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[Southern View, looking towards Windsor.] Windsor Castle, włoich las, during the last seven years, | magnificence and convenience, is surrounded on the been converted from a very incommodious and in many north, east, and south sides by a very beautiful domain respects unsightly dwelling, into a palace unsurpassed for called the Little Park. This park has no doubt been
appurtenant to the Castle for a very long period. Here ment of some capital two or three thousand years hence,
It is characteristic of the noblest natures and the finest Walk round about the oak with great ragg'd horns." imaginations to love to explore the vestiges of antiquity, In fact, this Little Park was formerly part of Windsor and to dwell in times that are no more. The past is the Forest; but in progress of time the public road to the domain of the imaginative affections alone : we can carry town was carried through it, and parcels of land sur- none of our baser passions with us thither. The antirounding the town became private property. In the quary is often spoken of as a being of a peculiar conreign of Queen Anne that part of Windsor Forest which struction of intellect, which makes him think and feel remained the property of the Crown, under the name of differently from other people. But, in truth, the spirit the Great Park, was cut off from the Castle by the inter- of antiquarianism is one of the most universally diffused vening private property. To remedy this inconvenience of human tendencies; there is perhaps scarcely any it was resolved, in that reign, to purchase as much land person, for example, not utterly stupid or sophisticated, as might be required to complete an avenue leading who would not feel a strange thrill come over him in the from the Castle to the Forest. This was done, and the wonderful scene which these volumes describe. Looking preseñi Long Walk was formed.
round upon the long-buried city, who would not for the The Long Walk, which many of our readers may moment utterly forget the seventeen centuries that had have seen and more heard of, is generally considered the revolved since Pompeii was part and parcel of imperial finest thing of its kind in Europe. A perfectly straight Rome, and see in vision the living masters of the world road runs from the principal entrance of the Castle to moving to and fro along its streets! It would not be a the top of a commanding hill in the Great Park, called mere fever of curiosity that would occupy the mind,—an Snow Hill-a distance of more than three miles. On impatience to pry into every hole and corner of a scene each side of the road, which is slightly elevated, is a at once so old and so new. Besides all that, there would double row of stately elms, now at their maturity,—some be a sense of the actual presence of those past times, alindeed beginning to show signs of decay. Nothing can be most like the illusion of a dream. There is, in fact, perhaps finer than the general effect of this immense vista. The no other spot of interest on the globe, which would be stranger who is tempted to pursue the road to its ter- found to strike so deep an impression into so many mination on the hill is amply repaid by a most splendid minds; and yet, in this country, but little has hitherto prospect, of great extent, and comprehending objects of been popularly known about Pompeii. It has been left powerful interest He is now upon the ridge, whose undescribed, except in works inaccessible to the genecontinuation, about a mile to the eastward, leads to a rality of readers, either from their high price, or from spot which has given a name to the earliest, and in some being written in a foreign language. Here is a little respects the best, descriptive poem of our language, publication, which comes to supply this want. It con
Cooper's Hill.' Windsor Castle appears almost at tains, we believe, the most comprehensive account of his feet; to his left is a magnificent expanse of forest every thing relating to the disinterred city, that is to be scenery ; to his right is the Thames, seen beyond the found in any one work; and although it cannot, of little plain of Runnemede, where Magna Charta was course, be placed in comparison with some of the more extorted from King John by his barons. The hills in magnificent and costly publications which have been the distance are those of Harrow and Hampstead. devoted to this subject, in respect either to the elaborate
During the past summer a colossal equestrian statue character of its investigations and details, or to the of George III. has been erected on the highest point of splendour of its pictorial illustrations, it may be perused this hill. The figure terminates the avenue, at a dis- with more advantage by the general reader, who is new tance of about three miles and a half from the Castle, to such studies, than perhaps any of these more pretendand, of course, forms a prominent object at every step of ing performances. The author has aimed throughout the way. It is raised, as will be perceived from the to make his descriptions subservient to the explanation wood-cut, upon a mass of stones intended to represent of the manners, customs, arts, and general state of a rock. The total elevation of the statue and its pedestal society in the ancient world; and the work becomes in is more than fifty feet. The statue itself is twenty-six this way a manual of classic antiquities, which may be feet in height. The circumstance, however, of the gra- read with the more pleasure, because quite divested of dual approach to it through a vista of very lofty trees, the parade and formality of a school-book. In no other and the large forms of the trees immediately surrounding way indeed would it, we think, be possible for a person it, greatly diminish the effect of its gigantic proportions. ignorant of, or but superficially acquainted with this Till the spectator approaches within a hundred yards, he department of learning, sooner to acquire both a taste does not feel that the figures are of colossal dimensions ; for it, and a tolerably extensive knowledge of some and yet we were told by a person who saw the statue be- of its most important details. The volumes may be fore it was placed on its pedestal, that he could not span read, however, with interest and advantage by very well the fore-finger. The likeness of the face to George III. is instructed scholars; for they contain within a small very admirable; but those who recollect that monarch compass the results of extensive research, and on some in his plain blue coat, or his military jack-boots, will of the points which they discuss present more ample and have difficulty to recognise hiin in his Roman costume. various information, than would readily be found colThe very eminent sculptor, Mr. Westmacott, has in lected together anywhere else. They are also profusely this particular to allege the example of the statue of illustrated by steel engravings and wood-cuts, so that the Peter the Great, and of many other celebrated works of descriptions of the text can hardly fail to be intelligible modern art ; but it has, on the other hand, been suc- and attractive, even to the youngest minds. cessfully shown that the ungracefulness of European The first volume is devoted to a general description of dress may be, in a great degree, overcome by skilful the circumstances attendant upon the destruction of arrangements, and that truth of representation in this Pompeii, and the history of the discovery of its ruins, in particular is not incompatible with high taste. At
the last century. The remains of its public buildings are rate it is to be lamented that any statue of brass, which, from its almost iinperishable material, may be the orna- | Knowledge.
* Ponpeii, 2 vols. ; in the series of the Library of Entertaining
accurately described. We extract the following account I was present at the excavation of this house, and saw the of the Roman roads :
mills at the moment of their discovery, when the iron-work,
though entirely rust-eaten, was yet perfect enough to explain The chief approach to Pompeii was through Naples and satisfactorily the method of construction. Herculaneum, along a branch of the Appian way. It is The base is a cylindrical stone, about five feet in diameter, well known that the Romans constructed with great solidity, and two feet high. Upon this, forming part of the same and maintained with constant care, roads diverging from block, or else firmly fixed into it, is a conical projection the capital to the extremities of the empire. The good about two feet high, the sides slightly curving inwards. condition of these was thought to be of such importance, Upon this there rests another block, externally resembling a that the charge was only intrusted to persons of the dice-box, internally an hour-glass, being shaped into two highest dignity, and Augustus himself assumed the care of hollow cones with their vertices, towards each other, the those in the neighbourhood of Rome. The expense of their lower one fitting the conical surface on which it rests, though construction was enormous, but they were built to last for not with any degree of accuracy. To diminish friction, ever, and to this day remain entire and level in many parts however, a strong iron pivot was inserted in the top of the of the world, where they have not been exposed to destruc- solid cone, and a corresponding socket let into the narrow tive violence.
part of the hour-glass. Four holes were cut through the They usually were raised some height above the ground stone parallel to this pivot. The narrow part was hooped which they traversed, and proceeded in as straight a line as on the outside with iron, into which wooden bars were possible, running over bill and valley with a sovereign con- inserted, by means of which the upper stone was turned tempt for all the principles of engineering. They consisted upon its pivot, by the labour of men or asses. The upper of three distinct layers of materials; the lowest, stones, hollow cone served as a hopper, and was filled with corn, mixed with cement, (statumen) *; the middle, gravel or which fell by degrees through the four holes upon the solid small stones, (rudera) *, to prepare a level and unyielding cone, and was reduced to powder by friction between the surface to receive the upper and most important structure, two rough surfaces. Of course it worked its way to the which consisted of large masses accurately fitted together. bottom by degrees, and fell out on the cylindrical base, It is curious to observe that after many ages of imperfect round which a channel was cut to facilitate the collection. paving we have returned to the same plan. The new | These machines are about six feet high in the whole, pavement of Cheapside and Holborn is based in the same made of a rough grey volcanic stone, full of large crystals way upon Troken granite, instead of loose earth which is of leucite. Thus rude in a period of high refinement and constantly working through the interstices, and vitiating the luxury, was one of the commonest and most necessary solid bearing which the stones should possess. A further machines : thus careless were the Romans of the amount of security against its working into holes is given by dressing labour wasted in preparing an article of daily and universal each stone accurately to the same breadth, and into the consumption. This, probably, arose in chief from the emform of a wedge, like the voussoirs of an arch, so that each ployment of slaves, the hardness of whose task was little tier of stones spans the street like a bridge. This is an cared for; while the profit and encouragement to enterprise improvement on the Roman system : they depended for the on the part of the professional baker was proportionally solidity of their construction on the size of their blocks, diminished, since every family of wealth probably prepared which were irregularly shaped, although carefully and firmly its bread at home. But the same inattention to the useful fitted. These roads, especially in the neighbourhood of arts runs through every thing that they did. Their skill in cities, had, on both sides, raised footways (margines), pro- working metals was equal to ours; nothing can be more tected by curb-stones, which defined the extent of the central beautiful than the execution of tripods, lamps, and vases, part (agger) for carriages. The latter was barrelled, that nothing coarser than their locks;. while at the same time no water might lie upon it.
the door-handles, bolts, &c. which were seen, are often The second volume, however, which relates more to be referred? Here we see that a material improvement in
exquisitely wrought. To what cause can this sluggishness domestic matters, is probably the one which will be any article, though so trifling as a corkscrew or pencil-case, found most interesting to general readers. The chapters, is pretty sure io make the fortune of some man, though in particular, on the houses of Pansa and Sallust, on unfortunately that man is very often not the inventor. Had that of the Tragic Poet, that of the Quæstor, that of the the encouragement to industry been the same, the result Nereids, the art of baking as practised by the ancients, would have been the same. Articles of luxury were in high their writing implements, &c. are well calculated to arrest request, and of them the supply was first rate. But the their most eager attention. We subjoin an account of any man for devoting his attention to the improvement of
demands of a luxurious nobility would never have repaid the baker's shop :
mills, or perfecting smith's work, and there was little general We reckon, among the most interesting discoveries of commerce to set ingenuity at work. Italy imported largely Pompeii, those which relate to the manner of conducting
both argicultural produce and manufactures in the shape of handicrafts ; of which it is not too much to say that we tribute from a conquered world, and probably exported part know nothing, except through this medium. It is to be of her peculiar productions; but we are not aware that there regretted, that as far as our information goes, there are but is any ground for supposing that she manufactured goods two trades on which any light has yet been thrown, those, for exportation to any extent. namely, of the baker and the dyer.
Originally mills were turned by hand; and this severe Three bakers' shops at least have been found, all in a labour seems, in all half savage times, to have been contolerable state of preservation. The mills, the oven, the ducted by women. Among the Romans poor freemen used kneading troughs, the vessels for containing water, Hour, sometimes to hire themselves out to the service of the mill leaven, have all been discovered, and seem to leave nothing done so, being reduced to the extreme of poverty, and to
when all other resources failed; and Plautus is said to have wanting to our knowledge: in some of the vessels the very have composed his comedies while thus employed. This reduced almost to a cinder. But in the centre some lumps labour, however, fell chiefly upon slaves, and is represented of whitish matter resembling chalk remained, which, when as being the severest drudgery which they had to undergo. wetted and placed on a red-hot iron, gave out the peculiar Those who had been guilty of any offence were sent to the odour which four thus treated emits. One of these shops mill as a punishment, and sometimes forced to work in was attached to the house of Sallust, the other to the house chains. Asses, however, were used by those who could of Pansa: probably they were worth a handsome rent. The afford it. The use of water-mills, however, was not unthird, which we select for description, for one will serve known to the Romans. Vitruvius describes their construcperfectly as a type of the whole
, seems to have belonged to tion in terms not inapplicable to the mechanism of a coma man of higher class, a sort of capitalist ; for instead of mon mill of the present day; and other ancient authors renting a mere dependency of another man's house, he lived refer to them. in a tolerably good house of his own, of which the bakery mill
, is the aperture to the cistern by which the water used
In the centre of the pier at the back, half hidden by the forms a part. Mazois (a French writer, who has described Pompeii) in making bread was supplied. On each side are vessels to
hold the water ; one is seen, the other hidden. Statumen, that which supports anything. Vitruvius uses it for The oven is seen on the left. It is made with con the coating of a floor.
siderable attention to economy of heat. The real oven is # Rudera, rubble, rough stone, or broken pottery.
enclosed in a sort of ante-oven, which alone is seen in our
view. The latter had an aperture in the top for the smoke Several of these loaves have been found entire. They are to escape. The hole in the side is for the introduction of flat, and about eight inches in diameter. dough, which was prepared in the adjoining room, and deposited through that hole upon the shovel with which the man in front placed it in the oven. The bread, when baked, was conveyed to cool in a room on the other side the oven, by a similar aperture. Beneath the oven is an ash-pit. To the right of our view is a large room which is conjectured to have been a stable. The jaw-bone of an ass, and some other fragments of a skeleton, were found in it. There is a reservoir for' water at the farther end, which passes through the wall, and is common both to this room and the next, so that it could be filled without going into the stable. The farther room is fitted up with stone basins, which seem to have been the kneading-troughs. It contains also a narrow and inconvenient staircase.
Though bread-corn formed the principal article of nourishment among the Italians, the use of bread itself was not of early date. For a long time the Romans used their corn sodden into pap: and there were no bakers in Rome antece. dent to the war against Perseus, king of Macedonia, about A. U. 580. Before this every house made its own bread; and This was the task of the women, except in great houses, where there were men cooks. And even after the invention of bread, it was long before the use of mills was known; but the grain was bruised in mortars. Their loaves appear to have been very often baked in moulds, several of which have been found these may possibly be artoptæ, and the loaves thus baked, artopticii (mentioned by Roman writers).
: (View of the Baker's Shop and Mill.)
(Longitudinal Section of the Tunnel, showing the progress made, and the proposed continuation.] The Company having been incorporated in 1824 by an present together thirty-six cells, destined for the working Act of Parliament, the work was begun in March, 1825. of the men. The whole constitute at the same time a A shaft 50 feet diameter was constructed, destined to powerful fence against the ground. The sides and the form ultimately the descent for the footways. This top are lined with sliding pieces, corresponding with the structure was in the first instance laid upon piles, and sheet-piling of a coffer-dam; and at the bottom it rests raised to the height of 42 feet, including a cast-iron rim, upon broad shoes. For its progressive movement each intended to act as a cutter. A steam-engine of thirty- frame is provided with legs, which have their action in horse power was mounted on the top of this structure. In the lower cells. By this means each frame can be moved this state, the piles being removed, this tower was brought separately; but the whole is brought forward by alterto rest upon the edge of the cast-iron rim. It is easy nate moves, regulated by the progress of the work. to comprehend, that, by clearing the ground inside, the Each operator provides for the security of his own cell, whole must have descended. In this manner a struc- by covering the front with small boards, technically turs, weighing about 1200 tons, was lowered to the called polings; and, as the miners work in front, the depth of 40 feet, through a stratum 26 feet deep, con- bricklayers work at the back in forming the structure. sisting of gravel and sand full of water, wherein the The shield was entered under a substantial bed of drift-makers had met with almost insurmountable ob- clay, and its progress began, by about the 1st of January, stacles. It is to be remarked, that for this, and for 1926. It had not advanced above nine feet, when this the whole operation of the Tunnel, the engineer did not substantial protection was found to break off at once, employ a larger steam-engine than had been required leaving the work open to a considerable influx of water in the operations of the drift-way. As the body of the and of Auid sand, and it resulted that for thirty-two days Tunnel was to be opened at the depth of 40 feet, the the progress was extremely slow; however, by the 14th shaft was continued to 64 feet, by underlaying, leaving of March, the shield was brought into substantial ground
in the side open for the horizontal work. A again. From that day to the 14th of September folwell, or cistern, 25 feet diameter, was further made at lowing 260 feet of tunnel had been completed; when, the bottom of this shaft, for draining the ground; but in in consequence of a run of ground in a fluid state, a sinking it a quicksand suddenly burst upon the work. cavity was discovered to be formed above the head of This event confirmed the report of the drift-makers, and the shield. A remarkable occurrence happened on that of the geologists, as to the existence of a dangerous bed of day. The engineer having occasion to meet the direcsand at about 80 to 83 feet from the level of high water.tors, stated to them that at the head of the tide, which The shield, destined to precede the body of the Tunnel, was then rising, the bottom of the river would, he conwas put up at the depth of 40 feet. The shield, as ceived, break down, observing at the same time that represented in the cut, consists of twelve parallel frames, every thing was prepared to meet the case. The acci22 feet high. These being divided into three stories, I dent did actually occur. However, though this was the
first occurrence of the kind under the river, the miners | 350 feet of tunnel had been made; when, in the act were in no way alarmed on hearing the river deposits of removing one of the roling-boards which cover falling over the head of the shield, accompanied with a the front of the excavation, some loose ground, of the burst of water. The cavity soon filled itself, and with consistency of tempered clay, impelled by the weight of additional precaution the work was continued. An an extraordinary high tide, made its way with an almost occurrence somewhat similar to the preceding one took irresistible force; but, with the auxiliary means which place on the 18th of October following, with equal suc- had been provided for emergencies of this nature, an cess in its consequences. On the 2d of January (1827) | irruption of the river vas completely averted.
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[Shield used in the Excavation of the Thames Tunnel.] The influence of the tide upon the ground to a depth shovel and a hammer, left at the bottom of the river, of not less than thirty feet, was a circumstance which con were not found again upon the next visit, as expected. tributed more than any other to multiply the difficulties, some depressions were discovered in several places and and to give them an awful character. In its natural were secured. state the ground is compact, even when it consists of On the 12th of May, however, in the act of removing sand or of gravel; but in consequence of an excavation on the polings in front of several cells, the ground made its so large a scale, opening new vents for the exudation or way at the top of ten frames in succession. One of the emission of water, it has resulted that some of the strata top cells, in particular, was filled several times, but by have been decomposed and softened, some portions have an expeditious move, and the intrepidity of one of the become even liquid, and others have been kneaded into miners, the ground was secured and the work was various degrees of consistency. These circumstances, brought forward. In advancing one of the middle frames, which are exemplified in the three preceding occurrences, the shovel and the hammer which had been missing, were rendered the operations excessively complicated and labo- found in the way of it, having descended at least 18 rious. Other portions of the strata, consisting of round feet into the ground. smooth pebbles, though embedded in some adhesive sub Notwithstanding the loose state of the ground, the stances, were occasionally found as loose as chesnuts in a shield had gradually gained under a more substantial cask. It resulted, from the concurrence of so many causes, covering, when several vessels, coming in at a late tide, that the ground, at the foundations in particular, instead moored just over the head of the Tunnel, where no vesof retaining its original state, as reported by the drift- sels had moored since the docks had been opened to the makers, viz. a dry firm ground, was found to be so loose, trade. It resulted from this obstruction to the stream, even at the depth of several feet, that it became expe- that those substances which protected the softer ground dient to condense the ground before the foundations from the action of the tides, was washed away. The river could be laid down. This was effected by means of soon made its way into the Tunnel, forming at first as substantial planking, compressed with a power exceed transparent curtain between the shield and the brick ing the greatest weight which each plank was computed structure. Every exertion made to oppose it provest to carry. The original idea of forming the structure by fruitless; the river soon after broke in and filled the rings of nine inches, united by the cement only, has Tunnel. This irruption took place on the 18th of May, proved the most efficient way to prevent the conse- | 1827. quences that were to be apprehended from any derange On examining the hole with the diving-bell, the strucment or disruptions that might result from partial set- ture was ascertained to be perfectly sound, and the shield, tlements.
to all appearance, undisturbed. The repairs were imFrom the 14th of January to the 14th of April fol-mediately proceeded with, by means of clay in bags, lowing, although the ground was in general so loose armed with small hazel rods: about 3090 tons of this that the river deposits were sometimes found in the way filling, with some other soil, were required to close the of the excavation, and although the influx of water was hole, or rather the chasm, which was found to exceed 33 generally excessively abundant, the progress of the work feet in depth. exceeded upon the whole that of any period during the At this period of the proceedings many hundred procourse of the operation : it has been as much as 14 jects were sent to the directors or to the engineer, but feet in a week and even 3 feet per day. However, in none were found applicable to the case. consequence of the frequent run of fluid ground, the
the "On the 21st of June the Tunnel was sufficiently clear engineer applied for and procured a diving-bell for the of water to be entered ; and by the middle of August the purpose of examining the bottom of the river. The soil which had been driven into the arches was completely first inspection took place on the 22d of April. A removed. The structure was found quite sound; but,