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THE APOLLO BELVIDERE.
“ These words," says Thiersch,“ seem to hang on the Tue names of few works of art are so familiar to our lips of the indignant god. Already has he turned himears as those of the Apollo Belvidere and the Venus de self from the left side, in which direction the arrow has Medici; the first one of the innumerable wonders of sped, and is moving off towards the right, while his Rome, the second one of the ornaments of Florence.
head is still directed towards his vanquished enemy on The Apollo was found at Antium, now Anzio, which the left, to whom, while in his flight and uttering the was the birth-place of Nero, and one of his favourite words of vengeance, he gives a last look of indignation places of residence. As in the case of the Laocoon, this and contempt.” statue was for some time supposed to be a work belonging to what we are accustomed to call the best age of Greek sculpture, by which, as we have already explained,
STATISTICAL NOTES. we generally understand the period of Phidias and that
ENGLAND AND WALES-(CONTINUED). immediately following it. Indeed the Apollo is now sometimes called the work of Phidias, just as if there were (31.) The British copper mines, situate chiefly in Wales some good reason for giving it that name. And here it Cornwall, Derbyshire, and Devonshire, were wrought may be well to put our readers on their guard against with little energy till the last century. Previously to giving credit to the loose assertions of most writers as to 1793 England was dependent on foreigners for supplies matters of antiquity: very few have either time, inclina- of copper ; but from about that period downwards, has tion, or sufficient knowledge to investigate them com
become one of the principal markets for the supply of pletely. When then an assertion is made, such as, other countries. The quantity of copper produced during " that the Apollo Belvidere is the work of Phidias,” it is the year 1829 in Cornwall
, from ores raised in that quite fair to ask for the proof; and perhaps this will county, exceeded 10,000 tons of pure metal; and if to apply equally well to other assertions about things of this be added what was produced in Wales, and in other inore importance than the paternity of a statue.
parts of England, and in Ireland, the whole quantity of Some Freuch critics first observed the fact of the pure metal produced in the United Kingdom, in 1829, Apollo being made of Carrara marble, which Pliny may be fairly stated at 12,000 tons. The quantity of speaks of as being newly worked in his time, under the British copper exported in 1829 amounted to 7976 tons name of marble of Luna. If this is undisputed, we of fine metal ; to which, adding the exports of foreign cannot assign the Apollo to any other epoch but that copper, the total export was 887 tons. of the early Roman emperors, and it seems the most imported is altogether intended for re-importation. The probable hypothesis that it was made for Nero to adorn value of the 12,000 tons of copper produced in the his sea villa at Antium. This man, whom history has United Kingdom, as above stated, at £90 per ton, is represented to us as a cruel tyrant, an unnatural son,
£1,080,000. and the murderer of his wife, was still a lover of the arts,
(32.) The term “ hardware" includes every kind of and perhaps no mean judge of them, as far as we can goods manufactured from metals, comprising iron, brass, discern through that cloud of abuse in which the history of steel, and copper articles of all descriptions, of which the the early emperors is enveloped. The noble figure of the principal seats are Birmingham and Sheffield. From Apollo, perhaps one of the last efforts of Grecian art to the abundance of metallic ores, and of coals, in this perfect the ideal form of the Archer god, stood at Nero's country, we may hope the hardware manufacture is on a bidding in all its beauty before the master of the Roman very secure foundation, although both in the Netherlands world. And can we doubt that he felt and admired that and Germany, the fabrics of hardware and cutlery have perfection which never yet was embodied in a living of late years very considerably improved and extended form? To attempt to express by words the impressions themselves. Mr. M'Culloch, in his Commercial Dicwhich are produced by the highest productions of na- tionary, differing from other writers, states the total ture or art, is a vain attempt: with those who do not feel, aggregate value of the iron and other hardware manuit results in mere words that have no definite meaning ; factures of England and Scotland at £17,500,000 a with those who do, it can only result in a complete con- year, affording direct employment in the various departviction of the inability of words to express the images of ments of the trade, for at least 360,000 persons. The thought. No such difficulty would be felt in treating of United States are by far the most important market for the Venus de' Medici, a statue which is beautiful, and, hardware and cutlery: Of the total value (£1,389,514) for what we know, faultless in execution, but as far re- exported in 1829, they took no less than £669,871. moved from the ideal form of the goddess of Love, as
The East and West Indies, the British North-American the most ordinary female figure that we meet with.
Colonies, and the United States, are the principal marIt is Thiersch's opinion that the figure of the A polla kets for iron and steel. has a reference to the story of the god shooting with his (33.) Of the remaining articles of British manufacarrows the great serpent Python ; and that the artist had ture which are exported to a considerable amount, may at the same time in his thoughts the passage of the first he mentioned as important, refined sugar, which is sent book of the Iliad, where Apollo descends in anger from chiefly to the German and Italian markets, and of which the heights of Olympus, with his bow and quiver on his the total export exceeds a million sterling in value. shoulder, hastening to deal forth death amidst the army of Earthenware, or crockery, is exported to the value of the Greeks. But the story of the Python, and a passage half a million, and is a manufacture the extension of in Homer's Hymn to Apollo, seem to have suggested the which has added peculiarly to the comforts and ornaments ideas which the artist has embodied in this noble form. of civilized life. It has superseded the less cleanly vessels “ Apollo's bow unerring sped the dart,
of pewter and wood, and by its cheapness has been And the fierce monster groaned beneath the smart.
brought within the reach of the poorest housekeepers. Tortured with pain, hard-breathing, on the ground It is to be seen in every country in America, in many The serpent writhed beneath the fatal wound,
parts of Asia, and in most of Europe. The principal Now here, now there, he winds amidst the wood,
seat of the manufacture is in the potteries in StaffordAnd vomits forth his life in streams of blood. Rot where thou liest, the exulting archer said,
shire, where it is estimated that ware is produced to the No more shall man thy vengeful fury dread,
amount of about £1,500,000 a year, and valuing that But every hand that tills earth's spacious field,
produced at Worcester, Derby, and other parts of the Her grateful offerings to my shrine shall yield. Not Typho's strength nor fell Chimæra's breath,
country, at £750,000, the whole value of the manufacCan now protect thee from the grasp of death.
ture may be taken at £2,250,000 a year. The best There on the damp, black earth, in foul decay,
market for British earthenware is the United States, and Rot, rot to dust, beneath the sun's bright ray.'
the next in importance are Brazil, the British North
American and West Indian Colonies, Germany, the retained him by their particular kindness. In this manNetherlands, and Caba. The glass manufacture can ner from Moscow he reached Wilna, then traversing the hardly amount to less than £2,000,000 in value, and rest of Lithuania and Poland, the Kingdom of Prussia, the workmen employed in different departments of it a part of Saxony, the States of the Confederacy of the exceed 50,000. It is to be lamented that the consump- Rhine, Bavaria, the Tyrol, and the Alps—in short, after tion of this article has declined, and is now actually less having performed a journey of more than two thousand than it was forty years ago, which can hardly be attri- five hundred English miles, Tofino again entered Milan butable to any other cause than the oppressive duties and in the summer of 1813, in the rear of a small body of vexatious excise regulations to which it is subject. The the Veliti. How this poor Italian dog had travelled details of the pernicious effects of the high duties may be through regions and swum over freezing rivers, where found in Mr. Poulett Thomson's speech in the House of the very horses of the country had died, was a marvel to Commons in March, 1830, who urged their repeal with all who witnessed the tragical retreat. great force and reason. The remaining articles of export As soon as he was within the walls of Milan, Tofino are butter and cheese, coals, apparel, haberdashery, arms, went straight to the barracks which the Veliti had occubacon, beef and pork, beer and ale, cordage, fish, hats, pied, and after waiting there some time, he trotted to the lead and shot, leather manufactures, machinery, painters' sentry-box by the palace-gate, where he had so often colours, plated goods, salt, soap and candles, stationery, mounted guard with his master—and he never more and a variety of miscellaneous articles, making up the moved a hundred yards from it! The first two or three total given in a former paragraph. We shall conclude days he was heard to howl and moan, but this sad mood our notice of British manufactures with a brief account past, and he occupied his corner in the sentry-box in of the state of our silk manufacture, which, for many silence. The interesting anecdote reached the ears of reasons, is a subject which ought to be well understood, the Viceroy Beauharnais, who ordered that poor Tofino the misrepresentations propagated concerning it having should be kindly treated and well-fed, and considered as been almost innumerable.
a pensioner of the state. But there was no need for (To be continued.)
these orders—the whole army, the whole population of Milan regarded the dog almost as a sacred animal, and
were accustomed to show him to ail strangers as one of THE SOLDIER'S DOG.
the wonders and ornaments of the city. A COMMON soldier in the Italian regiment of the Veliti In 1814, when the French were driven out of Italy, of the guards had, when at Milan, a dog that was much Tofino fell, with all Lombardy and the States of Venice, attached to him, following him to all his various military into the power of the Austrians, who (whatever they did duties, and invariably mounting guard with him, and with the human beings that returned to their yoke) sharing his sentry-box whenever he stood sentry at the treated the dog as kindly as ever; he still occupied his gate of the vice-regal palace.
corner of the sentry-box, and is as feasted and pointed In 1812, at the time of the disastrous Russian out as heretofore. Tofino lived several months under campaign, among the numerous regiments composing the regime of the house of Austria, and then died full of the fine Italian army that marched with the Viceroy of honours and deeply regretted by the Milanese. Italy, Eugene Beauharnais, went the Veliti, and with Tofino had nothing striking in his outward appearthem the master of the dog. Tofino, who was already ance-he could not even pretend to purity of blood or well-known to the soldiers, marched after his master, and descent, for he was a mongrel—rough-haired, clumsily crossing the Alps and traversing a great portion of the made, and about the size of our common breed of European continent (having been present at several terriers. battles where the Veliti were engaged), finally arrived at Moscow. When the armies of Buonaparte were obliged
SONG OF DAVID. to withdraw from that capital in flames, Tofino still fol- | [The Song of David, of which the following is an extract, is a poem lowed his master, and went through all the horrors of that of very unequal merit, composed under the most unfavourable cir. memorable retreat. He was at the murderous battle of cumstances, while the author was in a state of confinement in a Malorajoshlewitz, where the Italians behaved gallantly
madhouse. The lines are said to have been indented by the unand suffered great loss. The Viceroy's Veliti, though
happy man with a key on the wall of his cell. Christopher Smart,
although gifted by nature with considerabie talents, dragged on a they had suffered tremendously, had still the consist
wretched existence in London by endeavours to maintain himself ence and appearance of a regiment when they reached by his pen. At this period literary labour was very inadequately the Berezina ; but on the fatal passage of that river rewarded. The age of patronage was passing away, and the steady where so many thousands perished, they lost more than
support arising out of a large public demand for books was scarcely
created. Smart was chiefly supported by the bounty of his friends, half of their remaining men, and the inaster of poor and died in extreme poverty in 1770, aged 48. A considerable Tofino was among the number.
After that passage
number of Smart's poems are devoted to religious subjects ; and it there was no order preserved in the retreat; the frag- is an affecting example of the fervency of his piety amidst his ments of the Veliti were mixed up with the fragments of
mental wanderings, that many passages of a peculiarly serious
nature are recorded lo have been written while he knelt.] other regiments, and all went on in fearful confusion. Tofino, however, who had crossed the river in safety, and He sung of God, the mighty source had lingered some time on the bank, barking and moan
Of all things, the stupendous force
On which all things depend : ing as though he missed somebody, was soon after seen
From whose right arm, bencath whose eyes, trotting after some of the Veliti; and so he continued to
All period, power, and enterprise, be seen day after day and week after week keeping up
Commence, and reign, and end. with the retreating soldiery, and always close to those
The world, the clustering spheres he made, who wore the uniform of his unfortunate master. The
The glorious light, the soothing shade, circumstance naturally made an impression on the
Dale, champaign, grove and hill; men; and some of his master's comrades, in the midst
The multitudinous abyss, of their own miseries and privations, attended to the
Where Secrecy remains in bliss,
And Wisdom hides her skill, wants of the dog who showed such fidelity to the regiment. But in spite of these cares and their caresses,
Tell them, I am, Jehovah said Tofino would never exclusively attach himself to any one
To Moses, while Earth heard in dread,
And, smitten to the heart, man; on the contrary, he always looked out for the
At once above, beneath, around, greatest number of the Veliti, and where they went he
All Nature, without voice or sound, followed, regardless of the individuals who would have
Replied, O Lord, THOU ART !
[View of Stirling Castle.] STIRLING, anciently Striveling, was in former times one it travels over about twenty-four miles in making its of the most important towns, in a military point of view, way through a space not more than six miles in length. in the Scottish realm. From its position on the Forth The innumerable green peninsulas, of every variety of it was the key to the Highlands—“ the bulwark of the shape and dimension, which it forms in its sportive pronorth”—as Scott has called it in his ‘Lady of the Lake.' gress
, present a picture which certainly has not often It stands on the south bank of that river, and used to been surpassed in bright and animated beauty. command the only bridge by which it was crossed. The Grey Stirling, with her towers and town," is unques. situation of the place in its general features very much tionably a place of very high antiquity. The oldest resembles that of Edinburgh, which was described in the existing charter of the burgh is dated in 1120 ; but it account of Holyrood House in a former number. Both bears to be a confirmation of former grants, and there towns are seated on the south bank of the Forth, and can be no doubt that the fort at least was of importance each occupies an eminence, rising by a gradual ascent a considerable time before this. The first mention which from the east, and terminating at the opposite extremity historians have made of it is in the ninth century, about in a precipitous rock, the summit of which is crowned by the middle of which it is recorded to have been taken the fort or castle. The natural battlement, however, on and thrown down by Kenneth II. the King of the which the Castle of Stirling stands, is the higher of the Highlands of Scotland, when he overcame the Picts, two, being about 350 feet above the level of the sea, whose principal fortress it was, and that which guarded while the other is not quite three hundred.
the most exposed extremity of their territory. The whole Stirling has been called the Windsor of Scotland; and of the south of Scotland as far as Stirling, however, it has some pretensions to that appellation. The view appears soon after this to have fallen into the possession from the castle is of vast extent, and comprehends the of the two chiefs, Osbright, or Osbert, and Ella, who, richest variety both of the beautiful and the grand in under the weak sway of the English King, Ethelred I., natural scenery.
Towards the west the prospect is had seized upon the sovereignty of Northumberland; and bounded by the solitary Benlomond, rising in the sky, at they rebuilt the castle as a protection to their new conthe distance of about thirty miles, to the height of above quests *. In the next century we find it again in the 3000 feet. The intervening space is a level valley, hands of the Scots. It was afterwards repeatedly attacked through which the Forth is seen stealing its way with a and taken both by the English, and by the several factions thousand meanderings. Round the northern horizon whose contentions continued to distract Scotland with sweeps the almost continuous chain of the Grampians. little intermission, during nearly all the time it remained To the south lie the green hills of Campsie ; turning an independent kingdom. But even to enumerate all round from which towards the east the eye rests on a the sieges it sustained would lead us far beyond our preplain of rich and cultivated beauty, with the sister sent limits. The last time it was attacked was by the towers of the capital cresting the distance, and between, Highlanders in the rebellion of 1745, when it was sucthe broad and fertile plains of Carron on the one hand, cessfully defended by the governor, old General Blakeney, and on the other " the mazy Forth unravelled” in a suc- throughout a siege of several weeks. cession of beautiful windings, till it spreads out from a Stirling appears to have become a royal residence slender stream into a great arm of the sea. Some idea about the middle of the twelfth century; but probably of the singular manner in which the river lingers over
* The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, or Bernicia, ex. this part of its course, may be formed from the fact that I tended from the Humber to the Forth,
none of the present buildings of the castle are older than altogether, and to convert the hall into a barrack. the middle of the fifteenth, when James I., on his return Some years ago, however, a few of the old figures, after from his long but fortunate detention in England, made passing through various hands, fell under the notice of this place his principal royal seat. Its resemblance to Mrs. Maria Grahame, a lady well qualified to appreciate Windsor, where, captive although he was, he had passed their merit, and she immediately took means to collect the happiest years of his life, and his affection for which together as many more of them as could be recovered. he has himself celebrated with so much tenderness in his Engravings of those that could be found were made
Quair,' is supposed to have been one of the principal from her drawings, and published at Edinburgh in motives of his partiality. His son and successor, James 1817. The figures are all of them full of grace and II., was born here; and one of the still-existing apart- spirit, and, considered as the productions of so remote ments in the castle is renowned as the scene of a deed an age, are altogether wonderful. Nor are they less of bloody ferocity perpetrated by this monarch. The interesting in another point of view; for there is every powerful family of the Douglases had been for many reason to believe that they are not fancy sketches, but years the chief source of disturbance in the kingdom, resemblances taken from living originals. The counand had indeed shown on various occasions nothing tenances of James I. and his queen, Jane Beaufort, of short of a determination to dispute the possession of the James IV. and his queen, Margaret Tudor, of James V. supreme authority with the reigning house. The laws and his second wife, Mary of Guise, as well as a few of honourable warfare were probably but little regarded others, have been identified among those that remain. on either side in that savage age; and in a contest espe The ground immediately around the Castle, and cially waged for so high a prize as was here at stake, it which is walled in as a royal park, contains various was to be expected that men's passions should be mad- monuments of antiquity. Among them is an eminence, dened to a readiness for any excess. In the year 1440, on the north-east, where criminals used to be executed, William Earl of Douglas, a youth of sixteen, with his alluded to in the Lady of the Lake,' in the speech put brother, was'allured into the Castle of Edinburgh, and into the mouth of Douglas as he makes his way up there basely murdered. While the unsuspecting victims the rock :of treachery were seated at table, a boar's head, the well « Ye towers! within whose circuit dread known intimation that their lives were forfeited, was
A Douglas by his Sovereign bled; placed before them, and they were forthwith led, first to
And thou, O sad and fatal mound ! a mock trial, and thence to the block. There is much
That oft hast heard the death-axe sound,
As on the noblest of the land force and even a sort of rude sublimity in the old Fell the stern headsman's bloody hand !”. rhythmical malediction which refers to this deed, and
Here also is the round table where it is said that tour used probably to be muttered afterwards as an incentive naments were anciently held, with the adjoining seat to vengeance by the adherents of the slaughtered noble from which the dames of the court viewed the contest, men :
still distinguished by the name of the Ladies' Rock
This, too, is introduced by Scott :-
“ The vale with loud applauses rang,
The Ladies' Rock sent back the clang," &c.
And so frequently in ancient times was the country in The possessions of the family, however, were not taken from them on this occasion, but were bestowed upon an
the neighbourhood of this important fortress the scene of uncle of the late earl. It was William, the son of this battle-fields are pointed out from the summit of the
the meeting of hostile armies, that no fewer than twelve uncle, who met with his bloody fate in Stirling Castle. He had raised an army and formed a confederacy of the of Scotland, among the rest.
rock,—the glorious field of Bannockburn, the Marathon nobility with the avowed intention of setting at defiance the royal authority. On this the King invited him to come to Stirling that they might settle the matters of
THE FLOATING GARDENS OF CASHMERE. dispute between them peaceably in a personal conference. The city of Cashmere, being the capital of the proThe promise of a safe convoy induced the Earl to trust vince of that name in Asia, is situated in the midst of his person within the Royal Castle. At first he was numerous lakes, connected with each other, and with the treated with all hospitality and apparent kindness. James River Vedusta, by canals, separated by narrow lines and then led him to his private closet, and they entered into insulated plots of ground. Upon these lakes are floating conversation. By degrees their altercation grew warmer, gardens, cut off generally from the body of the lake by James insisting that Douglas should dissolve his rebel- a belt of reeds ; the cultivation of which is not only very lious confederacy, while the latter steadily refused to obey singular, but highly profitable, and worthy of imitation the command. At last the King, rising from his seat in in many parts of Europe as a resource for raising food . fury, exclaimed, grasping his dagger as he spoke, “If for man. The second number of the Journal of the you will not break this league, I shall,"—and instantly Geographical Society' contains a notice of the Natural plunged the weapon in the Earl's heart. The apartment Productions and Agriculture of Cashmere, from which in which this murder was perpetrated is still known by the following account is compiled :the name of the Douglas' Room. It is in the north The city of Cashmere is subject to considerable inwest corner of the Castle, in the suite of rooms which undations, which have become annually more frequent, anciently formed part of the royal residence, and are now through the neglect of the government in not checking occupied by the fort-major. Some years ago a skeleton the aceumulation of weeds and mud, which diminish the was found in a cleft of the rock immediately under the depth, and consequently increase the surface of the lakes. window of this room, which was supposed to have been This has suggested the expediency of a floating support that of the unfortunate Earl.
by which vegetables are cultivated in safety, deriving as One of the buildings in the Castle is called the Palace; much moisture as is beneficial without the risk of being being a quadrangular edifice, with a small court in the destroyed. Various aquatic plants spring from the botcentre. It was built by James V. Here is a room de tom of the lakes, as water lilies, sedges, reeds, &c. ; and signated the King's Room, or the Presence, the roof of as the boats which traverse those waters take generally which was formerly adorned with a series of carvings in the shortest lines they can pursue to their destination, wood, in the very highest style of art. About half a the lakes are in some parts cut into avenues as it were, century ago one or two of these ornaments fell; and the separated by beds of sedges and reeds. Here the farmer incident was taken advantage of to pull down the roof establishes his cucumber and melon floats by cutting off
the roots of the aquatic plants about two feet under in their persons, and the women are fair and tall. The water, so that they completely lose all connection with the famous Cashmere shawls derive their name from this bottom of the lake, but retain their situation in respect to country, though at present the supply that actually each other. When thus detached from the soil, they are comes from it is comparatively small. pressed into somewhat closer contact, and formed into long beds of about two yards breadth. The heads of THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON IN the sedges, reeds, and other plants of the float are next
1755. cut off and laid upon its surface, and covered with a thin [The appalling events, of which the following narrative presents a coat of mud, which, at first interrupted in its descent, picture, are brought before the eyes of the reader with a force and gradually sinks into the mass of matted stalks. The simplicity which leave no doubt of the exact truth of the details.
It is extracted, with a few omissions, from a book little known, bed floats, but is kept in its place by a stake of willow
and in most respects of very small merit-Davy's Letters on driven through it at each end, which admits of its rising Literature.' This portion of a work now forgotten, purports to and falling in accommodation to the rise and fall of the be communicated to Mr. Davy by an English merchant who water. By means of a long pole thrust among the reeds
resided in the ill-fated city.] at the bottom of the lake from the side of a boat, and There never was a finer morning seen than the 1st turned round several times, a quantity of plants are of November; the sun shone out in its full lustre ; the torn off from the bottom, and carried in the boat to the whole face of the sky was perfectly serene and clear; platform, where the weeds are twisted into conical and not the least signal or warning of that approaching mounds about two feet in diameter at their base, and event, which has made this once flourishing, opulent, of the same height, terminating at the top in a hollow, and populous city, a scene of the utmost horror and which is filled with fresh soft mud, and sometimes wood desolation, except only such as served to alarm, but ashes. The farmer has in preparation a number of scarcely left a moment's time to fly from the general decucumber and melon plants, raised under mats, and of struction. these, when they have four leaves, he places three plants It was on the morning of this fatal day, between the in the basin of every cone or mound, of which a double hours of nine and ten, that I was sat down in my apartrow runs along the edge of every bed at about two feet ment, just finishing a letter, when the papers and table distance from each other. No further care is necessary I was writing on, began to tremble with a gentle moexcept that of collecting the fruit, and the expense of tion, which rather surprised me, as I could not perceive preparing the platforms and cones is very trifling. Mr. a breath of wind stirring. Whilst I was reflecting Moorcroft traversed about fifty acres of these floating with myself what this could he owing to, but without gardens growing cucumbers and melons, and saw not having the least apprehension of the real cause, the above half a dozen unhealthy plants; and he says, he whole house began to shake from the very foundation ; never saw in the cucumber and melon grounds, in the which at first I imputed to the rattling of several coaches vicinity of populous cities in Europe or in Asia, so in the main street, which usually passed that way, at arge an expanse of plant in a state of equal health or this time, from Belem to the palace; but on hearkening luxuriance of growth. The general depth of the float- more attentively, I was soon undeceived, as I found it ing beds is about two feet, and some of them are was owing to a strange frightful kind of noise under seven feet broad. The season lasts for three months ground, resembling the hollow distant rumbling of and a half, beginning in June. From the first setting thunder. All this passed in less than a minute, and I of the fruit to the time of pulling, seven or eight days must confess I now began to be alarmed, as it naturally are the ordinary period. Thirty full-sized fruit from occurred to me that this noise might possibly be the each plant, or from ninety to a hundred from each forerunner of an earthquake, as one I remembered, which cone, are the average crops. The seed of the melon is had happened about six or seven years ago, in the brought annually from Baltistan, and the first year yields island of Madeira, commenced in the same manner, fruit of from four to ten pounds each in weight; but if though it did little or no damage. the seed be re-sown, the produce of the second year Upon this I threw down my pen, and started upon exceeds not from two to three pounds. Unless when my feet, remaining a moment in suspense, whether I eaten to great excess the melon produces no disorders, should stay in the apartment or run into the street, as and it is remarked that healthy people who live upon the danger in both places seemed equal; and still flatthis fruit during the season become very speedily fat; tering myself that this tremor might produce no other and the effect upon horses fed upon this fruit is reported effects than such inconsiderable ones as had been felt at to be the same. In the early part of the season, cucum- Madeira ; but in a moment I was roused from my bers of full size sell at the rate of about three for a dream, being instantly stunned with a most horrid erash, piece of coin of the value of a halfpenny; but as the as if every edifice in the city had tumbled down at once. weather becomes hotter, and the plants get into full The house I was in shook with such violence, that the bearing, ten, fifteen, and even twenty are purchased for upper stories immediately fell, and though my apartthis price. It is calculated that every cone yields a ment (which was the first floor) did not then share the money return of about eighteen-pence. Allowing six- same fate, yet every thing was thrown out of its place pence for labour of every description, and including in such a manner, that it was with no small difficulty I also the tax, the clear profit is a shilling for every two kept my feet, and expected nothing less than to be soon square yards. The yield of the melon is numerically crushed to death, as the walls continued rocking to and less, but the return of profit is at least equal. No fro in the frightfulest manner, opening in several places; other vegetables are raised upon the spaces between large stones falling down on every side from the cracks, the cones, although Mr. Moorcroft thinks that onions, and the ends of most of the rafters starting out from the cresses, and other useful vegetables might be raised roof. To add to this terrifying scene, the sky in a moapon them; and water-mint grows spontaneously upon ment became so gloomy that I could now distinguish no the floats.
particular object; it was an Egyptian darkness indeed, Cashmere, or Cassimere, is one of the northern pro- such as might be felt; owing, no doubt, to the prodigious vinces of India within the Ganges. It is surrounded by clouds of dust and lime raised from so violent a conmountains, and from its beauty and fertility has been cussion, and, as some reported, to sulphureous exhalacalled the Paradise of the Indies. It contains upwards tions, but this I cannot affirm; however it is certain I of 100,000 villages, is well stocked with cattle and found myself almost choked for near ten minutes. game, and is said to be unmolested by beasts of prey. As soon as the gloom began to disperse and the The people are ingenious, and resemble the Europeans violenee of the shock seemed pretty much abated, the