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The most memorable incident in the history of Caris- | charge of the castle, declared he was ready to have shot brook Castle, is the detention here of King Charles I. the his Majesty should he have actually commenced making year before his execution. The unfortunate monarch fled his descent. After these repeated failures in the effort from Hampton Court on the 5th of November, 1647, at- to obtain his liberty, Charles so completely abandoned tended by two confidential servants, but without having himself to despair as even to neglect his person, allowing determined upon any particular place in which to take re- both his hair and his beard to remain unclipped and fuge. They rode all night, and finding themselves at day- uncombed, till his appearance became at last savage and break in the New Forest in Hampshire, it was resolved desolate in the extreme. In this state he remained till to repair to Titchfield, a seat of the Earl of Southamp- the 18th of September, 1648, when he was permitted to ton, in the neighbourhood of which they were. This, remove to Newport to confer with commissioners appointed however, was not a place in which his Majesty could for that purpose by the parliament, on giving his promise remain in security; and, after some deliberation, it was that he would not make use of the opportunity to attempt deemed best to send a message to Colonel Hammond, his escape. On the 29th of November he was seized the Governor of the Isle of Wight, intimating the King's here by a party of soldiers, and conveyed to Hurst Castle, desire to avail himself of his protection. Charles thought on the coast of Hampshire, which he left only to undergo that he might expect to find a friend in the Colonei, who his trial and execution about six weeks after. The apartwas the nephew of his chaplain, Dr. Henry Hammond; ments in which he was confined at Carisbrook Castle are but he was, in fact, a devoted partisan of Cromwell, now in ruins—but a window is still pointed out as that by through whose interest he had married a daughter of which he made the several attempts that have just been Hampden, and had also obtained his post of governor at related to regain his liberty. This part of the castle is on this station. At first, however, on receiving the King into the left hand upon entering the first court from the gate. Carisbrook Castle, he treated him as a guest rather than A short distance further on, and on the same side, are the as a prisoner-permitting him to ride wherever he chose, governor's apartments, almost the only portion of the and to receive all who desired to see him. It was interior of the castle which is now in a state of repair not till after some time that his movements were subjected to any restriction. Hammond then informed him that orders had been sent down for the instant dismissal of all his attendants; and they were accordingly compelled to take their leave the day following. As soon as they were gone, it was further intimated to the unhappy King that he must for the future consider himself as a prisoner within the walls of the castle. He was still, however, allowed as much freedom as was compatible with this species of confinement—being perınitted to walk on the ramparts, and to amuse himself in a bowlinggreen, which Hammond caused to be formed for that purpose in a part of the castle-yard. He usually indulged himself in the former exercise in the morning, and in the latter in the afternoon. Much of his leisure was also occupied in reading; his favourite books being the Bible, the works of Hooker, Bishop Andrews, and Dr. Hammond, Herbert's Poems, the Jerusalem Delivered of Tasso, in the original, and Fairfax's translation of that poem, Ariosto, and Spenser's Fairy Queen. Many persons, it would appear, also still contrived to gain admission to his presence, under the pretext of desiring to be touched for the king's evil. The condition in which he was kept, however, was now undisguisedly that of a prisoner; and his thoughts as well as those of his friends were naturally directed to the means by which he might (Carisbrock Castle ; shewing the window from which Charles I.
attempted to escape.) effect his escape. The several attempts which he made for this purpose may be found detailed in the “Threnodia Recovery of the beautiful Picture of St. John in the WiCarolina' of Sir Thomas Herbert, and still more mi- derness, supposed to have been painted by Raphael.—The nutely in Sir Richard Worsley's History of the Isle of history of this painting is singular. One of the keepers of Wight, where many particulars are published for the the gallery (at Dusseldorf) was retouching a damaged landfirst time from manuscript documents. The first attempt scape in water colours, which was not without merit
. That was made on the 29th of December, and failed through which he had supposed to be mere canvass, he discovered to the mismanagement of its conductor Captain Burley, the and a most beautiful body began to be visible. He saw the
be coated with oil colours. Curiosity induced him to proceed; captain of Yarmouth Castle, who was besides so unfor- hand of a master; washed away the water colours, and retunate as to be himself apprehended and executed for stored in full perfection the great work that had so long his share in the enterprise. To Charles the only result remained buried in darkness.— Travels of Count Stolberg. was increased severity of treatment and greater watchfulness on the part of his jailors. Some time after, at how the different animals which inhabit this little spot (a
Remarkable Concord of Animals.-It is amazing to see the suggestion of a person of the name of Firebrace, who small island near Staten Land) are mutually reconciled. had contrived to find access to him by bribing the sen- They seem to have entered into a league not to disturb each tinels, he was induced to endeavour to escape from his other's tranquillity. The sea-lions occupy most of the seawindow during the night; but after getting his head coast; the sea-bears take up their abode in the isle; the through the bars he could not force through the rest of his shags have post in the highest cliffs; the penguins fix their body. Aqua fortis and files were then conveyed to him ; quarters where there is the most easy communication to and but by this time the governor had obtained some inti- from the sea; and the other birds choose more retired places. ination of his former attempt; and when, after having We have seen all these animals mix together, like domestic destroyed one of the bars, the King was about to pass molest the other. Nay, I have often observed the eagles and
'cattle and poultry, in a farm-yard, without one attempting to through the opening, he observed a number of people on vultures sitting on the hillocks among the shags, without the the watch below, and instantly retired to bed. It is said latter, either young or old, being disturbed at their presence. that a Major Rolfe, who happened at the time to have -Cook's Voyages.
B are in a line with the sun, and are said to be in con We will now suppose that the spectator is carried forward junction. The lines AB, 1 1', 22', &c., which are the on one straight line with one velocity, while the object distances of Venus from the earth at the end of the sucmoves along another straight line, not in the same direccessive portions of time, are transferred, keeping their tion, with another velocity. Let A be the first position of lengths and directions to the lower figure. Thus A 3" the spectator, and B that of the object; let A l, 1 2, 23, is equal to 3 3' and in the same direction; and 3” is the &c. be the spaces described in successive minutes by the apparent place of Venus at the end of the third interval spectator, and B l', 1'2', 2'3', &c. those described in the to the spectator on the earth, who imagines that he has same successive minutes by the object. At the end of the remained at rest. first minute the line in which the spectator sees B will be 1 1', and if through A we draw A 1" of the same length and in the same direction as 1 1', the object B will appear to the spectator, who imagines himself at rest, as if B had moved through B 1". Similarly, the apparent motion of B in the second minute will be from 1" to 2", and so on. It may seem rather strange, that in this case the apparent motion of B should be in a line which has no obvious connexion with A l or B 1', but we may in a few words, make the result seem highly probable. The spectator A is moving towards the left edge of the paper, and so is the object B, though obliquely; but in this respect it is evident by a look at the figure that A gains upon B, so that B will appear to fall back towards the right, as is the case in the line B 1" 2''. Again, A 1 2 is in the same direction as the top of the paper, while B l'2' moves obliquely towards the bottom: this appearance will still be preserved in the apparent motion ; so that this latter must be in a line which falls towards the right of the paper going from the top to the bottom, which is the case in B 1" 2". Draw B C equal to Alor l' l" and in the direction contrary to the motion of A joiu Cl"; the figure Bl'l" is what is called in geoinetry
a parallelogram, having its opposite sides in the saine directioni ; and B 1", one of the diagonals of this parallelogram, is the apparent motion of B during the first minute; from whence the following rule is derived :To find the direction and velocity of the apparent motion of an object, when both the object and spectator are In all these propositions we have supposed that the moving in right lines, draw through the first position of eye of the spectator is so good, that he can by means of the object two lines, the first being the real motion of it detect any change, however small, either in the directhe object for one minute*, the second being in magni- tion or magnitude of the object, This is far from being tude the real motion of the spectator in one minute, but a correct supposition ; and the apparent motion of contrary in direction.. Form a parallelogram of which objects will be modified accordingly. In the first place, these two lines shall be sides; the diagonal of the distances can only be well compared with one another parallelogram which passes through the first position of when they are, from one end to the other, within the the object is the apparent motion of the object in the lowest liinits of distinct vision; and even in that case first minute. Thus we know the direction in which the the eye is a bad judge, unless the distances have some object appears to move, and the velocity of its apparent prominent points in them, to prevent their presenting motion. By the same process, the apparent motion may one unvarying line. Again, the eye being naturally no be found, when the object or spectator, or both, move judge of distance, the accuracy of the decision in any in curves instead of straight lines, as in the subjoined case will entirely depend upon the previous habits of diagram; in which, to avoid confusion, the figure which the person making it. For example, a landsman is not determines the apparent motiuni is removed from that used to see any large expanse utterly unbroken by which represents the real motions.
a variety of objects, and his eye being unused to The figure nearly represents a part of the apparent measure the proportions of ships, or of a line of coast, motion of an inferior planet, that is, one nearer to the he is very apt to mistake the relation of their apparent sun than the earth is, —Venus for example. The sun is to their real magnitude. Hence when he goes to sea, S, the centre of the two circles; A is the earth, every distance seems shorter than it really is, and he moving through A 1, 12, 23, &c., in those successive will imagine himself to be almost close to the shore or equal portions of time during which B or Venus de- to another ship, when he is in fact more than a mile scribes Br' 1'2', 2' 3, &c. At first setting out A and distant from both. Also a channel or arm of the sea
The word second, hour, day, or any other time may be substi- will appear to have very little breadth, when in fact futed throughout for minute.
it is several miles across. Neither can the eye, even
when experienced, form a notion of the interval which , verse, and we may add that he also already began to separates two distant objects, without taking into ac- display a genius for English poetry of the very highest count the apparent magnitudes of the objects them- promise. selves. If lines be drawn from the two ends of the Milton left the university, after taking his degree of object AB, meeting in E, the eye of the spectator, the Master of Arts, in 1632, and went to reside with his angle or opening which the two lines make at E is that father, who, having acquired a competency, had refrom which he judges of its magnitude; and when he tired from the metropolis to Horton, in Buckingham
shire. Here he passed the following five years in assiduous study; and during this interval he appears to have produced both his exquisite Masque of Comus, which is stated in the title to have been performed at Ludlow Castle, in 1634, before the Earl of Bridgewater, and some of the principal of his minor poems-his Arcades, his Lycidas, and his two incom
parable lyric chaunts the l'Allegro and the Il Penseroso. says that the object grows smaller as he walks from it, In 1638 he left England with the purpose of completing it is the angle BEA of which he speaks. Another and his education by foreign travel ; and visited in succession larger object CD might be so placed as to appear at Paris, Nice, Genoa, Pisa, Florence, Rome, and Naples. the same angle, and consequently of the same magni- Honours from both the learned and the great waited tude. How then do we judge between two objects upon the accomplished Englishınan wherever he appeared. which appear under the same angle, and which we yet The state of his native country, however, worn by dissenknow to be at very different distances ? Partly by the sions, and manifestly on the eve of a great convulsion, greater or less distinctness with which we see them, and appealed too strongly to his patriotic ardour to suffer partly, if the object be a common one, by the idea we him to protract his stay abroad ; and returning by the have already formed of its real size, which causes us to way of Geneva he again reached home after an absence form a notion as to how far off such an object must be, of about fifteen months. He did not now resume his in order to appear to us of such a size, or under such an residence with his father. He probably considered that angle. If, for example, a man had been used to pass for the unsettled times which were apparently at hand at some distance from a tower, situated on a wide level the fit preparation which it behoved every man to make heath, remote from other objects; which tower was
was the adoption of some way of earning his bread by pulled down and replaced by another of exactly the his own independent exertions; and, hiring a house in same figure, but only half the size ;-this man, on pass-St. Bride's church-yard, he opened a seminary for the ing by again, would at first sight imagine that he was instruction of youth in the classic languages. His much farther from the tower than usual, though perhaps school having soon increased in number he was induced a second view might lead him to observe that the dis- to remove to a larger house in Aldersgate. How long tinctness remained the same as before. If, however, he continued to devote himself to this laborious occupathe day were misty, he could not well make the latter tion is not ascertained; but in 1641 we find him for the remark, and would certainly imagine that he was farther first time coming before the world as an author. His from the tower than usual. Most people observe that earliest production from the press was a violent attack in a foggy day objects appear larger than usual, which upon the Hierarchy. It was followed by several others arises from this, that the angle under which they are in the same style ; and these efforts must no doubt have seen being unaltered, and the distinctness diminished, aided powerfully in augmenting and directing the storm the mind refers that diminution of distinctness to an which now beat against the Church, and eventually laid increase of distance, and the objects appear farther off it prostrate. From this time forward Milton may be in the same angle, just as they would do if they were considered as a public character. For the following larger. For a contrary reason, distant objects appear twenty years—the period of the Civil War and of the nearer than usual in a very clear day. If a colossal Protectorate-his pen was never idle; and several of the statue were placed at a great distance from the spectator, occasions on which it was employed were such as to bring the latter, if he had no reason to know that the statue was him conspicuously before his country, and, it may be larger than the usual size, would imagine that it was said, all Europe. In 1643 he married; and soon after, much nearer to himself than it really was, and would his wife having left him and refused to return, he place it at just that distance at which an ordinary man published in succession his four tracts on the Doctrine ought to stand, in order to appear under the same angle and Discipline of Divorce, in which he maintained that as the statue. When the distance of an object is so
the contumacy of one of the two parties of itself disgreat that we cannot measure it at all by our senses, as solved the conjugal connexion, and entitled the other in the case of the heavenly bodies, all phenomena, which to form a new union. His wife, however, thought fit arise merely from change of distance, are unperceived to repair to him and ask his forgiveness. In 1644 unless also accompanied with a change of direction. he published his Tractate on Education,' in the form Hence the stars appear to us to be placed in a sphere of a letter to his friend Hartlib. The same year or surface, every point of which is at the same distance appeared his noble defence of the liberty of the press, from our eye.
entitled, ' Areopagitica, or a Discourse for the Liberty of unlicensed Printing.' This year also there issued from
the press the first edition of his poetical productions, THE WEEK.
comprising the several pieces that have been already DECEMBER 9.-The anniversary of the birth of Milton. mentioned. In 1649 he published his Tenure of King's This illustrious poet was born in Bread-street, London, and Magistrates, in vindication of the execution of the in 1608, and was the eldest son of John Milton, the King. Soon after he was appointed Latin Secretary of descendant of an ancient family, but who had been disin- State. His Eiconoclastes (an attack on the famous herited by his father for abandoning the Catholic faith, Eikon Basilike, attributed to the deceased monarch), his and followed the profession of a scrivener. Milton's two splendid Defences for the People of England in education was at first conducted at home under the Latin) in answer to Salmasius, in the course of the comcare of a private tutor. He was then sent to St. Paul's position of the second of which he lost his sight, and School, from which he proceeded, in 1624, to Christ other tracts on the same subject, were the fruits of what College, Cambridge. He is recorded to have distin- leisure was left him by the duties of his office between guished himself at the university as a writer of Latin this time and the year 1655, when he resigned his public
employment. His first wife having died in 1651, after the birth of three daughters, he had married a second in 1654, and he lost her also, to whom he was much attached, in 1657. Steady to his principles, he did not cease, even after the death of Cromwell, and in the midst of the almost universal trepidation which had seized upon his party, still to employ his pen in calling upon his countrymen to rally around what he deemed the cause of liberty. But his efforts were vain. On the Restoration, although he was at first apprehended, he eventually escaped with no farther punishment than a sentence of disqualification for holding any public office. Some of his tracts too were ordered to be burnt by the common hang
But he was turned from his political career only that he might enter upon another far more glorious. Driven from the service of his country on the scene of public affairs, the old man now reverted to the quiet pursuits of his youth. Many years before, he had in one of his early controversial publications announced bis intention, if God should grant him life, of dedicating his faculties to produce for the honour of his country some work in the mother tongue, which men should not willingly let die. He now set himself to the ful6lment of this self-imposed task. The result was the production of Paradise Lost, the grandest work in the whole range of poetry. It was published in 1667; in 1671, the Paradise Regained and Sampson Agonistes followed in one publication. The year before, the illustrious author had also given to the world a History of Britain, down to the era of the Norman Conquest; and in 1672, he published a new Scheme of Logic, in Latin. During the two fol.owing years also he continued his literary labours, and even sent one or two more productions to the press. He left a posthumous Latin work on 'The Christian Doctrine, which was found in the State-Paper Office, and was edited and translated by Dr. Charles Sumner, the present Bishop of Winchester. This was published in 1825. He died at his house in Bunbillfields, on the 10th of November, 1674. He had married a third time about the year '1661 ; but left no family except the three daughters whom he had by his first wife.
ODE TO AN INDIAN GOLD COIN.
Written in Chéricul, Malabar.
What vanity has brought thee here?
Só bright, whom I have bought so dear ?
The tent-ropes flapping lone I hear,
The jackal's shriek bursts on mine ear,
Where cane-tufts shadow all the wild,
Of Teviot lov'd while still a child,
Of castled rocks stupendous pild
'Where loves of youth and friendship smild,
The perish'd bliss of youth's first prime,
Revives no more in after-time.
The daring thoughts that soard sublime,
Gleams baleful as the tomb-fire drear.
My lonely widow'd heart to cheer;
Her eyes are dim with many a tear,
Her fond heart throbs with many a fear! -
I left a heart that lov'd me true!
To roam in climes unkind and new
The cold wind of the stranger blew
Dark and untimely met my view-
A wanderer's banished heart forlorn,
Of sun-rays tipt with death has borne ?
From love, from friendship, country, torn,
· Vile slave, thy yellow dross I scorn!
Go mix thee with thy kindred clay
DRUMMOND OP HAWTHORNDEK.
The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at
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Booksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :-
Norwich, JARROLD and Son.
Portsea, HORSEY, Jun.
Staffordshire, Lane End, C. WATTS.
Edinburgh, OLIVER and BOYD.
Glasgow, ATKINSON Od Co. 'Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITH.
riuted by WILLIAM CLOWES, Stamford Street.
[Portrait of Milton.]