional suspension of the meetings of that high nearly completed his seventieth year. After his decease court for six years, James I. called together in 1620— a collection of his remarks in conversation was published and which is famous for the impeachment of Bacon, and by his amanuensis, under the title of his Table Talk. It for the commencement of that resistance to the royal abounds in striking and valuable observations, and despotism, which terminated in the triumph of the gives a very high idea of his colloquial powers. His national liberties at the Revolution nearly seventy years language both in conversation, indeed, and in debate, is after. Among the patriots who here made their stand recorded to have greatly surpassed in clearness and against the usurpations of prerogative, Selden was one vigour his written style'; and his is one of several of the most distinguished; and on the dissolution of remarkable cases in which the same contrast has been the parliament in the beginning of the following year he observed. At the head of such cases we ought, perhaps, was, along with several others of the most eminent to place that of Dr. Johnson. members, committed to prison. He was, however, again returned to the next parliament, which met two years afterwards (the last which was held during James's reign); and he was also a member of the three parliaments, which successively sat for a few months each in the first three years of Charles I. On the dissolution of the last of these in March, 1629, he was, together with eight other members, committed to the Tower by a royal warrant, charging him with having uttered sedition in his place in parliament, an offence not known to the constitution. He was not released from this imprisonment till the year 1634. When the Long Parliament was summoned in 1640, Selden was unanimously elected member for the University of Oxford. In this celebrated assembly he was distinguished for the moderation of his views, and repeatedly exerted himself with great earnestness, although without effect, to prevent the contest between the nation and the throne from reaching the unhappy crisis which compelled an appeal to arms. His influence, however, was afterwards more successfully employed on various occasions in protecting the learned institutions of the country from the dangers to which they were exposed from the fanatical violence of the times. In other respects, although probably not entirely

[Portrait of Selden.) satisfied with the conduct of the party to which he attached himself, he swam with the prevailing current ;

The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is af and not only in 1643 accepted from the House of Com

59, Lincoln's-Inn Fields. mons the office of Keeper of the Records in the Tower,

LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. but was prevailed upon the following year to subscribe

Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following the solemn league and covenant. He was also appointed, Bouksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :along with many other members of parliament, to a seat London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley. Manchester, ROBINSON; and WEBB in the famous Assembly of Divines which had by this

Birmingham, DRAKE,

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARXLET. time met at Westminster to settle the doctrines and Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.

Norwich, JARROLD and Sox.

Carlisle, THURNAM; and SCOTT. Nottingham, WRIGHT. government of the Church, and which gave birth to the Derby, WILKINS and Sox.

Ostford, SLATTER. present confession of faith of the Church of Scotland. Devonport, BYERS.

Plymouth, NETTLETOX.

Doncaster, BROOKE and Co. Selden was one of the ablest and most active debaters E.reter, BALLE.

Sheffield, RIDOE. in this theological synod; but he does not seem to have

Staffordshire, Lane End, C. WATTI

Worcester, DICHTON. agreed in many points with the majority of his brethren. It is said that he used to take great pleasure in posing

Edinburgh, OLIVER and BorD. Lincoln, BROOKE and Sons.

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. the worthy presbyterian doctors, and was particularly Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITH, delighted when he could catch them trusting to the lan

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES, Stamford Street.


Bath, Simms.

and SIMMS.

Portsca, HORSEY, Jan.

Falmouth, PHIL.P.
Kendal, Hudson and NICHOLSON,

Dublin, WAKEMAN,

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(West front of Antwerp Cathedral.] The city of Antwerp stands on the east or right bank of 2000 feet wide, and admits the largest ships to come up the Schelde, in north lat. 51° 14', and about twenty-five to Antwerp, and to enter the docks and canals. From miles in a straight line nearly due north of Brussels, the Antwerp to the mouth of the river is about fifteen miles, present capital of Belgium. The Flemish name for this and this space is lined with forts. In the Dutch boun. place is Antwerpen; the Spaniards, who once possessed dary map between Holland and Belgium of the date it, call it Amberes, and the French, Anvers. Few places 1831, (the latest which we have seen,) there are no fewer are more favourably situated for foreign commerce than than six forts marked on the east bank of the Schelde Antwerp. The river opposite the town is from 1500 to I below Antwerp, and as many on the west bank. At its Vol. I

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mouth the Schelde divides into two large arms, which inform us, had been done with such success that “out of encircle the islands of North and South Beveland, with several hundreds lately planted, only two or three had the island of Walcheren, in which are the strong tawns failed to grow." The largest trees about the town had of Middleburg, and Vlissingen, called by the English, been felled in 1814, when Carnot was preparing to make Flushing. The more northerly arm is called the East an obstinate defence in favour of his Imperial Master

. Schelde; the other is named Hond or West Schelde, Antwerp, besides its connection with the sea, has a. through which vessels approach to Antwerp.

ready water communication, either by the Schelde or Antwerp is strongly fortified on the land side like most canals, with Mechlin, Louvain, and Brussels on the south of the old Belgian towns, and has also on the south a and east, and with Ghent and Bruges on the west. In reinarkably strong citadel

, in the form of a pentagon, 1831 its population was 77,199, according to the Dutch which was erected by the Duke of Alva in 1568. During map above referred to, which has the population of the the occupation of Antwerp by the French, in the reign of chief towns included in it marked on its face. Before Napoleon, the works of the citadel were strengthened, and the late revolution in 1830, the trade of Antwerp was several additions made by which its outward form has considerable ; though it must doubtless have suffered very been altered ; and it is now considered able to make a for- much since that period, in consequence of the unsettled midable resistance. The principal houses of Antwerp are state of the Belgic question. In 1829, near 1000 ships built of a kind of sandstone, brought about ten miles from entered its ports. Antwerp has also extensive manufacthe town; the streets are generally wide, and on the whole tures of black sewing silk, linen and woollen cloth, silk, it may be called a well-built city. It is said to contain sugar refining, &c. twenty-six public places, or squares, (of which the Meer, Antwerp has been the scene of many remarkable polithe finest of all, contains a palace built by Napoleon,)tical events, and has often suffered the evils attendant seventy public buildings, and one hundred and sixty-two on war. As late as 1830 it sustained considerable streets. The chief public buildings are the Bourse or damage from the cannonading directed against it by the Exchange, said to be the pattern after which those of Lon- Dutch troops in the citadel. don and Amsterdam were built, though it is superior to Many of our readers have probably read of the great either of them. The pillars that support its galleries are siege of Antwerp in 1585, by the Prince of Parma, of marble. The Town-house is also reckoned a fine struc- against whom it held out for fourteen months. The ture. But the glory of Antwerp is its Cathedral, which, Prince, in order to command the navigation of the river, in spite of some paltry shops that stick to its walls, strikes built strong projecting piers on each side, which were every stranger with admiration when he views the noble mounted with cannon; while the intermediate space, elevation of its steeple, and the costly decorations of its which was thus rendered comparatively narrow, was interior. The steeple is of stone, and 400 feet high, filled up with boats chained together, and firmly moored. according to those accounts which inake it least; but This enormous work, which withstood all the floods of others make it as much as 450 feet, which is more than winter, was destroyed by the fireships of Antwerp. One the height of Strasburg Cathedral. It generally happens of these horrible machines, in its course down the river, that the dimensions of all large edifices are very incor- struck against one of the piers, and its explosion burst rectly given by travellers, and, indeed, in all books of through the bridge of boats, destroyed the pier, and ordinary reference; and we can therefore affirm nothing blew up the men and ammunition with which it was positive as to the height of the Antwerp spire. When the loaded. In spite, however, of the courage and obstispectator has ascended to the highest point that is acces- nacy of the Antwerpers, they were at last compelled sible, he sees all the city spread out like a map before to surrender to the Spanish troops. The history of this him, while by the aid of a small glass his eye travels over once flourishing city exhibits rather a melancholy retrothe flat plains of Belgium and Holland for forty miles spect. Reduced to a population of less than 50,000, in every direction. To the south, over a thickly wooded with its trade diminished, and an enemy in its citadel, country, the eye can reach to Mechlin, and still further we cannot help looking back to its flourishing days of Deyond it to Louvain and Brussels. Towards the north the early part of the sixteenth century, when 200,000 and north-west Fort Lillo on the Schelde, and far beyond inhabitants and strangers are said to have filled its it, to the north-west, the shipping of Flushing and the streets, and the commerce of the world was in its harspire of Middleburg, in the centre of the island of Wal- bour. The names of such illustrious painters as Rubens, cheren, are distinctly visible. The latter object is near Van Dyke, and Jordaens, have shed a lustre on it as a forty miles from Antwerp in a straight line. To the north school of painting ; and among its illustrious citizens we and north-east stretches the dreary flat through which may mention the name of the early geographer, Abraham the traveller must find his way to Bergen op Zoom, and Ortelius. Breda. The length of this magnificent structure is said Some facts in this notice are derived from the 'Journal to be 500 feet, (we do not vouch for the accuracy of the of an Horticultural Tour, &c. in Flanders and Holland, dimensions,) and the width 230 or 240 feet. It contains &c.; Edinburgh, 1823 : a useful and amusing book. 125 pillars. Rubens, who was a native of Antwerp, painted two pictures for the high altar, which are reckoned among his master-pieces. One of these, the Descent from STRUCTURE AND USE OF THE HUMAN the Cross, which is admirable for the skilful grouping of

LUNGS. the figures, is probably familiar to many of our readers The human lungs, like those of the inferior animals from engravings and plaster casts. These pictures had vulgarly called " lights,” are soft, spungy substances, a journey to l'aris at the time when so many works of which, when healthy, will float in water. Their use is art were summoned to adorn the French capital, but they to assist in the purification of the blood. In many creahave since been restored to the place for which they were tures the respiratory apparatus has an appearance very originally intended. Among the great improvements dissimilar to that of the human lungs. In fishes, the which Buonaparte began at Antwerp, are the new quay duty of pulmonary organs is performed by their gills ; and basin, which, though grand works, are said by some and in insects, no air being admitted by the mouth, their travellers to lose much of their importance when com- blood is ventilated through the medium of small holes pared with the docks of Liverpool, or the great docks of arranged along their sides, London. Antwerp, like many continental cities, excels Whatever the structure may be through which the our English towns in the decorations of trees. Along atmospheric air is admitted to act upon the blood, its the whole line of the new quay a row of elms is planted, function is equally essential to life; for though an insect which, anne travellers who visited Antwerp in 1817, | may live much longer excluded from the air than a . human being can possibly do, yet it will, after a time, sion on a long course of peculiar and specific studies. certainly perish on account of the deprivation.

We cannot, therefore, blame those persons who could not When“ holding our breath,” we soon come to expe- at once perceive, or might not choose to make an implicit rience a feeling of suffocation. This is merely a nervous surrender of their judgments until they had perceived, impression, produced by the blood passing impure the beautiful and sublime qualities of the Elgin marbles. through the lungs to the left side of the heart ; and it I he opinions given by the persons who were considered indicates the necessity of respiring fresh air to purify that best qualified to judge, before the Commitee of the fluid. To suffocate an insect, we have only to smear it House of Commons, were pretty unanimous; and the with thick oil. The oil fills the breathing pores in its point of perfection which they agreed in ascribing to sides, and this obstruction of the medium of respiration, these works, was the union of nature and ideality. This if continued, will eventually kill the creature.Com- is the highest quality of art, whether in sculpture or mon water always contains a portion of atmospheric air; painting, the common defect among the practitioners of and fishes will be smothered if confined to water which both arts being an undue inclination to either one of has been deprived of its air, under the receiver of an those qualities, to the neglect of the other. An exclusive air-pump.

attention to nature, in the common acceptation of the The sensible change which the blood undergoes in term, degenerates into vulgarily; while the attempt to passing through our lungs is observed in its colour, cha- refine the representation of the human form by an ideal racterized as venous blood. It enters the lungs of a black-standard, without perpetual reference to living models, ish or deep-purple colour; but in leaving them it is of a gives rise to conventional style or manner—the grave of bright vermilion red, and it is then called arterial blood. excellence. It is to Rome that we must refer for the history This change is owing to the action of the inhaled air. of sculpture, where the whole progress of the art, from

It may be asked—“How can the fluid which is con- its birth and maturity to its decline and fall, is developed tained in vessels be at all affected by the respired air in that vast collection of statues which embellishes the which is external to these vessels ?" The lungs, with the Vatican. During the long lapse of ages which ensued exception of the air-tubes, (branches of the windpipe from the infancy of sculpture until the arts became extinthat perforate them in every direction,) are one mass or guished in the subversion of the Roman empire, we niet-work of blood vessels. These, when approaching perceive vast disparities of execution in the innumerable to the surface of the lungs, divide into an infinitude of works extant, whether by Greek or Italian artists. These small branches, the coats of which are so extremely thin inequalities resuit rather from the various degrees of that the air we breathe readily acts through them, and talent evinced by the practitioners, or from the influence makes the requisite changes.

of the times in which they lived, than from any actual The circulation of the blood, from the time that it difference of style, which refers itself uniformly to the leaves the lungs until it returns again, is very simple. principles established by the great masters of Greece, The first stage of its progress is occupied in passing from and is denominated the style of the antique. The art the lungs to the left cavity of the heart. The left cavity of sculpture was consummated in this style, which disof the he art then contracts and forces it along the arte-carded individual peculiarities, and gave a high generic ries, (the vessels that pulsate;) and by them it is con- character to the human form. Thus was elicited that idea veyed to every part of the body to bestow nourishment of abstract beauty which is embodied in the antique staupon the different parts. All the demands of the system, tues, and which the experience of all succeeding artists in the way of nutrition, being supplied, the blood returns has taught them to be unapproachable through any other through the veins to the right cavity of the heart and medium. But it is the fate of all excellence to suffer from from thence to the lungs to be purified. When purified unskilful imitation, and the calm and elevated beauty of in the lungs, it pursues the same route anew.

the antique, when transmitted by the chisel of interior · By the preceding description it will be seen that the practitioners, assumes the aspect of frigid and wooden colour of the blood becomes changed, during its passage inanity. On the revival of the arts in Italy, a new epoch through the lungs, from a deep purple to a bright red. in the annals of sculpture commenced with the appearIn the arteries it is always of the vermilion colour; and ance of Michael Angelo. That artist renounced the imiin the veins it is as uniformly blackish or deep purple. tation of the antique and struck out a style which had no Persons unacquainted with the latter fact, while sub- prototype except in his own imagination. It is said that mitting to the operation of letting blood at the arm, have he expressed regret at not having devoted his whole life been frequently heard to exclaim “it is frightfully black.” | to sculpture ; a sentiment in which, no one, we think, Such persons are not aware that the dark hue of venous will coincide, who has compared his statues with his blood is its natural appearance. This popular mistake is paintings in the Sistine chapel. The sweeping convexity fostered by quacks to persuade the uninitiated that they and angular decision of his manner is admirably adapted are very unwell, when in reality there may be little or to pictures seen at such immense height and distance, nothing the matter with them.

but becomes harsh and overcharged in sculpture, which One vessel excepted, professional men never let blood is intended for closer inspection. But Michael Angelo, from an artery; for, if once cut, an artery of any con- if he fails to excite our sympathies, always extorts our siderable size is not likely to stop bleeding unless it be reverence: he is not to be approached with levity; we tied at the incised point with a thread. The exception feel that in his presence we are standing before a giant, to this rule is a small artery, which may be felt, and, in who, if he does not conciliate us with beauty, commands many persons seen, pulsating on the temple. This vessel our implicit homage by his energy and grandeur. The is sometimes opened in apoplexy and other dangerous aberrations of Michael Angelo from what may be termed cases of head disease.

the legitimate style of sculpture, may be considered, however, to have been chaste and classical, if compared with

the eccentricities of Bernini, that most fantastical of proTHE ELGIN MARBLES.

fessors, by whom the severe and solemn muse was comNo small degree of discussion was excited, on the first pelled to descend from her pedestal, and perform the arrival of the Elgin marbles in England, as to their evolutions of a rope-dancer. The novelty introduced by actual merit

. This may appear extraordinary, consi- Michael Angelo resulted from the innate and uncondering the high and unquestionable excellence of these trollable vigour of his faculties: that of Bernini arose works. But it is to be recollected, that sculpture does from the desire to dress out sculpture in the attractions pot address itself, like painting, to our plain and ob- of picturesque effect; a vain and unphilosophical attempt, vious perceptions, but depends for its due comprehen- which has communicated to all his works a character of

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