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ment, Dr. Weatherhead, has had the bodies of several of the Church of Eng.and, no more are we; therefore Ornithorhynchi transmitted to him from New Holland, we hope that thou wilt grant us the same liberty which in one of which the ova are preserved ; establishing, thou allowest thyself,” This most dishonest and malig along with other curious circumstances ascertained, the nant travesty has been copied by subsequent historians. extraordinary fact that this animal, which combines the In 1668 Penn first appeared publicly as a preacher in bird and quadruped together in its outward form, lays favour of Quakerism and against the Established Church, eggs and hatches them like the one, and rears and for which he was committed to the Tower. He endured suckles them like the other.
an imprisonment of seven months; and then, having obtained his liberty, proceeded a second time to Ireland,
and recommenced preaching. In 1670 we find him THE WEEK.
again in London, where, having been brought before
the lord-mayor on the charge of illegal preaching October 14.-The anniversary of the birth of William in the streets, he was afterwards tried at the Old Penn, one of the greatest names among the early Bailey, and, although acquitted by the jury, was by English Quakers
, and immortal as the founder of the the scandalous tyranny of the time once more sent Colony of Pennsylvania. He was born at London to prison, and detained in confinement till his father in 1644. His father was the celebrated Admiral Sir secretly purchased his release. He then proceeded in William Penn, who greatly distinguished himself in the company with the celebrated George Fox to France and war against the Dutch in the reign of Charles II. At Germany, in both of which countries the two friends the age of sixteen Penn was sent to Christ Church, laboured unsparingly in the propagation of their opiOxford; and it was while at the University that he was nions. The serious illness of his father however soon converted to the tenets of the Friends by a discourse recalled him to England, where on his arrival he found which he heard from one of their preachers. The the Admiral on his death-bed, but very anxious not to course of conduct which he adopted in consequence of leave the world without being reconciled to his son. his new views, exposed him to a great deal of harsh Penn indeed tells us in one of his works that he found treatment from the authorities of the University; and his father now become almost a Quaker as well as himhe at length returned home. His father then, in the self. The death of Sir William left him in possession hope of curing him of what he conceived to be his of landed property to the value of £1500 a year, befanatical notions, sent him to travel in France and the sides a claim upon the Crown to the amount of £16,000 Low Countries. On his return, he entered as a student
more. He now therefore married, and settled at Rickof law at Lincoln's Inn, but was soon after sent over by mansworth in Hertfordshire. Finding it difficult or his father to Ireland to take charge of some landed pro- impossible to obtain payment of his debt from the perty which the Admiral possessed in that country. He Crown in money, he at length petitioned for a grant of was at this time in his twenty-second year. His visit to land in North America ; and after some delay he obIreland completed his conversion to Quakerism. Hav- tained a large tract of country lying immediately to ing met there with the same preacher who had made the west of New Jersey, by a charter dated the 1st of the first impression upon him at Oxford, he was soon March, 1681. The same year he left England to take brought to join himself openly and without reserve to possession of his purchase, accompanied by numerous the sect whose opinions he shared, and to adopt all the families of his own persuasion, to colonize the new terpeculiar habits by which they were distinguished. His ritory. One of the first steps which the incipient lefather upon this sent for him home; but he was now too gislator took was to enter into a treaty with the Indian decidedly convinced of the necessity of persevering in chiefs of the neighbourhood, to whom, having assembled the course to which he had committed himself to be dis-them around him under an old ash-tree, he deliberately posed to make any concession or compromise, and ac- explained by an interpreter the several articles which he cordingly it is said, on his first appearance before the old proposed, that each might be formally assented to after Admiral, he confounded him by advancing with his hat it was fully understood. The late Mr. West, himself a on, and addressing him with the singular salutation, “I native of Pennsylvania, has painted this scene, which am very glad, friend, to see thee in good health.”, Sir took place on the spot where the town of Philadelphia William thought his son had gone mad, and ordered now stands, and which future events have invested both him to the door. Such is the story, told originally, we to Americans and to civilized man in every clime with believe, by Voltaire; but it may possibly be after all little
so deep an interest. The remainder of Penn's life more than a fiction of that accomplished jester. The was chiefly spent in superintending the growth and grossest misrepresentations of the conduct and lan-government of the colony which he had thus founded, guage of Penn and his brethren are to be found in and which he had the happiness of seeing every day graver works than the one in which this anecdote ap-. become more populous and flourishing. He returned pears. Let one example suffice. On the accession of to England in 1683; and, on the accession of James II. James II. the Quakers, among many other public bodies, about two years afterwards, became a great favourpresented an address to the new monarch, of which the ite at court. On the Revolution, indeed, his intimate principal object was to crave toleration for their inoffen- connexion with the deposed monarch brought him into sive and peaceful tenets. It contained no singularity of such suspicion, that his American colony was seized by expression whatever, beginning, “Whereas it hath the Crown, and he was obliged to conceal himself for pleased Almighty God (by whom kings reign) to take some years. It was not till 1696 that his possessions hence the late King Charles the Second, and to preserve and their government were restored to him. Soon after thee peaceably to succeed; we thy subjects heartily this, his wife having died, he married a second time, and desire that the Giver of all good and perfect gifts may in 1699 he returned to America, taking his family along please to endue thee with wisdom and mercy in the use with him. Here he was received with joy and blessings, of thy great power, to His glory, the King's honour, both by the British colonists and by the Indians. After and the kingdom's good"-and proceeding throughout residing in Pennsylvania about two years, and taking an in the same dignified and perfectly respectful and unpre- affecting farewell of its population, who regarded him alsuming style. Yet this address, the historian Echard, most as a father, he again set sail for England. The close professing to transcribe its exact words, has thought of Penn's life was clouded and distressed by pecuniary proper to give in the following ridiculous form ; " We embarrassments in which he had become involved; and are come to testify our sorrow for the death of our good in 1712 he sustained a stroke of apoplexy, which greatly friend Charles, and our joy for thy being made our enfeebled both his body and his mind. He languished, governor. We are told thou art not of the persuasion | however, under the consequences of this attack for six
years longer, dying on the 30th of July, 1718, at his seats to suppose that to him we are really indebted for at Ruscomb in Berkshire.
the invention of the art of mezzotinto engraving, of which Prince Rupert has generally had the credit. Wren was created LL.D. by the University of Oxford in 1661, and was knighted in 1674.'. In 1680 he was elected to the Presidency of the Royal Society, and in 1685 he entered Parliament as representative of the borough of Plympton. While superintending the erection of the cathedral of St. Paul's all the salary that Wren received was only £200 a year. He was also used in other respects by the Commissioners with extreme illiberality and meanness; and at last the ingratitude of his country, or rather of his times, was consummated by his dismissal in 1718 from his place of Surveyor of Public Works. He was at this time in the eighty-sixth year of his age. This - great and good man, died at Hampton Court on the 25th of February, 1723, in the ninety-first year of his age. His remains were accom. panied by a splendid attendance to their appropriate resting place under the noble edifice which his genius had reared ; and over the grave was fixed a tablet with the inscription in Latin (since placed in front of the organ), " Beneath is laid the builder of this church and city, Christopher Wren, who lived above ninety years, not for himself but for the public good. Reader, if thou see kest for his monument, look around.”. Amongst the London churches which were built from the desigus of Sir C. Wren, one of the most beautiful, as to its interior, is that of St. Stephen's, Wallbrook, of which the
following cut may give some notion. [Portrait of William Penn.) October 20.-On this day in the year 1632, exactly two centuries ago, was born Sir Christopher Wren, the celebrated architect of St. Paul's. His birth-place was East Knoule, in Wiltshire, of which parish his father was rector. He early gave proof of that ingenuity and aptitude for scientific pursuits by which he was afterwards so eminently distinguished, having in his thirteenth year invented a new astronomical instrument, and soon afterwards various other mathematical contrivances. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Wadham College, Oxford, and here his remarkable proficiency in various branches of learning, and especially in the mathematics, soon made him known to various persons of distinction and influence. Young as he was at this time, he was one of the original members of the club which was formed at Oxford in 1648 for philosophical discussion and experiments, and which eventually gave rise to the Royal Society. In 1657 he was chosen Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College; and on the Restoration was appointed to the Savilian professorship of Astronomy at Oxford. It was very soon after this that he was first called upon to exercise his genius in architecture (a study, however, which had previously engaged a good deal of his attention) by being appointed assistant to the Surveyor-General, Sir John Denham, who, in truth, neither knew, nor pretended to know, anything of the duties of the office which he held. This led to Wren's employment on the work on which his popular fame principally rests,
[Interior of St. Stephen's, Walbrook.] the re-building of the cathedral of St. Paul's after th3 great fire. The erection of this noble edifice occupied
The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at
59, Lincoln's-Inn Fields. him for thirty-five years; but neither prevented him from designing, during the same period, and superin
LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. tending the completion of many other buildings, nor Shopkeepers, and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following even interrupted his pursuit of the most abstract branches
Booksellers, of rchom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :of science. We are accustomed to speak of Sir Christo- Bandos; GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley., Manchester, Robinson; and Wind and pher Wren only as a great architect; but he was also, in Birmingham, Drake.
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLEY. Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.
Norwich, JARROLD and Sox. truth, one of the first mathematicians that England has Carlisle, Thurnham; and Scott. Nottingham, WRIGHT, ever produced. Among the host of eminent culti- Derby, Wilkins and Son.
Staffordshire, Lane End, C. WATTS, the exception of that of Newton, which deserves to Kendal, Hudsox and NICHOLSON,
Leeds, Baines and NEWSOME.
Dublin, WAKEMAN. be placed before his. His mechanical inventions were
Edinburgh, OLIVER and Boys. very numerous, and many of them of sterling in- Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITH. Gilasgow, ATKINSON and Co. genuity. Among other things there is every reason
Printed by WILLIAM Clowes, Stamford Street.
Doncaster, BROO..E and Co.
Lincoln, BROOKE and Sons.
[Catehing Turtles on the Cuast of Caba.) It is not improbable that some of our readers, who re- | food. It is found, in great numbers, on the coasts of side near a great commercial port, may have seen the all the islands and continents of the torrid zone. The landing of a cargo of strange-looking animals, which, shoals which surround these coasts are covered with turned upon their backs, appear the most helpless of marine plants; and in these water pastures, which are creatures, and in this conation may have naturally led near enough to the surface to be readily seen by the the spectator to imagine that they are incapable of re- naked eye in calm weather, a prodigious abundance of moving from place to place, and have therefore little en- animals, mostly amphibious, feed, and amongst them joyment of existence. These creatures, to use the lan- multitudes of tortoises. Dampier, the old_voyager, guage of the epicure, are fine “lively turtles"—the term describing the Gallapagos Islands, says, “ There are " lively” being understood to mean that they have suf- good wide channels between these islands fit for ships to fered little from a long voyage—that they are in good pass; and in some places shoal water, where there grows health—and that the “green fat,” the glory of aldermen, plenty of turtle grass; therefore these islands are plentiis in the most perfect state of excellence. Without ask- fully stored with sea turtle.” The tortoise, whether of ing our readers to feel any very strong interest in the the land or water species, is, as most of our readers prospects of high living which the arrival of a cargo of know, protected, both on the back and belly, by a hollow turtles offers to many individuals who are somewhat too shield, which is open at each end, for the issuing of much inclined to set a high value upon the gratifications the head and fore-feet at one time, and the tail and of the palate, we may be able to satisfy a rational curio- hind-feet at another. sity as to the habits of these singular animals, which The upper shield is termed the back-plate, or buckler; offer some higher benefits to mankind than that of fur- the lower shield the breast-plate. The middle of the nishing the most costly luxury of a city feast.
buckler, in most of the species, is covered by numerous The turtle and the tortoise belong to the same group pieces or plates resembling horn in texture and composiof reptiles—in fact the turtle is a tortoise which princi- tion; and the beautiful substance known by the name pally inhabits the water, and is only found occasionally of tortoise-shell is obtained principally from a small speon the land. The two varieties represented in the above cies called the Hawksbill. The feet of the marine tor plate are the Green Tortoise (a), and the Loggerhead toises are much longer than those of the land, and their Tortoise (b). The former is the species chiefy used for toes are united by a membrane, so that they swim with Vol. I.
great facility. The head, feet, and tail are covered with over on their backs, not giving them time either to desmall scales. The jaws of the wide mouth are not pro- fend themselves, or to blind their assailants, by throwing vided with teeth, but the jaw-bones are very hard and up the sand with their fins. When very large, it restrong, and being at the same time very rough, the ani- quires the efforts of several men to turn them over, and mal is enabled to consume its vegetable food with ease, they must often employ the assistance of handspikes or and at the same time to crush the shell-fish on which levers for that purpose. The buckler of this species is the marine species also feed. The green tortoise attains so flat as to render it impossible for the animal to recover an enormous size and weight; some individuals mea- the recumbent posture, when it is once turned on its suring six or seven feet in length from the tip of the back. nose to the extremity of the tail, by three or four feet “A small number of fishers may turn over forty or fifty broad, and weighing as much as eight hundred pounds. tortoises, full of eggs, in less than three hours. During Dampier says, “I heard of a monstrous green turtle the day, they are employed in securing those which they once taken at Port Royal, in the bay of Campeachy, that had caught in the preceding night. They cut them up, was four feet deep from the back to the belly, and the and salt the flesh and the eggs, Sometimes they may belly six feet broad. Captain Rocky's son, of about nine extract above thirty pints of a yellow or greenish oil from or ten years of age, went in it (meaning in the shell) as one large individual ; this is employed for burning, or, in a boat, on board his father's ship about a quarter of a when fresh, is used with different kinds of food. Somemile from the shore.” The green tortoise commonly times they drag the tortoises they have caught, on their weighs from two to three hundred pounds.
backs, to enclosures, in which they are reserved for occaThe instinct which leads the female turtle to the shore sional use. to lay her eggs, exposes her to the danger of becoming “ The tortoise fishers, from the West Indies and the the prey
of man. She deposits her eggs on the loose Bahamas, who catch these animals on the coasts of Cuba sand, and abandons them at once to the chance, which and its adjoining islands, particularly the Caymanas, approaches almost to a certainty in the southern hemi- usually complete their cargoes in six weeks or two sphere, that they will be hatched by the influence of the months; they afterwards return to their own islands, sun's rays. She digs, by means of her fore-feet, one or with the salted turtle, which is used for food both by the more holes about a foot wide and two feet deep, in which whites and the negroes. This salt turtle is in as great she usually deposits more than a hundred eggs. These request in the American colonies, as the salted cod of eggs are round, and are two or three inches in diameter; Newfoundland is in many parts of Europe ; and the fishthey are covered with a membrane something like wet ing is followed by all these colonists, particularly by the parchment. The female generally lays three times in British, in small vessels, on various parts of the coast each year, at intervals of about a fortnight or three of Spanish America, and the neighbouring desert islands. weeks. They almost always go ashore in the night "The green tortoise is likewise often caught at sea time, A loose sand being essential to the hatching in calm weather, and in moon-light nights. For this of the eggs, the turtles frequent only particular shores; purpose two men go together in a small boat, which is but these are often several hundred miles from their rowed by one of them, while the other is provided with feeding places. The eggs are hatched in less than a harpoon, similar to that used for killing whales. a month after they are laid ; and in about eight or Whenever they discover a large tortoise, by the froth ten days the young reptiles crawl to the water. Few, which it occasions on the water in rising to the surface, however, reach their native element, in proportion they hasten to the spot as quickly as possible, to prevent to the number produced. They become the prey of it from escaping. The harpooner immediately throws sea-fowl and various quadrupeds of prey, The tiger his harpoon with sufficient force to penetrate through is an especial enemy to the tortoise ; but man is still the buckler to the flesh; the tortoise instantly dives, and more actively engaged in their destruction, The col- the fisher gives out a line, which is fixed to the harpoon, lection of tortoise eggs forms one of the most impor- and, when the tortoise is spent with loss of blood, it is tant of the occupations of the Indians of the Orinoco. hauled into the boat or on shore.' Humboldt has given a most interesting account of this branch of commerce, of which we shall furnish an abstract in a future number.
THE FLEMISH LANGUAGE.--No. 2. The wood-cut at the head of this article represents the Perhaps our readers may not be unwilling to see a few manner in which the marine tortoises are caught on
more specimens of the Flemish language. It should be the coast of Cuba, and on parts of the South American stated that this book of dialogues, from which our last continent. The Count de Lacepede, in his History of specimens were taken, contains at the end a kind of Oviporous Quadrupeds, has described the various modes manual of good manners, it being the opinion of the in which the business of tortoise-catching is carried on ; writer—" that youth have long been in want of a treatise and we shall conclude this notice with an abstract of his on manners, which should be based upon our usages, account. It must be remarked that the turtle is a most and adapted to the state of our knowledge.” important addition to the ordinary mode of victualling a
We give a few of the maxims of this Dutch Chestership; and that, therefore, the war in which the human field for the use of those whom they may concern. race engages against them is rendered absolutely neces
Directions for behaviour at table :sary by the wants of navigators. The turtles which Het zoud neemt men met het You must take the salt with the are demanded in England for the gratification of a
punt van het mes, het welk point of your knife, after harJuxurious appetite, constitute a very small number, when
inen aen zyn brood moet afvae- ing wiped it on your bread. compared with those which offer an agreeable and
gen. salutary food to the hardy crews who are engaged in the
Instead of a literal translation we have given the commerce of the tropical seas.
meaning, marking with Italics a few words which are " In spite of the darkness which is chosen by the fe- the most striking in the two languages. But besides male tortoises for concealment when employed in laying welk, whilk or which," will be detected in this and the
those which we have marked, other similarities, such as their eggs, they cannot effectually escape from the suit of their enemies : the fishers wait for them on the following specimens :shore, at the beginning of the night, especially when it Daer is niets 200 ongemanierd There is nought so unmannered is moonlight, and, either as they come from the sea, or
dan iet van de schotel te as to take aught from the dish as they return after laying their eggs, they either dis
neémen met het forket waer with the fork wherewith you
men mede eet, patch them with blows of a club, or turn them quickly
eat, or, literally," where man with cats."
We think so; and we also say with the Dutch Ches- | magnitude and real nature of comets, let us consider terfield —
what chance there is of our knocking against the comet of Opent den mond niet te wyt als Open not your mouth too wide the present year, which, from the position of its orbit,
when ye eat.
looks much more threatening than any other that is The reason for this precept is obvious; the Dutch known. Chesterfield has, however, thought it necessary to tell
On the 29th of the present month this comet of Biela his countrymen the why and wherefore of it.
will be distant from a certain point in the earth's orbit Vraegt niet te drinken terwyl gy Ask not (for something) to drink only about ?f of the earth’s diameters, or about twenty zop eét; wagt tot dat gy iet the while ye eat soup; wait till thousand miles in round numbers. If the earth were at anders geïéten hebt.
that ye somewhat (aught) else this very point of its annual track on the same 29th have eaten.
of October, it might happen that we should feel such And, above all,
effects from the comet, or from the enormous mass Gaept niet rond ter wyl gy drinkl. Look not (gape) round the while of vapour composing it (computed to be more than
one hundred and fifty times greater than the mass of our Perhaps these maxims may be enough for one lesson. earth), as to destroy all animal and vegetable life. But The original goes on for some length, and, finally, as the earth will not be at this dangerous point till the admonishes young folks not to carry off cakes, apples, | 30th of November, or thirty-two days later than the &c. in their pockets from the table. We cordially concur comet, we shall have nothing to fear from it this time. in this advice.
For the earth moving in its orbit at the rate of about We shall conclude with directions for sitting at table: 67,680 geographical miles in one hour, it will be Als gy zult gezeten zyn, strukt u When ye shall be seated, stretch 51,978,240 miles distant from the comet on the 29th of niet uyt op uwen stoel; zet uwe o not out upon your seat (stool); this month, and in no danger at all of being affected by beenen niet overeen; wiegt niet set o legs (bones) not over it in any way that we can estimate. met uwen stoel; maer houd u (across) one another; rock regl, de voeten op den grond not with 'o stool; but hold 'o
Perhaps few people will trouble themselves about this geplaetst.
right (straight), the feet placed comet any more, when they learn that they are quite safe on the ground.
for the present. But how, it may be asked; are we sure that Directions how to hold hats and reticules in company:
on some future occasion we may not approach too near ? Eenen jongeling houd zynen hoed A younker holds his hat (hood) If the comet should be in its nearest point to the sun op zyne knieën, zonder het bin upon his knees, but without on the 28th of December, instead of the 27th of Novemnenste te laeten zien. Eene letting you see the inside (het ber, then we should really approach it within the short jonge dogter houd insgelyks binnenste). A young girl distance above-mentioned. But this near approach canhaere tassche op haere knieen. (daughter) holds in like man
not take place, unless the comet should be in its nearest ner her bag on her knees.
point to the sun in the latter part of December; and this COMETS.-No. 1.
again will not take place till the year 1933, when the
comet will be in its perihelion (i. e. nearest point to the Most of our readers must have heard of the comet of sun) on the 31st of December, and again in the year Biela, which appears in the present year, and has caused 2115, on the 26th of the same month. But, should the no small alarm among those who are entirely ignorant of comet's period of six years and two hundred and seventy the nature of comets in general, and of the track of this days be somewhat changed in the course of the next particular one. We have met with an amusing little century, from the action of Jupiter and other planets, book on this comet of 1832, by Littrow, professor of (which is far from improbable,) this would diminish still astronomy at Vienna, from which we shall give the further the chance of any unpleasant proximity in the substance of a few extracts, that may not be unin- years 1933 or 2115. This we hope will console those teresting.
who regard this visitor with more feelings of fear than There are only four comėts whose orbits are yet curiosity. accurately known. That which appears in the present It may be added that this comet is a very sıcall one, year is called Biela's comet, from its having been dis- and, though its vapour occupies so enormous a space, the covered by an Austrian officer of that name in Bohemia real kernel or bright part of the comet is not more than in 1826. Its period of revolution round the sun is sixty or eighty miles in diameter ; and hence it is conjecsix years and two hundred and seventy days. Though tured that if it really is a body properly so called, it must it had been seen before, in 1772 and 1805, it was not be very small indeed, and that, even in a near approach known to be a comet of so short a period. In the pre- to the earth, any injury that it might do by its attraction sent year, 1832, we shall have its fourth visit. On the would be hardly felt. Again, says Littrow_" as to 27th of next November the comet will be nearest the tail and its deadly vapours, which, as they say, to the sun, but even then about seventy-two millions threaten us with such dreadful consequences, we really of geographical miles distant from that body: and on have nothing at all to fear from them; and for the folthe 22d of this month (October) it will be nearest to lowing plain, but quite satisfactory reason-the comet the earth, and at the distance of about forty-four millions has no tail.” of miles from us.
The following conclu will, we hope, remove whatThe number of comets must be very great, for the ever apprehension may still lurk in the minds of the most appearance of near five hundred has been recorded; and timid, as to the danger which they have to fear from if we consider how many must have passed unnoticed this comet in the years 1933, 2115, and in subsequent in the early history of the world for want of persons years-should their lives be so far prolonged. to observe them, we may form some idea of the pro “ We have already stated that Biela's comet can only digious quantity of these bodies. From 1769 to 1807 come near the earth when it is at its least distance from no comet appeared that attracted any attention from the sun, in the latter part of December. But since this people in general, though astronomers during this period proximity of the comet to the sun may just as well observed no fewer than thirty-six. There being then so happen on every other day of the year as in December, many of these wanderers whose course is unknown, it and since its period is six years two hundred and seventy may be supposed a possible thing that one of them days, or about two thousand five hundred days, in round should run foul of the earth; and supposing it to be a numbers,-after a lapse of two thousand five hundred body of any considerable magnitude and density, such a years, a near approach (not an actual collision) to the shock would entirely put an end to the present order of comet is probable. I say merely probable, from which existence. Setting aside, however, the question as to the it must not be concluded that such an event actually