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The parish of St. Martin in the Fields, though still been erected into a parish. As for the church, it is retaining its ancient name, is now one of the most noticed as having gone to ruin, and been rebuilt in the crowded districts of the tov:n, and nearly covered with reign of Henry VIII. ; and as having been afterwards streets and houses. It was formerly of very great ex- greatly enlarged in 1607, by the addition of a chancel, tent, comprehending the whole space, with the exception at the expense of Prince Henry, eldest son of James I., of the parishes of St. John's and St. Margaret's, from and several of the nobility. This building, however, the banks of the river to St. Giles's, and from Somerset- having again fallen to decay, was taken down in the house, in the east, to Hyde-park and Chelsea, in the year 1721 ; and on the 19th of March, 1722, the founwest. Within the last two centuries, however, several new dation stone of the present church was laid with great parishes have been formed from its different out-wards. ceremony by the Bishop of Salisbury, on the site of the That of St. Paul's, Covent-garden, was erected in 1645; old one. that of St. Anne's, Westminster, in 1678; that of St. The building, as is recorded in a Latin inscription James's in 1685; and that of St. George's, Hanover- over the portico, was finished in 1726 ; and it was consquare, in 1724. The parish of St. Martin is now con- secrated on the 20th of October, in the same year. The fined to a comparatively small district, consisting prin- expense of the work was nearly £37,000, of which cipally of some streets in the immediate neighbourhood £33,450 was raised, under the authority of an Act of of the church, of the portion of the Strand from near Parliament, by rates on landlords and tenants, and the Waterloo-bridge to Charing-cross, and of the continua- remainder consisted of voluntary contributions. The tion of the same line of street to the west end of Pall- King, on the completion of the building, gave a hundred mall. It also includes the Green-park, and a part of guineas to be distributed among the workmen, and £1500 St. James's-park, these being the only fields that now for the purchase of an organ. The original instrument, remain within its boundaries,
however, we believe, has long ago given place to another. All that is known of the ancient history of this district | The expense of re-casting the bells, of which the steeple is, that it appears to have contained a chapel, at least, so contains an excellent peal of twelve, amounted to £1264, early as towards the beginning of the thirteenth century, It is said that the famous Nell Gwyn, who was interred and that by the middle of the following it had certainly in the burying-ground of this parish, left a sum of
money to afford a weekly entertainment to the ringers and from the ethereal heights to which he soars, looking of St. Martin's church, the benefit of which they still abroad, at one glance, on an immeasurable expanse of enjoy. When the present structure was erected, so forests, fields, lakes, and ocean, deep below him, he apmany persons were eager to contribute their aid towards pears indifferent to the little localities of change of sea«s embellishment, that the managers were obliged to sons; as in a few minutes he can pass from summer to decline accepting some offers of pecuniary assistance winter, from the lower to the higher regions of the which were made to them. “The newspapers of 1724," atmosphere, the abode of eternal cold, and from thence according to Malcolm, in his · Londinum Redivivum,'| descend at will to the torrid or the arctic regions of the "mention the refusal of £500 from a lady who would earth. He is therefore found at all seasons in the have given that sum towards enriching the altar-piece." countries he inhabits, but prefers all such places as have
The church of St. Martin's is perhaps, next to St. heen mentioned above, from the great partiality he has Paul's, the finest building in the Grecian style of which for fish. the metropolis has to boast. It is accounted the happiest effort of the eminent architect, James Gibbs, a nalive of Scotland, by whom it was erected, and who is also well known as the designer and builder of the Senate House at Cambridge, the Radcliffe Library at Oxford, and various other public edifices. The portico, in particular, consisting of very lofty Corinthian columns, to which there is an ascent by a long flight of steps, has been greatly admired. The beauty and grandeur of this noble elevation, however, have only been lately rendered visible by the removal of the old buildings by which it used to be so closely surrounded ; and its effect will not be properly appreciated till the completion of the magnificent improvements which are now in progress in this quarter of the metropolis. The spire also of St. Martin's is one of the most beautiful in London ; and the interior of the church, and especially its richly ornamented ceiling, may be fairly described as altogether worthy of its external architecture. Its length is 140 feet; its breadth 60, and its height 45. The curve of the ceiling is elliptical.
As this parish comprehends within its bounds the palace of St. James's, St. Martin's is the proper parish church of the royal family, and there are seats provided accordingly for their Majesties and their household on each side of the altar. George III. used occasionally to attend public worship here. The Admiralty is also in the parish of St. Martin's; and on that account it is customary for naval victories to be first announced by the bells of this church. On the day of the consecration, “the Lords of the Admiralty," says Malcolm, " presented to the parish a grand standard of England, thirty feet long and fourteen broad, to be displayed on
(White-headed Eagle attacking the Fish-Hawk.) the steeple during public rejoicings; but it was blown to rags on the first day it was hoisted, August 1, 1726, In procuring these, he displays, in a very singular the anniversary of the accession of George I."
manner, the genius and energy of his character, which is fierce, contemplative, daring, and tyrannical; attri
butes not exerted but on particular occasions; but, when WHITE-HEADED OR BALD EAGLE.
put forth, overpowering all opposition. Elevated on the The following picturesque description of the White-high dead limb of some gigantic tree that commands a headed or, as it is commonly called, the Bald Eagle, and wide view of the neighbouring shore and ocean, he seemis its predatory habits, is extracted from the fourth volume calmly to contemplate the motions of the various fea of Wilson's American Ornithclogy.
thered tribes that pursue their busy avocations below; The celebrated cataract of Niagara is a noted place the snow-white gulls slowly winnowing the air ; the busy of resort for those birds, as well on account of the fish tringa (sandpipers) coursing along the sands; trains procured there, as for the numerous carcasses of squir- of ducks streaming over the surface ; silent and watchrels, deer, bears, and various other animals, that in ful cranes, intent and wading; clamorous crows, and their attempts to cross the river above the falls have all the winged multitudes that subsist by the bounty of been dragged into the current, and precipitated down this vast liquid magazine of nature. High over all these that tremendous gulf, where, among the rocks that boundhovers one whose action instantly arrests all his attenthe rapids below, they furnish a rich repast for the vul- tion. By his wide curvature of wing, and sudden susture, the raven, and the Bald Eagle, the subject of the pension in air, he knows him to be the fish-hawk present account.
(Pandion Haliætus, Savigny), settling over some deThis bird has been long known to naturalists, being voted victim of the deep. His eye kindles at the sight, common to both continents, and occasionally met with and balancing himself, with half-opened wings, on the from a very high northern latitude, to the borders of the branch, he watches the result. Down, rapid as an arrow torrid zone, but chiefly in the vicinity of the sea, and from heaven, descends the distant object of his attention, along the shores and cliffs of our lakes and large rivers. the roar of its wings reaching the ear as it disappears in Formed by nature for braving the severest cold; feeding the deep, making the surge foam around. At this moequally on the produce of the sea and of the land ; pos- ment the eager looks of the eagle are all ardour; and sessing powers of flight capable of outstripping even the levelling his neck for flight, he sees the fish-hawk once tempests themselves ; unawed by anything but man ; more emerge, struggling with his prey, and mounting
in the air with screams of exultation. These are the no more than four years. According to some experiments signal for our hero, who, launching into the air, instantly the hyoscyamus produces more than 50,000 seeds; but gives chace, and soon gains on the fish-hawk; each assuming the number to be only 10,000, the seeds would exerts his utmost to mount above the other, displaying amount, at the fourth crop, to 10,000,000,000,000,000, in the rencontre the most elegant and sublime aerial and as the quantity of solid land on the surface of the evolutions. The unincumbered eagle rapidly advances, globe is calculated to be about 1,400,350,599,014,400 and is just on the point of reaching his opponent, when, square feet, it follows that each square foot must conwith a sudden scream, probably of despair and honest tain seven plants, and therefore the whole earth would execration, the latter drops his fish; the eagle, poising be insufficient to contain the produce of a single hyohimself for a moment as if to take a more certain aim, scyamus at the end of the fourth year. descends like a whirlwind, snatches it in his grasp ere it reaches the water, and bears his ill-gotten booty silently away to the woods.
THE SOLITARY. These predatory attacks and defensive manœuvres of When the English Buccaneers were making their first the eagle and fish-hawk are matters of daily observation cruize in the South Sea in the year 1681, they were sud along the whole of our sea-board, from Georgia to New denly frightened from the uninhabited island of Juan England, and frequently excite great interest in the Fernandez, where they had been lying at anchor, by the spectators. Sympathy, however, on this as on most appearance of three Spanish armed ships. They re other occasions, generally sides with the honest and labo- treated in such a hurry that they left behind them a rious sufferer, in opposition to the attacks of power, Mosquito Indian, who had followed them through pure injustice, and rapacity, qualities for which our hero is so affection, and whom they had named William. generally notorious, and which, in his superior, man, are Three years and two months after the poor Indian had equally detestable. As for the feelings of the poor fish, been abandoned in that utter solitude, a second expedition they seem altogether out of the question.
of English Buccaneers, many of whom had been with the first, and were acquainted with William, came to Juan
Fernandez. These acquaintances were naturally anxious FECUNDITY OF PLANTS.
to know what had become of their former companion, The rapidity with which individual species have the and to see if they could find any traces of him, but with power of multiplying their numbers, both in the animal small hope of finding him still there and alive; as soon and vegetable world, is well worthy of observation. as they were near enough they went in a boat and
Our attention has been more forcibly attracted to this hastened to the shore. Dampier, who, though merely subject by reading the following fact in an Irish news a common sailor and a freebooter, was a man of some paper :- During the past season a single grain of feeling and considerable talent (afterwards displayed in potato oats, on the lands of the Rev. Mr. Mills, Bally- an account he wrote of his travels and adventures), was willan, near Coleraine, produced thirty-two stalks, all in the boat, as also a Mosquito Indian named Robin. growing from the same root, and containing in all nearly As they drew near to land they saw, to their astonish5,000 grains of corn."
ment and pleasure, William standing by the sea-side If each of these 5,000 grains were, in the ensuing waiting to receive them. Dampier's account of this unyear, to be endued with the same power of fecundity as hoped-for meeting is truly affecting. “ Robin, his coun. their parent seed, 25,000,000 grains would be produced; tryman, was the first who leaped ashore from the boat, and these multiplying once again, in the same ratio, and running to his brother Moskito-man, threw himself would yield a harvest of oats which would amount to flat on his face at his feet, who, helping him up and emnearly 30,000 quarters.
bracing him, fell flat with his face on the ground at Robin's But though this be a remarkable instance of fruitful- feet, and was by him taken up also. We stood with ness, there are cases on record which afford still greater pleasure to behold the surprise, tenderness, and soevidence of the prolitic properties of the grain-bearing lemnity of this interview, which was exceedingly affec plants. Of these several examples are to be found in tionate on both sides ; and when their ceremonies were the volume on · Vegetable Substances used for the Food over, we also that stood gazing at them, drew near, each of Man. We select the following quotation from Sir of us embracing him we had found here, who was overKenelm Digby, who asserted, in 1660, that "there was joyed to see so many of his friends come hither as he in the possession of the fathers of the Christian doctrine, thought purposely to fetch him.” at Paris, a plant of barley which they at that time kept The Spaniards, who in all probability would have as a curiosity, and which consisted of 249 stalks, spring- put him to death as an ally of their persecutors the Bucing from one root or grain, and in which they counted caneers, had known of his being in the island; their above 18,000 grains or seeds of barley."
ships had several times stopped there, and sent men in In the same volume there is another well-authenticated pursuit of him, but William, with his local knowledge, fact relative to the power of increase residing in wheat. had always contrived to escape. When he was left on The result, however, was in this instance obtained by the island William happened to have with him a muscareful cultivation. As the plant tillered or sent up ket, a knife, a small horn of powder, and a few shot. stalks, it was divided and subdivided, till at length the “ When his ammunition was expended,” says Dampier, original root was multiplied into 500 plants, each of " he contrived, by notching his knife, to saw the barrel which produced more than forty ears. “ The wheat, of his gun into small pieces, wherewith he made har when separated from the straw, weighed forty-seven poons, lances, hooks, and a long knife, heating the pieces pounds and seven ounces, and measured three pecks of iron first in the fire, and then hammering them out as and three quarters, the estimated number of grains being he pleased with stones. This may seem strange to 576,840."
those not acquainted with the sagacity of the Indians ; The seeds of many kinds of vegetables are so numerous but it is no more than what the Moskito-men were acthat, if the whole produce of a single plant were put into customed to in their own country.” The clothes, after the earth, and again this second produce were made to the fashion of the English sailors, which he had on when yield a harvest, and so on, in a very few years the entire abandoned, had long been worn out, and he had now surface of the earth would be too limited for the sowing only a goat-skin about his waist. He had made himself of the seed thus abundantly supplied. The hyoscyamus, fishing-lines by cutting the skins of seals into thongs. or henbane, which, of all known plants, produces the “ He had built himself'a hut, half a mile from the seagreatest number of seeds, would for this purpose require shore, which he lined with goats'-skins, and slept on his
couch or barbecu of sticks raised about two feet from the both the obedience and the affection of all who were ground, and spread with goats'-skins." He saw the placed under his command. When he was in the Extwo Buccaneer ships that now came to his release the cellent, Lord St. Vincent used to draft all the most day before they anchored, and knew, from the style in ungovernable spirits of the fleet into that ship, certain, which they maneuvred, that they must be manned by as he said, that Collingwood, if any man could, would his friends the English. On this happy discovery he reform them. “As his experience in command and his hastened and killed two goats, which he dressed with knowledge of the dispositions of men increased," says the such vegetables as the island produced, and had this writer of his life, “his abhorrence of corporal punishtreat ready for his friends the moment they landed. ment grew daily stronger; and, in the latter part of
And,” as Captain Burney, the historian of the Buc- his life, more than a year has often passed away without caneers, observes, " there surely has seldom been a more his having resorted to it even once. I wish I were fair and joyful occasion for festivity."
the Captain, for your sakes, cried Lieutenant Clavell one day to some men who were doing some part of their
duty ill: when, shortly after, a person touched him on THE WEEK.
the shoulder, and, turning round, he saw the Admiral, SEPTEMBER 26.-The birth-day of the late Admiral Lord who had overheard him. ' And pray, Clavell, what Collingwood, than whom England has scarcely produced would you have done, if you had been Captain!' 'I a finer model of an officer or of a man. Cuthbert Col- would have flogged them well, sir.' 'No, you would lingwood was born in 1750 at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, not, Clavell; no, you would not,' he replied; • I know where his father, descended from the younger branch of you better.' He used to tell the ship's company that he an ancient family, had settled. He received all the edu- was determined that the youngest midshipman should cation he ever had in his native town; and it is remark- be obeyed as implicitly as himself, and that he would able that of his companions at school two have since punish with great severity any instance to the contrary. risen as well as himself from the middle ranks to the When a midshipman made a complaint, he would order peerage; namely, the present Earl of Eldon and his the man for punishment the next day; and, in the interbrother Lord Stowel. The master of this school was val, calling the boy down to him, would say, • In all the Reverend Hugh Moises. Collingwood, however, did probability the fault was yours; but whether it were or not remain long under this gentleman's care, being sent to not, I am sure it would go to your heart to see a man sea at the age of eleven. " He used,” says Mr. Newnham old enough to be your father disgraced and punished on Collingwood, who has published a most interesting life your account; and it will therefore give me a good of him, "to tell, as an instance of his youth and sim- opinion of your disposition, if, when he is brought out, plicity when he first went to sea, that as he was sitting you ask for his pardon. When this recommendacrying for his first separation from home, the first lieu- tion, acting as it did like an order, was complied with, tenant observed him; and pitying the tender years of the and the lad interceded for the prisoner, Captain Collingpoor child, spoke to him in terms of much encourage- wood would make great apparent difficulty in yielding; ment and kindness, which, as Lord Collingwood said, but at length would say, “This young gentleman has so won upon his heart that, taking this officer to his box, pleaded so humanely for you, that, in the hope that you he offered him in gratitude a large piece of plum-cake will feel a due gratitude to him for his benevolence, I which his mother had given him.” He was made a will for this time overlook your offence.' The punishlieutenant in 1775, and in 1779 a commander. In 1790 ments which 'he substituted for the lash were of many lie married Miss Blacket, niece of Sir Edward Blacket, kinds, such as watering the grog, and other modes now Bart. By this lady, to whom he continued united by lappily general in the navy, Among the rest was one the most tender affection till his death, he had two which the men particularly dreaded. It was the orderdaughters, who survived him. In 1794 he was present, ing any offender to be excluded from his mess, and to as flag-captain on board the Prince, at Lord Howe's be employed in every sort of extra duty; so that he was great victory of the 1st of June. In 1797 he com- every moment liable to be called upon deck for the manded the Excellent at the battle of Cape St. Vincent. meanest service, amid the laughter and jeers of the men In 1799 he was made an Admiral. The few months of and boys. Such an effect had this upon the sailors that peace which followed the treaty of Amiens he spent at they have often declared that they would much prefer home in the society of his wife and children. “ During having three dozen lashes; and, to avoid the recurrence this short period of happiness and rest,” says his biogra- of this punishment, the worst characters never failed to pher, “ he was occupied in superintending the education become attentive and orderly. How he sought to amuse of his daughters, and in continuing those habits of study and occupy the attention of the men appears in some of which had long been familiar to him. His reading was these letters. When they were sick, even while he was extensive, particularly in history; and it was his constant an Admiral, he visited them daily, and supplied them practice to exercise himself in composition, by making from his own table; and when they were convalescent, abstracts from the books which he read; and some of they were put into the charge of the lieutenant of the his abridgments, with the observations by which he illus- morning watch, and daily brought up to the Admiral for trated them, are written with singular conciseness and examination by him. The result of this conduct was, power. I know not, said one of the most eminent that the sailors considered him and called him their English diplomatists with whom he had afterwards very father; and frequently, when he changed his ship, many frequent communications, I know not where Lord Col- of the men were seen in tears for his departure. But lingwood got his style, but he writes better than any of with all this there was no man who less courted, or, to
The next great action in which Collingwood was speak more truly, who held in more entire contempt, engaged was the ever-memorable fight of Trafalgar, on what is ordinarily styled popularity. He was never which occasion he was second in command under Nelson, known to unbend with his men; while, at the same time, between whom and himself there had long subsisted an he never used any coarse or violent language to them intimate friendship. When Nelson received his death-himself
, or permitted it in others. 'If you do not know wound, Collingwood took the command of the fleet; a man's name,' he used to say to the officers, 'call him and for his admirable conduct, both in the battle and sailor, and not you sir, and such other appellations ; after it was over, he was raised to the peerage by the they are offensive and improper. With regard to extitle of Baron Collingwood. From a very early period pressions, it may be added that, after the occurrences at of his nautical life Lord Collingwood had been distin- | the Nore, he had the most decided objection to the use guished for the happy art by which he secured at once of the word mutiny. · When complaints were made
of conduct which was designated as mutinous, he would
I plant no herbs or pleasant fruits, exclaim, Mutiny, sir! mutiny in my ship! If it can
Nor toil for savoury cheer.
The desert yields me juicy roots, have arrived at that, it must be my fault, and the fault
And herds of bounding deer. of every one of the officers. It is a charge of the gravest nature, and it shall be most gravely inquired into.'
The countless springboks are my flock,
Spread o'er the boundless plain; With this view of his feeling on this subject, the officer
The buffalo bends to my yoke, was generally induced to consider and represent the
And the wild horse to my rein *: affair more lightly, or sometimes to pass it over alto
My yoke is the quivering assagai, gether.” This admirable man died at last, as he had
My rein the tough bow-string; lived, in the service of his country, having remained on
My bridle curb is a slender barb
Yet it quells the forest king. the foreign station to which he had been sent by the Government long after the state of his health would
The crested adder honoureth me, have entitled him to resign his command, and until,
And yields, at my command, indeed, he had left himself no chance of recovery. At
His poison-bag, like the honey bee,
When I seize him on the sand. last, in the beginning of March, 1810, when nature was
Yea, even the locusts' wasting swarm, almost entirely exhausted, it was resolved that he should
Which mightiest nations dread, set sail for England from off Minorca, where he was then
To me brings joy in place of harm,
For I make of them my bread. cruising. “When Lord Collingwood,” says his biographer, was informed that he was again at sea he rallied
Thus I am lord of the Desert Land, for a time his exhausted strength, and said to those
And I will not leave my bounds, around him, 'Then I may yet live to meet the French
To crouch beneath the Christian's hand,
And kennel with his hounds : once more.' On the morning of the 7th there was a
To be a hound, and watch the: flocks, considerable swell, and his friend Captain Thomas, on
For the cruel White Man's gainentering his cabin, observed that he feared the motion
No! the swart Serpent of the Rocks of the vessel disturbed him. “No, Thomas,' he replied,
His den doth yet retain ;
And none who there his sting provokes, 'I am now in a state in which nothing in this world can
Shall find its poison vain ! disturb me more. I am dying; and I am sure it must
Pringle's Ephemerides. be consolatory to you, and all who love me, to see how comfortably I am coming to my end.' He told one of The Bushmen appear to be the remains of Hottentot hordes, his attendants that he had endeavoured to review, as far originally subsisting, like all the aboriginal tribes of Southern as was possible, all the actions of his past life, and that
Africa, chiefly by rearing cattle; but who have been driven, chiefly he had the happiness to say that nothing gave him a for refuge among the inaccessible rocks and sterile deserts of the
by the gradual encroachments of the European Colonists, to seek moment's uneasiness. He spoke at times of his absent interior. Most of the hordes known in the colony by the name of family, and of the doubtful contest in which he was Bushmen are now entirely destitute of focks or herds, and subsist about to leave his country involved, but ever with calm- partly by the chace, partly on the wild roots of the wilderness, and, ness and perfect resignation to the will of God; and in in times of scarcity, on reptiles, grasshoppers, and the larvæ of ants,
or by plundering their hereditary foes and oppressors, the frontier this blessed state of mind, after taking an affectionate boors. In seasons when every green herb is devoured by swarms of farewell of his attendants, he expired without a struggle, locusts, and the wild game, in consequence, desert the pastures of at six o'clock in the evening of that day, having attained
the wilderness, the Bushman finds a resource in the very calamity the age of fifty-nine years and six months.'
which would overwhelm an agricultural or civilized community. He lives by devouring the devourers; he subsists' for weeks and months on locusts alone, and also preserves a stock of this food dried,
as we do herrings or pilchards, for future consumption. SONG OF THE WILD BUSHMAN,
The Bushman retains the ancient arms of the Ho tentot race; namely, a javelin, or assagai, similar to that of the Caffers, and a bow and arrows.". The latter, which are his principal weapons, both for war and the chace, are small in size and formed of slight materiale; but, owing to the deadly poison with which the arrows are embued, and the dexterity with which they are launched, they are missiles truly formidable both to man and beast. One of these arrows, formed merely of a piece of slender reed tipped with bone or iron, is sufficient to destroy the most powerful animal. Nevertheless, although the Colonists very much dread the effects of the Bushman's arrow, they know how to elude its range; and it is, after all, but a very unequal match for the firelock, as the persecutel natives, by sad experience, have found. The arrows are usually kept in a quiver formed of the hollow stalk of a species of aloe, and slung over the shoulder; but a few, for immediate use, are often stuck in a band round the head, in the manner represented in the cut.
* The zebra is usually termed Wilde Paaril, or wild horse, by the Cape Colonists.
The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Kaowledg: is at
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And boast his fields of grain ;
The desert my domain.
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