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be at A, and the other at B, so that on turning the which he looks. This we know to be impossible; we telescope A in the direction A B, he sees some conspicu- must, therefore, modify the proposition above-mentioned,
so far as to assert that all objects will appear to us to stand still, whose velocity or the direction of whose motion differs so little from our own, as not to cause any perceptible change in their position or magnitude.
We now proceed to inquire, what apparent motion will the sledge B have, when its real motion is different in direction, or in velocity or in both, from that of A? When we talk of apparent motion as distinguished from real, we refer to the fact that the spectator always imagines himself to be at rest, unless the motion is either an act of his own will, or unless he perceives something, such as the jolting of a carriage, or the motion of the horses' feet, from which former experience has taught
him to draw a conclusion. Independently of these, his ous object, say a mast, in the other sledge. If A move only sensations are those of a change of position and disfrom A to C in one minute, and B move from B to D, tance in surrounding objects; and, in looking at any one through a distance B D equal * to A C in the direction
of them, he will not recollect that the observed changes BD, which is the same as that of A C, and also in one may be compounded out of those which will arise from minute, the telescope will have remained pointed at the his own motion and that of the object together, but, mast in the other sledge, so that there is none of that thinking himself at rest, will attribute to the object such indication of motion which arises from change of
a motion as would, by itself, produce the observed
apparent position. Neither will there be any of that which changes. For example, suppose that the object is at arises from change of apparent magnitude, at least if the rest at B, while the spectator moves from A towards C, weather be equally clear throughout; for the distance coming to 1 at the end of the first minute, to 2 at the A B is equal to CD, and the two will have continued at the same distance throughout. Now, the weather remaining the same, the apparent magnitude of an object depends upon its distance alone, growing less as it recedes, and greater as it approaches ; so that if it were to describe a circle round the spectator, the apparent magnitude would remain unaltered. Since then B neither changes its apparent position or its apparent magnitude with respect to A, the spectator at A perceives no indications of motion, and therefore imagines both are at rest. Generally, if we see neither change of position or of apparent magnitude in the objects around us, we can only conclude, either that, 1. we and the objects around us are all at rest, or, 2. that we and the objects end of the second, and so on. At the end of one are all in motion in the same direction and with the minute, the object B is at the distance 1 B, in the direc. same velocity. This is not only true when the bodies tion 1 B. The spectator who thinks himself at rest at are moving in straight lines, but when they are describing A, will suppose that B has moved to p, so as to place any curve whatever, provided we describe the same itself at the distance A p equal to 1 B, in the direction curve with the same velocity. Let A move round the Ap, which is the same as that of 1 B. Similarly, while circle A AA, while B moves round the equal circle he moves from 1 to 2, B will appear to him to move from BBB with the same velocity; the reader may easily p to q, and so on. That is, any real motion in the
spectator gives, to an object really at rest, an apparent motion of equal velocity, but contrary direction, to his own. The apparent motion of the banks of a river, to a spectator carried along in a boat, is a case in point. The same proposition may be shown to hold good where the spectator moves in a curve instead of a straight line. Thus, if the spectator were carried round a circle, any fixed object would appear to be carried round the contrary way in a circle of equal dimensions. For instance, we, being carried round on the earth in a circle, from west to east, imagine that the stars move round us in a circle from east to west. We shall hereafter enter on the reasons why we cannot form any distinct idea of the diameter of this circle.
(To be concluded in our next.)
Horses in Brazil.-The great increase of these animals, satisfy himself that to what point soever A may have in a land where none of the same genus had existed before come, B will still be at the same distance, in the same try. The bulbous plants and the numerous kinds of aloes direction, as when they set out. We have hitherto supposed in the spectator an eye so overspread, disappeared ; and in their place the ground was
(pitas or caraguatas) with which the plains were formerly fine, or so practised, that he can detect the smallest covered with fine pasturage, and with a species of creeping change, either of position or magnitude, in the object at thistle hardy enough to endure the trampling by which the
* We shall, in what follows, take for granted several simple pro- former herbage had been destroyed. The insect as well as positions of geometry, which the reader, who is not acquainted with the vegetable world was affected, and the indigenous animals that science, will easily see to be true, even by means of a figure of the country, birds as well as beasts of prey, acquired new drawn with the pen, if he be anything of a draughtsman.
2 Y 2
THE CARTOONS.-No. 1.
this last-mentioned monarch they were consigned to the In the Cartoons of Raffaelle England may congratulate care of William Cooke, an artist of considerable talent, herself on being in possession of the noblest works of art by whom they were repaired, and happily restored to which have ever been produced by human genius. The their original appearance. The gallery at Hampton history of these designs, subsequently to their completion, Court was built by King William for their reception. as well as that of the tapestries which have been copied The following is a list of the subjects, and the original from them, is extraordinary. Estimated originally as number of the Cartoons executed by Raffaelle :the most splendid ornaments of regal and pontific state, 1. Paul preaching at Athens. they have since been exposed to all the vicissitudes of 2. The Death of Ananias. fortune ;-seized as the spoils of war, dispersed in revo 3. Elymas the Sorcerer struck with blindness. lutions, disfigured by ignorance, and mutilated by ava 4. Christ delivering the Keys to St. Peter. rice. Happily, the seven compositions at Hampton
5. The Sacrifice at Lystra. Court *, if compared with others of the series, still to be
6. The Apostles healing in the Temple.
7. The miraculous Draught of Fishes. seen in tapestry, must rank among the finest of the
8. The Conversion of St. Paul. number, and they are in good preservation. Two or three 9. The Nativity. others' are said to be extant. The rest of the set, ori 10. The Adoration of the Magi. ginally twenty-five, it is to be feared, have perished. 11. Christ supping at Emmaus.
It was within a few years of his death, and during 12, 13, 14. The Slaughter of the Innocents. the meridian of his powers, that Raffaelle was en
15. The Presentation in the Temple. gaged by Leo X. to design this series of subjects,
16. The Descent of Jesus Christ into Limbus. taken from the Life of our Saviour and the Acts of the
17. The Resurrection.
18. The Ascension. Apostles. When finished, the Cartoons were sent to
19. Noli me tangere. Brussels to be woven in tapestry, under the superin
20. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. tendence of Bernard Van Orlay, at a cost of 70,000 21. The Stoning of St. Stephen.
It seems surprising that when the tapestries 22. The Earthquake. were completed the Cartoons were not reclaimed and 23, 24. Children at Play, catching Birds, &c. brought back to Rome : the circumstance, however,
25. Justice. explains itself by referring to the events of the period. The first seven above enumerated are those at HampBoth Raffaelle and his munificent patron, Leo, had died ton Court. Two others are said to be in the possession in the interval; and the succeeding pontiff, Adrian VI., of the King of Sardinia ; and a third, one of the coma man of narrow capacity and destitute of taste, bestowed partments of the Slaughter of the Innocents, is in this not a thought on those arts which had distinguished the country, having been accidentally discovered, and purreign, and were destined to immortalize the memory of chạsed by P. Hoare, Esq. The rest, with the exception his illustrious predecessor. It is more inexplicable, that of a few dismembered fragments, are all lost: the designs, among the persons who superintended the execution of however, are still visible in the tapestries at Rome. the tapestries, there were not some who were capable of Such is the history of those noble productions. But appreciating the excellence and value of the originals, notwithstanding the neglect and partial destruction to more especially as Van Orlay and Michael Coxis, both which they were so barbarously consigned, their reputaengaged in those works, had been pupils of Raffaelle. tion was in the mean time promulgated and established From whatever cause, the Cartoons were thrown by as through the medium of the tapestries, Nor can there things of no value, and left to moulder and decay among be a stronger proof than this of their deep and intrinsic the lumber of the manufactory : it has been said that excellence, which could inake itself felt and understood they were even exhibited occasionally in the front of the through a mode of copying so coarse and inefficient ; house as signs, indicating the vocation carried on within. although we must admit that, considered not as transcripts From this state of degradation they were redeemed by of fine art, but merely in the light of splendid furniture, Charles I., at the recommendation of Rubens, and nothing can be more magnificent than those stately hangbrought to England. The obligation due to this mo- ings of arras. The two sets 'first manufactured were narch, to whose taste we owe the acquisition of the Car- intended by Leo X., the one for the apartments of the toons, is to be extended to Cromwell
, by whose discern-papal palace, the other as a present to Henry VIII. a ment they were secured to the country during the sale England. These works were destined to encounter a and dispersion of the royal collection. They were pur- greater variety of adventures than even the original Carchased at the immediate command of the Protector, toons. The first account we have of their appearance whose sagacity seems in this, as in most other instances, was during the pontificate of Paul IV., by whose order to have outgone that of his contemporaries, on whom they were suspended on high festivals in one of the vesthe showy ostentation of Andrea da Mantegna appears tibules of the basilica of St. Peter. It is said that they to have made a stronger impression than the chaste and excited delight and astonishment not only among the intellectual grandeur of Raffaelle. The triumphs of Julius learned in art, but that they were viewed by the popuCæsar, painted by the former, were valued at £2000 ; lace with enthusiastic and unsated avidity. In the sack the Cartoons of the latter at £300. After this period of Rome, in 1526, they were carried away, but were these works were again consigned for a long time to restored during the reign of Julius III. by the Duc obscurity and neglect. They had been sent by King de Montmorenci. Again, in 1798, they made part of Charles II. to Mortlake to be copied in tapestry by an the French spoliations, and were actually sold to a Jew artist named Cleen, who superintended a manufactory at Leghorn, who burnt one of them for the purpose of of arras at that place
, originally established by James I. extracting the precious metal contained in the threads. Here they met with no better treatment than they had As it was found, however, to furnish very little, the proformerly encountered at Brussels ; for it was found, when prietor judged it better to allow the others to retain their they were afterwards opened and inspected by the com- original shape, and they were soon afterwards re-purmand of King Willian, that they had been so carelessly chased from him by the agents of Pius VII., and reinpacked as to have sustained considerable injury. By stated in the galleries of the Vatican.
* The Cartoons are shown, with the other pictures, to visitors, upon The second set of tapestries, intended by Leo X. as payment of a fee to the person who goes round the apartment. We a present to Henry VIII. of England, were accordingly hope, when the new National Gallery is finished, that they will be transmitted to that monarch, although it is affirmed by remored to London, so that the public may be delighted and improved by their contemplation without the exaction of sixpences and
some authorities that he obtained them by purchase from shillings.
the state of Venice. On their arrival in England, they
were hung up in Whitehall, and descended, as a royal at once sublime and beautiful ; it is that of triumphant appanage, through the reigns of Edward VI., Mary, virtue and Divine power, yet touched by the traits of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. After the death of recent suffering. It may be added that the costume is that unfortunate monarch, they were purchased by the different from that in which he is elsewhere represented. Spanish ambassador in London (Don Alonso de Car- It is simply a white drapery, which nearly envelopes his danas), who carried them to Spain, and from him they figure, but leaves one of the shoulders uncovered: this devolved to the house of Alva, From a palace belong- indicates that he has arisen from the dead. The whole ing to the dukes of that name, they were purchased, a subject, although so finely amplified, is yet so condensed, few years since, by Mr. Tupper, our Consul in Spain, and presses on the mind with such truth of delineation, and restored to this country. They were afterwards ex- that while we look on the picture, we feel a difficulty in hibited for some time at the Egyptian Hall, in Piccadilly, believing that the event could have happened in any other finally re-purchased by a foreigner, and by him taken manner than as it is there represented. back to the continent.
As the finest examples of the higher qualities of art, the Cartoons have been sedulously studied and copied,
THE WEEK. wholly or partially, by the most eminent painters : copies December 6.--The birth-day of George Monk, the first of the seven at Hampton Court, by Sir James Thorn- Duke of Albemarle. He was born at Potheridge, in hill, were presented by Francis Duke of Bedford to the Devonshire, in 1608, and was a younger son of Sir Royal Academy, and another set is in possession of the Thomas Monk. The family had been long one of great University of Oxford, the gift of the Duke of Marl- wealth and respectability. George, according to the borough. They have been engraved in this country by account of Aubrey the antiquary," was a strong, lusty, Dorigny, and by his scholars, Dubosc and Somereau. well-set young fellow, and in his youth happened to The beautiful and elaborate plates of the seven Cartoons, slay a man, which was the occasion of his flying into the to which the late Mr. Holloway devoted a large portion Low Countries, where he learned to be a soldier." of his life, will form a lasting monument of that artist's He had previously, however, followed the profession of talent and perseverance *.
arms, and was engaged in the expeditions to Cadiz -and To enter on an analysis of the style of Raffaelle, would the Isle of Rhé. Before he returned from the Netherfar exceed the limits which we can assign to this article: lands he had attained the rank of Captain. He afterwe purpose to return to the subject, and shall in the wards served in the army which Charles I. sent against meanwhile confine our remarks to the Cartoon engraved Scotland in 1640; and upon the Scottish Pacification in this number, Christ delivering the Keys to St. Peter, was employed against the Irish rebels, and obtained a To any other artist than Raffaelle, this subject would not, regiment, where he gained so much the good will of the perhaps, have presented any striking capabilities, as the soldiery that they used to call him " honest George action and expression, however solemn and pathetic, is Monk.” Having thus joined the royal side in the alreadydeficient in that variety and force which gives effect to commencing national troubles, he was promoted to the graphic representation. But wherever human feelings rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and soon after appointed were brought into play Raffaelle found the elements of Governor of Dublin, and eventually made Major-Genehis art; and his power in marking the diversities of cha- ral of the Irish Brigade. His services in the cause racter, and in discriminating the shades of sentiment, of the King, however, were terminated by the fight have never been more strongly evinced than in this of Nantwich, on the 21st of January, 1644, in work. The Redeemer stands alone, distinguished by a which the royal troops under Lord Byron sustained so majestic simplicity of action. With one hand he points complete a defeat from the parliamentary commander to a flock of sheep, symbolically introduced in illustra- Lord Fairfax. Monk was among the numerous prisontion of the text, “Feed my sheep;" with the other he ers; and, being consigned to the Tower, lay there for consigns the keys to St. Peter, who kneels with devout above two years, forgotten, it is said, by his party when reverence to receive them. The Apostles are formed into the exchanges took place, though the King once sent a compact group, and appear earnest to receive the last him a present of a hundred guineas. He occupied himcommands of their Master, previously to their separation self during this long detention in composing a profesand dispersion to preach the Gospel in all parts of the sional treatise, which was published some time after his earth. St. John, the beloved of Jesus, presses eagerly death, under the title of Observations on Military and forward, the veneration he evinces being mingled with Political Affairs. It was while here, also, that he first an expression of affectionate attachment. Behind him became acquainted with Ann Clarges, the daughter of stands an apostle whose action is less animated than John Clarges, a blacksmith of the Strand, who was his that of his brethren : it has altogether the cold and laundress, and whom he married after having kept her sedate demeanour of a person of sceptical temperament. for some time as his mistress. She had been married This is undoubtedly St. Thomas; and next to him, in before to a farrier of the name of Thomas Radford; fine contrast, is a disciple who stretches out his hands and it has been asserted that this person was still alive, towards Christ, and turning to the incredulous apostle when she gave her hand to General Monk in 1652. with an expostulatory and somewhat indignant air, Aubrey says that her mother was “ one of the fine seems to say, Are you yet convinced ? Every head in women barbers; and that her father's was the cornerthe group has its peculiar physiognomy, with the expres- shop, the first turning on the right hand as you come sion properly belonging to it. Some express the most out of the Strand into Drury Lane.” Monk's future entire and deferential acquiescence in the preference fortunes, as some suppose, were much indebted for their given to St. Peter, while across the countenance of others complexion to the management of his wife; but his own steal the signs of jealous dissatisfaction ; for Raffaelle, extraordinary prudence had perhaps a much greater although he has given the Apostles an exterior befitting share in them. He long refused to accept a command men who have been called to so high and solemn a voca under the Parliament; but finally accepted a command tion, yet shows that as men they are not entirely divested against the Irish who were considered rebels both by of human weakness. The expression of the Saviour is King and Parliament, and was thereupon liberated from
the Tower. In 1651 he accompanied Cromwell on his The series of wood-cuts, which we are about to publish in this expedition for the reduction of Scotland ; and when the work, of the seven Cartoons, will, we trust, enable thousands of per- latter returned to England in August to stop the progress to julge of the grandeur and beauty of these noble compositions of the King, who had taken the opportunity of his absence Engraving on wood is not unsuited to the boldness of their style. to march towards the south, he left Monk in Scotland
with five thousand men to complete the subjugation of the Great Britain may at present be calculated at from country. On the 14th of that month accordingly Monk £20,000,000 to £22,000,000; and the number of pertook by storm the important fortress of Stirling, and on the sons employed in it does not exceed 400,000. The Ist of September forced his entry in the same manner into woollen manufacture has always been an object of solicithe town of Dundee; after which he was admitted with tude with Parliament, though it may be doubted whether out opposition into Aberdeen, St. Andrews, and all the it has derived any substantial advantage from the numeother principal places of the kingdom. He continued at rous acts that have been passed respecting it, such as the head of affairs in Scotland, where he ruled with a the acts prohibiting the exportation of English wool, and steady but not a harassing despotism, till the death of for encouraging the manufacture in various ways; as, Oliver Cromwell, and the confusion that arose under for instance, the act of Charles the Second, enacting that the short protectorate of Richard. In this crisis he set the dead should be buried in woollen shrouds, which out for England at the head of a powerful force, and remained in force more than one hundred and thirty arrived in London on the 3d of February, 1660. It years. The rise of the cotton manufacture, and the is supposed by some writers that in taking this step comparative decline of the fabric of woollens, shows how he had not settled with himself what part he should little it is in the power of acts of parliament to keep act, but had determined to be guided by circumstances industry in its old channels, when circumstances far in his choice of the scale into which he should throw more influential than kings or laws tend to drive it into his sword. Locke, in his Life of Lord Shaftesbury, new and more productive ones. The constant prayer says, “Monk had agreed with the French ambassador of manufacturers to governments should be that of the to take the government on himself, by whom he had citizens of Paris to Colbert, when that minister offered promise from Mazarin of assistance from France, to his assistance to their trade" Laissez nous faire ;"support him in this undertaking. This bargain was
“ leave us alone." struck between them late at night, but not so secretly, (29.) The progress of the linen manufacture in but that Monk's wife, who had posted herself behind the England, of late years, has not been considerable, owing hangings, where she could hear all that passed, finding partly to the rise of the cotton manufacture, and more what was resolved, sent immediately notice of it by her especially to the efforts that have been made to bolster up brother Clarges to Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper (after the manufacture of linen in Ireland and Scotland. As an wards Lord Shaftesbury). She was zealous for the instance of the extraordinary notions that were formerly restoration of the King, and promised Sir Anthony to entertained upon the plainest matters of public economy, watch her husband, and inform him from time to time it is a fact that, in 1698, when Parliament addressed how matters went. Upon this notice Sir Anthony sum- King William the Third, representing that the progress moned the Council of State, and before them indirectly of the woollen manufacture in Ireland was such as to charging Monk with what he had learned, proposed that, prejudice that of this country, and that it would be for to remove all scruples, Monk would at that instant take the public advantage if the former were discouraged away their commissions from such and such officers in and the linen manufacture established in its stead, his his army, and give them to those whom he named. By Majesty replied, " I shall do all that in me lies to disthis means the army ceased to be at Monk's devotion, courage the woollen manufacture in Ireland, and enand was put into hands that would not serve him, in the courage the linen manufacture, and promote the trade of design he had undertaken.” Whatever truth there may England.” The system of bounties is now at an end, but be in this story, Monk soon after declared openly for the we persisted in it for more than a century, endeavouring King; and the restoration followed without a hand to force a trade in linens by enabling our merchants to being raised against it. On the 25th of May, Charles sell them abroad for less than they cost. In 1825 the was received by the General at Dover; and on the fol- bounties paid on British linen exported amounted to lowing day the latter was honoured with the Order of £209,516, being between a sixth and seventh part of the Garter. Soon after he was created Duke of Albe- the entire value of the exports ; and the bounty on Irish marle. In 1666, in the second year of the war, com- linen exported the same year was £87,549, being about menced in 1665 against Holland, Monk was appointed a tenth part of the value of the exports. The exports with Prince Rupert to the joint command of the English of linen from the United Kingdom in 1829 amounted fleet, and in this capacity, on the 24th of July, he encoun- to 57,698,372 yards, of the declared value of £1,953,607. tered the two Dutch Admirals, Ruyter and the younger The export from Ireland direct to foreign countries was Van Tromp, in the Downs, and in the course of a fight about one-seventeenth part of the whole. The entire which lasted for two days, sunk and burned twenty of value of the linen manufacture of Great Britain and the enemy's ships, four thousand of their men being Ireland was estimated by Dr. Colquhoun at £15,000,000, killed and three thousand wounded. This able military which, however, Mr. M'Culloch considers as very much and naval commander died on the 3d of January, 1670, exaggerated. Perhaps it may be fairly valued at at the age of sixty-two.
£10,000,000; and setting aside a third part of this sum
as the value of the raw material, and 20 per cent. as STATISTICAL NOTES.
profits and return for wear and tear of capital, &c., we
have £4,667,000 to be divided as wages; and supposing ENGLAND AND WALES-(CONTINUED).
each individual to earn on an average £15 a year, the (28.) The woollen manufacture was, in early times, total number employed would be 311,000 persons. by far the most important in England, and was distri-, (30.) Iron mines have been wrought in this country buted pretty equally throughout the whole country, from a very early period; and, during the last century, Towards the end of the seventeenth century, the value of the progress of the manufacture has exceeded the most the wool shorn in England was estimated at £2,000,000 sanguine expectations. In 1740 the quantity of piga year; and it was supposed that the entire value of the iron manufactured in England and Wales amounted to woollen articles produced was £8,000,000, of which about 17,000 tons, produced by fifty-nine furnaces. about £2,000,000 were exported. At an average of six. The quantities manufactured at the under-mentioned years ending with 1789, the annual official value of epochs in Great Britain were as follows: the exports was only £3,544,160 a year, and in 1802, being the largest amount of any known year, they had 1750
22,000 tons. risen to £7,321,012.
1788 In 1812 they had sunk to
68,000 tons, produced by 85 furnaces. 1796
125,000 » £4,376,479, and in 1830 were £5,558,709, official
250,000 value, and £4,850,884, declared value. The total value
unknown, of the manufactured woolleus annually produced in 1827.