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friend John Combe, of usurious memory; on whom | be often heard in the mouths of the rustics. The word he is said to have written a ludicrous epitaph. There home-ly is now generally used in the sense of common, are other monuments around, but the mind refuses to ordinary, as when we speak of homely fare or homely dwell on anything that is not connected with Shak-food; or it is applied to express our opinion of a perspeare. His idea pervades the place: the whole pile son's face, when we wish to say that it is rather ugly, seems but as his mausoleum. The feelings, no longer without using so ugly a word. Milton explains this checked and thwarted by doubt, here indulge in perfect usage of the word in his Comus :confidence; other traces of him may be false or dubious,

"It is for homely features to keep home, but here is palpable evidence and absolute certainty.

They had their name thence." As I trod the sounding pavement, there was something The list of words in ly, which are used as adverbs, is intense and thrilling in the idea, that, in very truth, the rather numerous; very few of the class, we believe, are remains of Shakspeare were mouldering beneath my used both as adjectives and adverbs. We have, however, feet. It was a long time before I could prevail upon marked sick-ly as one instance of this double usage. myself to leave the place; and as I passed through the Many of these adverbs in ly are derived from secondary church-yard I plucked a branch from one of the yew- forms, and from that class of words in ing commonly trees, the only relic that I have brought from Stratford.” called participles; thus we have Mr. Irving's paper continues in a very pretty de

Play-ful-ly. Deceit-ful-ly. scription of his visit to the old family seat of the Lucys at Charlecot, whose park was the scene of the hair. The mention of the words play-ful-ly, deceit-ful-ly, leads

Know-ing-ly. Will-ing-ly. brained exploits of which Shakspeare's boyhood has been The mention of the words play-ful-ly, deceit-fully, leads accused. Our limits will not allow us to dwell longer us to speak of the termination ful (German, voll). on this subject, except to give the concluding paragraph

Play-ful Joy-ful. Care-ful. of Mr. Irving's reflections on Stratford-on-Avon :


Cheer-ful. Wil-ful. “ He who has sought renown about the world, and These words might perhaps be more properly called has reaped a full harvest of worldly favour, will find, compound words, because they are compounded or made after all, that there is no love, no admiration, no applause, up of two distinct words. Play-ful is formed of play so sweet to the soul as that which springs up in his and full: one of the l's in the compound word being native place. It is there that he seeks to be gathered in now generally dropped in writing. It may be well to peace and honour among his kindred and his early explain how the compound word health-ful differs from friends. And when the weary heart and failing head the derived word health-y. The former is, as we have begin to warn him that the evening of life is drawing remarked, made up of two distinct words, health and full, on, he turns as fondly as does the infant to the mother's both of which are still in common use: while health-y is arms, to sink to sleep in the bosom of the scene of his made up of the same word health and a termination y, childhood. How would it have cheered the spirit of the or suffix, as it is sometimes called, which may once youthful bard, when, wandering forth in disgrace upon have been a real word, but it is so no longer; and we a doubtful world, he cast back a heavy look upon his can only form a kind of guess at its meaning, by compaternal home; could he have foreseen that, before many paring a number of words in which it occurs one with years, he should return to it covered with renown; that another, and by observing what kind of ideas these his name should become the boast and glory of his words are used to convey. Thus the word wil-ful apnative place; that his ashes should be religiously pears to signify full of will; and when we speak of a guarded as its most precious treasure; and that its wilful murder, we mean the death of one man caused lessening spire, on which his eyes were fixed in tearful by another with full will and intention. This is quite contemplation, should one day become the beacon, intelligible; but this word wilful is often used very towering amidst the gentle landscape, to guide the vaguely and in various senses that we have tried to literary pilgrim of every nation to his tomb!"

understand, but hitherto without success.

Words in less (German, los).

Care-less. Penni-less. Boot-less.

Cheer-less. Tooth-less. Worth-less. Words in ly (German, lich). These words are sometimes adjectives, as in the follow- These words, also, ought perhaps to be classed under

the head of compounds, as the termination less is a real ing examples :

word in familiar use. Care-less, cheer-less, signify Man-ly.

Good-ly. Home-ly. exactly the reverse of care-ful, cheer-ful, being used to God-ly. Good-like, (provincial) :

express the absence or want of the thing signified by the or they are used as adverbs, of which the following are noun prefixed. The word boot-less means without prey, a few samples :

booty, or profit; it has furnished occasion for one of Wise-ly. Third-ly. Truly.

Shakspeare's worst puns, if we can venture to say which

is the worst of the innumerable samples which that ferFirst-ly. Last-ly. Sick-ly, (adjective and adverb).

tile brain produced. Glendower (Henry IV. Part lsi, The word man-ly means like a man, and we believe Act ji. 1) is telling Hotspur of his valorous exploits that all such words were once written with the termination against Henry Bolingbroke, when he says-lic, or like, which means resemblance, or, in some cases,

- Thrice from the banks of Wye, equality. As a proof of this position, we may observe,

And sandy-buttomed Severn, have I sent him without quoting the authority of old printed books, that

Bootless home, and weather-beaten back. we still use several words in both forms : thus we have Hotspur. Home without boots and in foul weather too ! death-like, death-ly; god-like, god-ly; while in some

How ’scapes he agues, in the devil's name?” instances we have retained the original termination like, The German word los is attached to many words like without shortening it into ly, as in war-like. Custom the English termination less, and appears to have exhas now assigned different meanings to such words as actly the same signification, as, for example, schlaf-los god-like and god-ly,—the former, a poetical kind of word, means sleep-less, and macht-los (might-less), without being used to signify resemblance to a god in actions, power or strength. Indeed the two terminations apand the latter being applied to express the feeling of pear to be the same, both signifying to loose or take piety and devotion. In our older language a good-ly away : the German los is often prefixed to verbs, as man signified a handsome personage, and in some parts well as put after nouns. of this island the original phrase of a good-like mun may In our list of nouns we omitted to mention those in

rick and wick, which ought to have been classed with sellers to prepare a new Dictionary of the English Lannouns in dom. Their number is not large.

guage. This celebrated work occupied the greater part Nouns in ric and wick, such as

of his time for seven years, and at last appeared in 1755,

after the money, 1500 guineas, which it had been Bishop-ric. Baili-wick.

agreed he should receive for his labour, was all spent. Ric, the same as the German reich, means possession, It brought him, however, a large share of public ap wealth, dominion. The Germans call France, Frank- plause, and at once placed his name among the first of reich, -the kingdom or dominion of the Franks. The the living cultivators of English literature. Meanwhile, old Saxon word for kingdom is rice, which frequently even before the appearance of his Dictionary, he had by occurs in the Anglo-Saxon laws.* Bailiwick is, pro- various occasional productions been steadily advancing perly, the space over which the jurisdiction of a bailiff himself in reputation, although not in wealth. In 1749 extends. We do not mean to say the jurisdiction of a he gave to the world his imitation of Juvenal's tenth bailiff as known in ordinary practice, but according to Satire, under the title of The Vanity of Human the more creditable and proper import of the word, Wishes.' The same year his tragedy of Irene, which he which means a deputy or agent who manages the affairs had brought with him when he first came to town, was of a superior, or a superintendent.

produced at Drury Lane by his friend Garrick. In

March, 1750, he commenced the publication of The THE WEEK,

Rambler,' which he continued for two years at the rate

of two papers every week, the whole, with the exception of September 7.-The birth-day of Dr. Samuel Johnson. only five numbers, being the production of his own pen. He was born in 1709, in the city of Litchfield, where These and other works, however, failed in relieving him his father was a bookseller. Having received the from the pressure of great pecuniary difficulties, as is elements of a classical education principally at the gram-proved by the fact, that in 1756 he was arrested for a mar school of his native place, he was sent at the age debt of about five pounds, and only obtained his liberty of nineteen to Pembroke College, Oxford, by a gen- by borrowing the money from a friend. In 1758 he tleman who engaged to maintain him there as a com- began a new periodical publication, to which he gave panion to his son. After some time, however, this per- the name of “The Idler,' and which, like the 'Rambler,' son withdrew his aid; and Johnson, having made an he carried on for about two years. In 1759 his mother, ineffectual attempt to subsist on his own resources, to whom he was tenderly attached, died at an advanced found himself obliged to discontinue his residence before age; and having gone down to Litchfield to superinobtaining a degree. He had already, however, during tend her funeral, he there wrote his beautiful romance of the period he spent at the university, obtained a high Rasselas in a single week, while his parent lay unburied, reputation for scholarship and abilities. For many in order to obtain the means of defraying the expenses succeeding years the life of this distinguished lumi- of her interment. This may well be characterised as nary of English literature was one of those hard strug- the finest anecdote that is to be told of Dr. Johnson; gles with poverty which learning and genius have so for the whole range of biography scarcely records anyoften been called on to sustain. About the time that thing more noble or affecting. At last, in 1762, the he left college, namely, in 1731, his father died, leaving Crown was advised to bestow upon him a pension of scarcely twenty pounds behind him Thus situated, 300l. per annum; an act of bounty which placed him Johnson was constrained to accept the office of usher at for the rest of his life in ease and affluence. After this the grammar-school of Market Bosworth.

But the he distinguished himself as much by the brilliancy treatment to which he was subjected soon forced him to and power of his conversation in the literary circles give up this appointment. He now attempted in suc- and general society which he frequented, as by his cession various projects of a literary nature, in order to labours with his pen; but still he was far from reescape from the extremest indigence. In 1735 he linquishing authorship. In 1765 appeared a new edimarried a Mrs. Porter, the widow of a mercer, who tion of Shakspeare, in the superintendence of which he brought him a fortune of about 8001.; and with this had been long engaged, and the splendid preface to money he opened a boarding-school at Edial. But the which is one of the most celebrated of his productions. scheme met with no success. He then determined to In 1773 he published the well-known account of his set out for London; and here accordingly he arrived in Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland,' which he March, 1737, accompanied by a young friend, who had had just accomplished in company with his friend been one of his pupils, David Garrick, who afterwards Boswell. In 1775 he received the degree of LL.D. became the greatest actor that the modern world had from the University of Oxford ; and in 1781 he brought seen. The first employment which he obtained was to a close the last, and perhaps, upon the whole, the from the proprietors of the Gentleman's Magazine. greatest of his works, his · Lives of the Poets,' in four But the emoluments he derived from this source were volumes octavo. He survived this publication only a very insufficient to afford him a respectable subsistence; few years, and, having died on the 13th of December, and he was often without a shilling to procure him 1784, in the seventy-sixth year of his age, he was inbread during the day, or a lodging wherein to lay his terred with great solemnity in Westminster Abbey, in a head at night. These difficulties clung to him for a grave near to that of his friend Garrick. Notwithstandlong while, but they did not prevent him from gradually ing considerable heat of temper and arrogance of manworking his way to literary distinction. His reports ner, as well as some weak prejudices and singularities of parliamentary debates, inserted in the Gentleman's by which he was marked, it is impossible to deny that Magazine, which were often almost entirely original the moral character of Dr. Johnson abounded in noble compositions of his own, attracted a great deal of no- points, or to regard it upon the whole with other feelings tice; but it was not till long afterwards that their than those of admiration and reverence. A scrupulous authorship was generally known. The year after his respect for virtue, evinced both by the language and arrival in the metropolis, he published his poem, entitled scope of all his writings and by the unvarying tenor of 'Loudon,' in imitation of the third Satire of Juvenal. his conduct, a lofty scorn of injustice and

aseness, a This production had the honour of being commended in spirit of independence and self-reliance which no trials very warm terms by Pope. In 1744 appeared his elo- and sufferings could tame down either to despair or quent and striking life of his friend Savage. Three servility, a warm sympathy with human sorrow whereyears after he was engaged by an association of book- soever found or howsoever caused, the intrepidity to do * See Lambard's Anglo-Saxon laws.

a good action in the face even of the world's laugh, and

charity in relieving the unfortunate to the utmost verge fires that he entertains so strong a regard. On one occasion of his means, and even to his own painful inconvenience, he followed the engines to a fire at Greenwich, and remained -- all these dispositions, based on religious principle, and there until the last of the engines had packed up its apparaadorned and crowned by the most fervid piety, are suffi- tus to depart

. On another occasion (the fire at Mr. Tyler's cient to cast into the shade far deeper traits of frailty than sixteen days, during which they were employed in rescuing

premises, in Warwick Lane) he remained with the men any with which his nature can fairly be said to have property from the smouldering ruins. He is perfectly wel been marked. The question of the intellectual rank known to every fireman in London. He is called Tyke,' properly belonging to Dr. Johnson has given rise to and is exceedingly ugly in his appearance, being one of the more difference of opinion. He was certainly neither a worst formed specimens of the turnspit breed." very original nor a very subtle thinker; and his emi Division of Time used by the Inhabitants of the Feroe nence, indeed, will probably be maintained even by his Islands. They have one method of dividing time peculiar warmest admirers on the ground rather of his powers of to themselves: they reckon the day and night by eight

ökter of three hours each; the ükters again are reduced into expression than of thought. His poetry rarely ascends halves, and they are named according to the point of the beyond the height of rhetoric in rhyme; and his meta- compass where the sun is at the time: for example, Eastphysical and philosophical speculations are throughout North-East is half past four in the morning; East is six ; extremely common

on-place and unrefined. But in what East-South-East, half past seven.-Landt's Description. may be called the art of criticism, the detection of conventional beauties and defects, and the delineation of the merely literary character of a writer's productions,

THE HOLLY TREE. he is a great master. Ilis style is undoubtedly a bad

O READER! hast thou ever stood to see one in the main; for, to say nothing of its being more

The holly tree?
Latin than English, and so studiously regulated on the


that contemplates it well perceives principle of mere sonorousness that it almost entirely

Its glossy leaves

Order'd by an intelligence so wise, wants picturesqueness and the other higher qualities

As might confound the Atheist's sophistries. which contribute to effective expression, it is suited at the best to only one kind of writing, the grave didactic.

Below, a circling fence, its leaves are seen

Wrinkleil and keen ; Still, with all its faults, even this style has great qualities.

No grazing cattle through their prickly round Its dignity is often very imposing, and its inventor is

Can reach to wound; certainly entitled to the praise of having set the example

But as they grow where nothing is to fear, of a grammatical accuracy and general finish of compo

Smooth and unarm’d the pointless leaves appear. sition not to be found in the works of our best authors

I love to view these things with curious eyes, before his time, but which have since been copied by all.

And moralize:
And in this wisdom of the holly tree

Can emblems see
Wherewith perchance to make a pleasant-rhyrne,
One which may profit in the after-time.
Thus, though abroad perchance I might appear

Harsh and austere,
To those who on my leisure would intrude

Reserved and rude,
Gentle at home amid my friends I'd be,
Like the high leaves upon the holly tree.
And should my youth, as youth is apt, I know,

Some harshness show,
All vain asperities I day by day

Would wear away,
Till the smooth temper of my age should be
Like the high leaves upon the holly tree.
And as when all the summer trees are scen

So bright and green,
The holly leaves their fadeless hues display

Less bright than they;
But when the bare and wintry woods we see,
What then so cheerful as the holly tree?
So serious should my youth appear among

The thoughtless throng,
So would I seem amid the young and gay

More grave than they,
That in my age as cheerful I might be
As the green winter of the holly tree.



The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at

59, Lincoln's Inn Fields.


LONDON :--CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. The Firemen's Dog.-A gentleman connected with one Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following

Booksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :of the principal London fire-insurance offices has sent us the following account of the dog whose singular propensities we

London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Liverpool, WILLNIR and SMITH.
Paternoster Row.

Manchester, ROBINSON; and WEBB and described in Number 23. Our correspondent has been in- Bath, SINNS.

Simms. duced to make particular inquiries in consequence of our

Birmingham, DRAKE.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CAARNLEY. Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.

Norwich, JARROLD and Son. notice :-“His home, if it can be called so, is in one of the Carlisle, THURNAN; and Scott, Nottingham, WRIGHT. recesses of Blackfriars Bridge; and it is supposed he has Derby, Walkins and Son.

Sheffield, RIDGE.

Doncaster, Brooks and Co. acquired his taste for blazes in consequence of being no

Worcester, DEIGRTOX.
Falmouth, PHILP,

Dublin, WAKEMAN. ticed by the firemen who so frequently pass over that bridge. Hull, STEPHENSON.

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Bord. It has been remarked i hat he invariably follows close upon Lincoln, BROOKE and Sons.

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. the heels of every fireman he sees until driven away. This induces me to believe that it is for the men and not for the

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES, Stamford-Street.

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[Eastern Front of the Banquetting-house, Whitehall.] The building which we now call Whitehall is only a Mr. Brayley, in the second volume of his amusing single pavilion of the ancient palace of that name, which work entitled Londiniana,' has a very long and elawas for several reigns the principal seat of the English borate article on Whitehall, which may be advantagecourt. Old Whitehall was of vast extent, not only occu- ously consulted for a full history of the place, and for pying the whole of the ground between the street now accounts of many of the most interesting events of which called Whitehall, and the river, very nearly from Nor- it has been the scene. The site belonged in ancient thumberland House to Westminster Bridge, but even ex. times to the Abbey of Westminster, by which establishtending across the street to the verge of St. James's Park. ment it was sold in the beginning of the thirteenth cenImmediately to the south of this space was the more tury, when it appears to have been covered by a number limited precinct of the older palace of Westminster, com- of houses and a chapel, to Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, prehending the present Houses of Lords and Commons, and Chief Justice of England. De Burgh erected a noble and Old and New Palace Yards, by which they are sur-mansion on the ground which he had thus purchased; rounded. St. James's Park and the Palace of that name, and on his death, in 1242, left the property to the monasagain, joined Whitehall on the west, and the park, indeed, tery of the Black Friars in Holborn. These monks soon used to be considered as belonging to the one palace as after sold it to Walter Gray, Archbishop of York, who, much as to the other. This was the case from the time dying in 1255, left it as a town residence for his succesof Henry VIII. till some years after the Revolution. sors in the see. It served this purpose, and was thence The old Palace of Westminster was entirely deserted by called York Place, till the fall of Cardinal Wolsey in 1530, the court ; that of St. James's was only occasionally re- when, notwithstanding the protestations of the disgraced sorted to; and the actual residence of the monarch was favourite against being compelled to surrender the pafor the most part at Whitehall, which was accordingly trimony of his see, it was seized by the crown with designated in the royal acts by the expression of “our all the rest of his richest possessions. Henry compelled palace of Westminster.” In continuance of the ancient his victim to execute a full resignation of the property usage, commissions and other papers proceeding from into his hands. The acquisition, indeed, was a particucertain of the public offices are still dated at Whitehall. larly convenient one for the crown at the moment, inasVOL. I.

2 G

much as the old palace of Westminster had fallen into rather appear that a part of the buildings was so desigcomplete decay, and the court was without an appro- nated in the time of Wolsey; but the appellation did not priate seat in the quarter where it had from the most become the usual one till the reign of Elizabeth. It ancient times been held. Henry, therefore, as soon as was here this great princess kept her splendid court. he had got the place into his possession, proceeded to Here, also, her successor, James, took up his abode. make large additions to the building: In particular he This sovereign intended to rebuild Whitehall on a scale threw a gallery across the street to the new park of St. of extraordinary magnificence; and designs for the new James's, which he was forming about the same time from palace were prepared by Inigo Jones, which have been the grounds of the dissolved monastery of that name, and frequently engraved. But of the intended structure no erected on that side of the way, a cock-pit, tennis-court, part was ever erected, except what was called the Banand other similar adjuncts to his intended palace. Henry quetting-house. This is the building that still remains, resided principally at Whitehall during the remainder of the more ancient part having been long since swept his reign, and died here on the 28th of January, 1548. away. We subjoin the ground-plan of Inigo Jones's

It cannot be ascertained with certainty when the splendid design, as published by Campbell in his place first received the name of Whitehall. It would | Vitruvius Britannicus.



The Banquetting-house at Whitehall, the front of which It was in this palace, although not in any part of it has been lately restored, deserves to be considered not which is now standing, that the magnificent Wolsey, only as one of the most successful works of Inigo Jones, Archbishop, Cardinal, Legate, and Lord High Chancelbut as one of the finest public buildings in the metropolis. lor, lived for several years in a show of state which It presents a very happy combination of majesty and ele- might almost be said to rival that of royalty, and cergance; and the ornamental parts of it are at once rich tainly exceeded anything that had ever before or has and classic

. This building has also other attractions ever since been displayed by a subject in England. besides its architecture, for the artist and the man of taste. His house was also,” says Cavendish, the writer of his The roof of the chapel is painted by Rubens. The pic- Life, “ always resorted and furnished with noblemen, ture is an allegorical one, and represents, in a succession gentlemen, and other persons, with going and coming in of compartments, a sort of history of the reign of James I. and out, feasting and banquetting all ambassadors divers Rubens executed this performance when he was in times, and other strangers right nobly. And when it England in 1629, and received as a reward from Charles pleased the King's Majesty, for his recreation, to repair I. the sum of 30001., besides the honour of knighthood. into the Cardinal's house, as he did divers times in the It has since been restored by Cipriani. At the back of year, there wanted no preparations, or goodly furniture, the building stands a statue of James II., executed by with viands of the finest sort that could be provided for Grinlin Gibbons, the artist whose admirable carvings in money or friendship. Such pleasures were there devised wood adorn the choirs of St. Paul's, and of several of our for the King's comfort and consolation, as might be inother cathedrals. The statue is of bronze, and the figure, vented, or by man's wit imagined. The banquets were which is dressed in the habit of a Roman emperor, points set forth, with masques and mummeries, in so gorgeous with a baton in the right hand to the earth

a sort, and costly manner, that it was a heaven to be.

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