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* aia many years delay, he at last consented to TELTY pirately, in 1716; but he never would acknowiesire seir union, and his wife died in consequence, of arvien heart, in 1728. Meanwhile he had attached taxt his second victim, Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, with whom he is supposed to have first become accested about the year 1712; this lady, on discovering, in 1723, the secret of his marriage, died of the shock. He has in different poetical pieces, celebrated the former of these unfortunate women under the name of Stella, and the latter under that of Vanessa.

The morning came, and the sleepless crew

Threw the hatchways open wide ;-
Then the sickening fumes of death up-flew,

And spread on every side ;-
And, ere that eve, of the tyrant few

Full twenty souls had died.
They died, the gaoler and the slave,-

They died with the self-same pain,-
They were equal then, for no cry could save

Those who bound, or who wore, the chain ;
And the robber-white found a common grave

With him of the negro-stain.
The Pest-ship slept on her ocean-bed,

As still as any wreck,
Till they all, save one old man, were dead,

In her hold, or on her deck.-
That man, as life around him fled,

Bow'd not his sturdy neck.
He arose,-the chain was on his hands,

But he climb'd from that dismal place;
And he saw the men who forg'd his bands

Lie each upon his face ;-
There on the deck that old man stands,

The lord of all the space.
He sat him down, and he watch'd a cloud

Just cross the setting sun,
And he heard the light breeze heave the shroud,

Ere that sultry day was done;
When the night came on, the gale was loud,

And the clouds rose thick and dun.
And still the negro boldly walk'd

The lone and silent ship;
With a step of vengeful pride he stalk'd,

And a sneer was on his lip,
For he laugh'd to think how Death had baulk'd

The fetters and the whip.
At last he slept ;-—the lightning flash

Play'd round the creaking mast,
And the sails were wet with the ocean's plash,

[graphic][merged small]

THE SLAVE-SHIP.
Tuere was no sound upon the deep,

The breeze lay cradled there ;
The motionless waters sank to sleep

Beneath the sultry air ;
Out of the cooling brine to leap

The dolphin scarce would dare.
Becalm'd on that Atlantic plain

A Spanish ship did lie;-
She stopp'd at once upon the main,

For not a wave roll?d by :
And she watch'd six dreary days, in vain,

For the storm-bird's fearful cry.
But the storm came not, and still the ray

Of the red and lurid sun
Wax'd hotter and hotter every day,

Till her crew sank one by one,
And not a man could endure to stay

By the helm, or by the gun.
Deep in the dark and fetid hold

Six hundred wretches wept;
They were slaves, that the cursed lust of gold

From their native land had swept;
And there they stood, the young and old,

While a pestilence o'er them crept.
Cramm'd in that dungeon-hold they stood,

For many a day and night,
Till the love of life was all subdued

By the fever's scorching blight,
And their dim eyes wept, half

tears half blood, But still they stood upright. And there they stood, the quick and dead,

Propp'd by that dungeon's wall, And the dying mother bent her head

On her child,—but she could not fall;In one dread night the life had fled

From half that were there in thrall.

But the ship was anchor'd fast,
Till, at length, with a loud and fearful crash,

From her cable's strain she past.
Away she swept, as with instinct rife,

O'er her broad and dangerous path,
And the midnight tempest's sudden strife

Had gathering sounds of wrath;
Yet on board that ship was no sound of life,

Save the song of that captive swarth.
He sang of his Afric's distant sands,

As the slippery deck he trod;
He fear'd to die in other lands

'Neath a tyrant master's rod;
And he lifted his hard and fetter'd hands

In a prayer to the Negro's God.
He touch'd not the sail nor the driving helm,

But he look'd on the raging sea,
And he joy'd,-

for the waves that would overwhelm
Would leave his spirit free;
And he pray'd, that the ship to no Christian realm

Before the storm might flee.
He smiled amidst the tempest's frown,'

He sang amidst its roar;
His joy no fear of death could drown, -

He was a slave no more.
The helmless ship that night went down

On Senegambia's shore !

• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Kaowledge is at

59, Lincoln's-Ion Fields.

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL BAST. Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following

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Printed by WILLIAN CLOTH, Stamford-Street.

THE PENNY MAGAZINE

OP THE

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

42.]

October 31 to November 30, 1832.

COLOSSAL STATUE OF GEORGE III.

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Southern View, looking towards Windsur.) Windsor Castle, which lias, during the last seven years, | magnificence and convenience, is surrounded on the been convertid from a very incommodious and in many north, east, and south sides by a very beautiful domain respects unsightly dwelling, into a palace unsurpassed for called the Little Park. This park has no doubt been VOL. I.

2 X

A tree, of the value and easy culture of which so very plements of navigation. After suffering the greatest encouraging accounts were given, could not but attract fatigue, being exposed to the full action and vicissitudes the notice of the public generally, and more especially of the elements, and forced for some time to bear famine, of those colonists of Great Britain who lived in a climate they reached the Dutch settlement of Coupang, in the warm enough for its cultivation. An application to be island of Timor, without the loss of one individual furnished with plants of the bread-fruit tree was accord- by disease, though they had traversed at least five ingly made to George III. by the planters and others thousand miles of seą. Nay, so ardent was Bligh as a interested in the West Indies, and it met with a favourable seaman, that, amid all those perils, he was occupied in reception. The Bounty, a vessel of about two hundred making some very valuable observations. and fifteen tons burthen, was fitted up for a voyage to The Dutch governor of Coupang showed them every Otaheite. Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral) Bligh, who attention; and, from the care that was taken of theni, had accompanied Cook on his last voyage, and shown twelve were enabled to return to Engiand. Though himself an officer of great talents, enterprise, and bravery, the adventure had failed, every body was disposed to was appointed to the command.

bestow all praise on the adventurer; and he was proThe Bounty was skilfully fitted up for her intended moted to the rank of captain, and appointed to the purpose, and put to sea about the middle of November, command of his Majesty's ship Providence, in order to 1787. This voyage, which had occupied ten months, repeat the voyage. terminated on the 25th of October, by the arrival of the The Providence, with the Assistant, a small ship in Bounty at Otaheite.

company, sailed on the 3d of August, 1791. On the No time was lost in putting the instructions for the 9th of April, 1792, they reached Otaheite ; and, by the conduct of the enterprise into execution. The young 17th of July, they were ready to leave the island, having shoots that sprung from the lateral roots of the bread- on board twelve hundred and eighty-one tubs and pots fruit trees were taken up, with balls of earth, where the of plants, all in the finest condition. These plants were. soil was moist; and this operation was continued till they distributed amongst the colonists at St. Helena St. were in possession of one thousand and fifteen live plants, Vincent's, and Jamaica; and the ships finally returned secured in seven hundred and seventy-four pots, thirty- to the Downs on the 2d of August, 1793. nine tubs, and twenty-four boxes. To complete this cargo But, after all the peril, hardship, and expense thus took them till the 3d of April, 1789; and Bligh sailed incurred, the bread-fruit tree has not, hitherto at least, on the 4th, passing from Otaheite through the group of answered the expectations that were entertained. The islands, and bidding adieu to the natives with whom he banana is more easily and cheaply cultivated, comes into and his crew had been on the most friendly terms during bearing much sooner after being planted, bears more their stay.

abundantly, and is better relished by the negroes. Hitherto there had been no perils to contend with but The mode of propagating the bread-fruit is not, indeed, those of the sea; but when four-and-twenty days had difficult ; for the planter has only to lay bare one of the elapsed, and they were, of course, far from any land, a roots, and mound it with a spade, and in a short space a new scene took place, which frustrated for a time the shoot comes up, which is soon fit for removal. bounty of the government and skill of the commander. Europeans are much fonder of the bread-fruit than Under the cloak of fidelity, a mutiny had been forming negroes. They consider it as a sort of dainty, and use it of a very determined and extensive nature; and so well either as bread or in puddings. When roasted in the had the mutineers disguised their intentions, that not oven, the taste of it resembles that of a potato, but it is one but those who were in the plot had the slightest sus- not so mealy as a good one. picion of it.

The known bravery of Lieutenant Bligh made the mutineers afraid to attack him awake; and so, on the

Alexander Selkirk.-His manner of life during his solimorning of the 28th of April, he was seized while asleep tude was, in most particulars, very remarkable; but there is in his bed, by a band of armed traitors, and hurried one circumstance which was strangely verified by our own upon deck in his shirt; and, on coming there, he found observation. He tells us, amongst other things, that as he the master, the gunner, one of the master's mates, and marked their ears and let them go. This was about thirty

often caught more goals than he wanted, he sometimes Nelson the botanist, who had been with him under two years before our arrival at the island. Now it liappened Cook, confined in the fore-hatchway, and guarded by that the first goat that was killed by our people at their sentinels. The launch was hoisted; and such indi- landing had its ears slit, whence we concluded that he had viduals as the mutineers did not like were ordered to doubtless been formerly under the power of Selkirk. This quit the ship, and forced if they refused or hesitated. was indeed an animal of a most venerable aspect, dignified Eighteen individuals out of the forty-six remained true with an exceeding majestic beard, and with many other to the commander. Four of the men, who kept their symptoms of antiquity. During our stay on the island we allegiance, were detained by the mutineers contrary to being distinguished by an exuberance of beard, and every

met with others marked in the same manner, all the males their wishes. The cause of this singular mutiny, for other characteristic of extreme age.-Anşon's Voyage. which none of the usual motives could very well account, could not with certainty be known; but it was generally supposed that the instigator was Mr. Christian, one of Canine Sagacity.- A respectable correspondent sends the master's mates. Bligh himself says, in his most us the following curious anecdote:—“Some time since I lent interesting account of this voyage and mutiny, “ It will a small spaniel bitch (still in my possession) to two friends, naturally be asked what could be the cause of this who were amusing themselves hunting rabbits. One was revolt?' In answer, I can only conjecture that the mu- l of the chase the bitch plunged into a deep coal-pit, full of

started in a potato field, and closely pressed, till in the heat tineers had flattered themselves with the hope of a water to within seven feet of the brink, and completely hid happier life among the Otaheitans than they could from view by thick shrubs and brambles. In this she conpossibly enjoy in England.”

tinued swimming about until nearly exhausted, when she Thus, after they had made certain of the successful was perceived by one of the gentlemen to make frequent termination of an enterprise, which was looked upon but vain attempts to extricate herself by catching at a twig with a great deal of interest, both in a scientific and an

that overhung the pit. This suggested to him the idea of economical point of view, Bligh was disappointed—and making the little anımal's sagacity the medium of saving he and his faithful associates were sent adrift upon the her life. The handkerchiefs and cravats of himself and his wide ocean, in an open boat, with only a hundred and small knot at one end, were let down to the bitch. She, with

companion were immediately tied together, which, with a fifty pounds of bread, a few pieces of pork, a little wine the utmost quickness of perception, instantly seized the knot and rum, a quadrant and compass, and a few other im- l in her mouth, and was thus drawn out of the dit."

THE WEEK.

a person named Wood for the coinage of Irish farthings November 30.— The birth-day of Dr. Jonathan Swift, from debased metal. The patriotic and successful stand the celebrated Dean of St. Patrick's. He was born at which he made on this occasion for the rights and inteDublin, or, according to other accounts, at Cashel, in the rests of his country raised him to unbounded popularity, county of Tipperary, in 1667. Both his father and and acquired for him an influence in Ireland probably mother, however, were English; and the latter was aunt greater than was possessed by any other individual, and to John Dryden, the great poet, who was therefore which he never afterwards lost. In 1726 appeared his Swift's cousin. She was also related to the wife of Sir - Gulliver's Travels,' which of all his works has most conWilliam Temple; and this connexion, after Swift had tributed to extend and perpetuate his fame. This studied the usual time at Trinity College, Dublin, opened book is the most remarkable example in literature of an entrance for him into public life. Having in his the combination of that which is fitted for the comtwenty-first year come over to England and paid a visit prehension of the initiated few, and of that which is to Sir William at his seat of Moor Park in Surrey, the addressed to the multitude ; for, while it abounds with retired ambassador was so much pleased with his con- strokes of general and political satire which can only be versation, that he kept him with him for several years. perceived by those who have both been in the habit of Here Swift used frequently to meet King William, with reflecting upon human nature and society, and are well whom he soon became a great favourite. He seems, acquainted with the history of the author's age, it con however, to have eventually fallen out of the good graces tains at the same tiine scarcely a sentence which is not of his Majesty, by declining the offer of a captaincy of intelligible and full of interest even to the youngest horse, on the plea that his inclination lay more towards reader: it is a book at once for philosophers and for the church. In 1694 he took orders; and proceeding children. The latter, however, probably read it after all to Ireland, he received a prebend in that country from with the most delight; though they, as it were, only half the Lord Deputy Capel, to whom he had been re- understand it; for it is much more captivating, and also, commended. This, however, he soon after resigned, in an extended sense of the word, much more true, as a and returned to Sir William Temple, with whom he work of imagination than as a work of philosophy. resided till the death of that eminent person in 1700. After this Swift sent to press various other shorter perTemple, besides a sum of money, left his papers to his formances, partly of a political and partly of a miscellayoung friend; by whom a selection of them was soon neous nature; and it was also during this latter part of after published in two volumes. Swift's next patron was his life that he wrote some of the most elaborate and the Earl of Berkeley, who, on being appointed one of spirited of his poetical pieces. In 1736 he was seized the Lords Justices for Ireland, took him with him as with a deafness and giddiness from which he never rehis secretary and chaplain. On Lord Berkeley's return covered, and which gradually increased into a general to England Swift went to reside at Laracor, a small decay of his whole system, till at last, in the beginning living which he held in the county of Meath; and it was of the year 1742, both his bodily and liis mental faculties soon after this that he published his first political pam- were reduced to a state of almost entire prostration. He phlet, entitled ' A Discourse on the Contests between the lingered, however, in this lamentable condition till the Nobles and Commons in Athens and Rome,' being a 29th of October, 1745, when he expired in the seventydefence of the existing administration. In 1704 ap- eighth year of his age. Swift's works have been several peared anonymously his famous ' Tale of a Tub,' accom- times printed in a collected form ; but the last and best panied by the ‘Battle of the Books;' in which perform- edition is that with a Life and notes by the late Sir ances be first gave evidence of that pover of satirical Walter Scott, in nineteen volumes octavo. He occupies humour which has proved to be the most distinguishing a very high rank among the prose authors of England. quality of his genins. These publications were followed If the quality of a pure style, indeed, were to be estiby others of a political character, in which he appeared mated by its freedom from anything poetical, Swift as the champion of the Tory party ; and to such im- would be the greatest of all our writers of prose. But portance did he quickly raise himself by these services, although his diction is to an almost unrivalled degree that in 1710 he was sent for to England by Harley and plain and unornamented, it yet derives, from its union of St. John, and immediately taken into their most intimate perspicuity with idiomatic expression, a singular terseness, confideuce. It appears, indeed, that for some time pub- strength, and vivacity. His poetry seldom rises to anylic affairs were in a great measure directed by his advice. thing properly deserving that name. The most remarkMeanw lille he continued his services with his pen, and able attribute of his genius is that exquisite sense of the gave to the world a succession of able tracts in support of ludicrous, which, combined as it was with great powers the policy of his patrons. This period also, the most of observation, and controlled by the most unerring sagabrilliant, and probably the happiest of his life, was that city and judgment, enabled him to assume and support of his cbiet intercourse with Pope, and Arbuthnot, and a tone of grave humour, in which he has certainly never Adilison, and his other illustrious literary friends. It been excelled. Much of what he wrote, however, in was generally expected, and by himself, no doubt, as well this style is debased by a coarseness which is very offenass by others, that his active and useful partisanship would sive, and is calculated to convey anything rather than be rewarded by the highest professional advancement; an agreeable impression of his general disposition and but when a place on the English episcopal bench at last habits. Indeed very little can be said for the moral chabecame varant, the Queen, at the instigation, it is said, of racter of this great writer. It may be allowed that he Sharpe, Archbishop of York, objected to the extreme levity was charitable, and free from the love of money; but of some of his literary performances, and especially of his this is nearly all that can be advanced in his favour. * Tale of a Tub, and would not consent to his promo- His selfishness, in almost every thing else, displayed tion. He was forced, therefore, to be contented with the itself in the most intense form ; even those who expeDeanery of St. Patrick's in Dublin, of which he went rienced his kindness were obliged to take his rudeness over to take possession in 1713. He now withdrew him- and unfeeling insults along with his bounty. His imself for some years from politics, and even from the press, perious and ungenerous nature was always best pleased occupying his time chiefly in regulating the chapter of with the meanest servility, in any who sought his aid or his cathedral, into the management of whose affairs he patronage. But the blackest and most indelible stain introduced many useful reforms. It was not till 1720 on his memory, is the story of his treatment of the two that he again appeared as an author, by the publication females whose affections he courted and gained, only to of his celebrated Drapier's Letters,' in exposure of the ruin their peace and send them in succession to a prescandalous job of a patent granted by the government to mature grave. The first of these was a Miss Johnson,

whom, after many years delay, he at last consented to marry privately, in 1716 ; but he never would acknowledge their union, and his wife died in consequence, of a broken heart, in 1728. . Meanwhile he had attached to himself his second victim, Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, with whom he is supposed to have first become acquainted about the year 1712; this lady, on discovering, in 1723, the secret of his marriage, died of the shock. He has, in different poetical pieces, celebrated the former of these unfortunate women under the name of Stella, and the latter under that of Vanessa.

The morning came, and the sleepless crew

Threw the hatchways open wide ;
Then the sickening fumes of death up-few,

And spread on every side ;-
And, ere that eve, of the tyrant few

Full twenty souls had died.
They died, the gaoler and the slave,-

They died with the self-same pain,-
They were equal then, for no cry could save

Those who bound, or who wore, the chain;
And the robber-white found a common grave

With him of the negro-stain.
The Pest-ship slept on her ocean-bed,

As still as any wreck,
Till they all, save one old man, were dead,

In her hold, or on her deck.
That man, as life around him fled,

Bow'd not his sturdy neck.
He arose,—the chain was on his hands,

But he climb'd from that dismal place;
And he saw the men who forg'd his bands

Lie each upon his face ;
There on the deck that old man stands,

The lord of all the space.
He sat him down, and he watch'd a cloud

Just cross the setting sun,
And he heard the light breeze heave the shroud,

Ere that sultry day was done;
When the night came on, the gale was loud,

And the clouds rose thick and dun.
And still the negro boldly walk'd

The lone and silent ship;--
With a step of vengeful pride he stalk'd,

And a sneer was on his lip,-
For he laugh'd to think how Death had baulk'd

The fetters and the whip.
At last he slept ;—the lightning flash

Play'd round the creaking mast,
And the sails were wet with the ocean's plash,

But the ship was anchor'd fast,
Till, at length, with a loud and fearful crash,

From her cable's strain she past.
Away she swept, as with instinct rife,

O'er her broad and dangerous path,
And the midnight tempest's sudden strife

Had gathering sounds of wrath;
Yet on board that ship was no sound of life,

Save the song of that captive swarth.
He sang of his Afric's distant sands,

As the slippery deck he trod; He fear'd to die in other lands

'Neath a tyrant master's rod;
And he lifted his hard and fetter'd hands

In a prayer to the Negro's God.
He touch'd not the sail nor the driving helm,

But he look'd on the raging sea,
And he joy'd,—for the waves

that would overwhelm Would leave his spirit free; And he pray'd, that the ship to no Christian realm

Before the storm might flee.
He smiled amidst the tempest's frown,'

He sang amidst its roar;
His joy no fear of death could drown, -

He was a slave no more.
The helmless ship that night went down

On Senegambia's shore !

[graphic][merged small]

THE SLAVE-SHIP. There was no sound upon the deep,

The breeze lay cradled there ;
The motionless waters sank to sleep

Beneath the sultry air;
Out of the cooling brine to leap

The dolphin scarce would dare.
Becalm'd on that Atlantic plain

A Spanish ship did lie;-
She stopp'd at once upon the main,

For not a wave rollid by :
And she watch'd six dreary days, in vain,

For the storm-bird's fearful cry.
But the storm came not, and still the ray

Of the red and lurid sun
Wax'd hotter and hotter every day,

Till her crew sank one by one,
And not a man could endure to stay

By the helm, or by the gun.
Deep in the dark and fetid hold

Six hundred wretches wept;
They were slaves, that the cursed lust of gold

From their native land had swept ;
And there they stood, the young and old,

While a pestilence o'er them crept.
Cramm'd in that dungeon-hold they stood,

For many a day and night,
Till the love of life was all subdued

By the fever's scorching blight,
And their dim eyes wept, half tears half blood, -

But still they stood upright.
And there they stood, the quick and dead,

Propp'd by that dungeon's wall,-
And the dying mother bent her head

On her child, but she could not fall;In one dread night the life had fled

From half that were there in thrall.

The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at

59, Lincoln's-Ida Fields.

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. Shopkeopers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following

Booksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :London, GROONBRIDOE, Panyer Alley. | Manchester, ROBINSON; and WIB Bath, Summs.

and Sixxs. Birmingham, DRAKI.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLEY. Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.

Norwich, JARROLD and Sox,
Carlisle, THURNAN; and Scott, Nottingham, WRIGHT.
Derby, WILKINS and Son.

Oxford, SLATTER.
Doncaster, BROOKE and Co.

Plymouth, NITTLI TOX. Exeter, BALLI.

Portsea, HORSEY, JUD. Falmouth, PHILP.

Sheffield, Ridor. Hull, STEPHENSON.

Staffordshire, Lane End, C. WATTI. Kendal, HUDSON and NICHOLSOX, Worcester, DEIOBTOX. Leeds, BAINIS and NEWSOME.

Dublin, WAKINAK, Lincoln, BROOKE and Soxs.

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Bors, Liverpool, WILLMIR and SUITE Glasgow, ATXIXSON and Co.

Printed by WILLIAN Clown, Stamford-Strest.

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