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from their small mountain Hock, and killed for the use Historical Associations.-Maps of England have been of the family; and a cow, towards the close of the year, drawn, where the scenes of famous battles and other memowas salted and dried for winter provision; the hide was rable transactions have been pointed out by a particular tanned to furnish them with shoes. By these various side I turn, I find some object connected with a hear:

I love to dwell in a country, where, on whichever resources this venerable clergyman reared a numerous moving tale, or some scene where the deepest interests of a family; not only preserving them, as he affectingly says, nation for ages to succeed, have been strenuously agitated, *** froin wanting the necessaries of life, but affording and emphatically decided. A tale of invention is of great them an unstinted education, and the means of raising power in this respect.-If its scenes were not really transthemselves in society.

acted, and the passions of the real persons excited there, at All this is a striking example of what assiduity and least a beautiful association has been produced, by the bare perseverance will do in any pursuit. But with all his selection of the spot made by the author of the romance, industry of another description, Mr. Walker did not find for the imaginary exercise of such feelings. But it is otherit impossible to nourish and exercise also his mental London without meditating on the murders with which it

wise with a tale of truth. I never entered the Tower of powers. “It might have been concluded,” his biogra- has been stained. The first time I stood in the gallery of pher proceeds, " that no one could thus, as it were, bave the House of Commons, Hampden, and Pym, and Bradconverted his body into a machine of industry for the shaw, and Cromwell were present before me: and I saw humblest uses, and kept his thoughts so frequently bent Charles the First ascend the Speaker's chair, and demand upon secular concerns, without grievous injury to the the instant surrender of the leaders of his adversaries. The more precious parts of his nature. How could the various fields in which “York and Lancaster drew forth powers of intellect thrive, or its graces be displayed, in their battles," bring to my mind the generous feelings and the midst of circumstances apparently so unfavourable, inextinguishable attachment which kept alive that contenand when to the direct cultivation of the mind so small with which it was attended. The scenes of the grand con

tion, and the deplorable examples of cold-blooded murder a portion of time was allotted ? But in this extraordinary test for our liberties under the Long Parliament, the fields man, things in their nature adverse were reconciled; his where Falkland expired, and Hampden bled, hold a lanconversation was remarkable, not only for being chaste guage of another sort

, and pure, but for the degree in which it was fervent and I never understood the annals of chivalry so well as when eloquent; his written style was correct, simple, and I walked among the ruins of Kenilworth Castle. I no animated. Nor did his affections suffer more than his longer trusted to the tale of the historian, the cold and unintellect; he was tenderly alive to all the duties of his certain record of words formed upon paper; I beheld the

queen “of lion port pastoral office; the poor and needy he never sent empty

Girt with many a baron bold away'; the stranger was fed and refreshed in passing

And gorgeous dames, that unfrequented vale; the sick were visited ; and the uprear her starry_front.” The subtle, the audacious, and feelings of humanity found further exercise among the murder-dealing Leicester stood before me. I heard the distresses and embarrassments in the worldly estate of trampling of horses, and the clangour of trumpets. The his neighbours, with which his talents for business made aspiring and lofty-minded men of former times were seen him acquainted; and the disinterestedness, impartiality, by me as I passed along, and stood in review before me.and uprightness, which he maintained in the manage- read Spenser's beautiful Hymn to Love, under the ruins

of

One fine evening in the beginning of autumn, I incidentally ment of all affairs confided to him, were virtues seldom Valle Crucis Abbey in the county of Denbigh: a volume separated in his own conscience from religious obliga- of this author happened to be in my pocket; and it is intions."

credible how much sweetness the sentiment gained by conWhat may be deemed out of character, we may merely trast with the sacred and austere chastity once professed add, in some of the occupations in which this excellent there, with the monks who formerly dwelt within these clergyman was wont to employ himself, ought to be walls, and still who slept beneath my feet. This it is to judged of with a reference both to the times in which live in an old country.--Godwin's Essay on Sepulchres. he was born and grew up, and to the simple and seques

Astronomy.-Contemplated as one grand whole, astrotered population among whom it was his lot to pass his nomy is the most beautiful monument of the human mind, life. “Had he lived,” says Mr. Wordsworth justly,“ at the noblest record of its intelligence. Seduced by the illua later period, the principle of duty would have produced sions of the senses, and of self-love, man considered himself, application as unremitting ; the same energy of charac- for a long time, as the centre of the motion of the celestial ter would have been displayed, though in many instances bodies, and his pride was justly punished by the vain terrors with widely different effects."

they inspired. The labour of many ages has at length withdrawn the veil which covered the system. Man

appears upon a small planet, almost imperceptible in the THE DRUM.

vast extent of the solar system, itself only an insensible I hate that drum's discordant sound,

point in the immensity of space. The sublime results to Parading round and round and round;

which this discovery has led may console him for the To thoughtless youth it pleasure yields,

limited place assigned him in the universe. Let us careAnd lures from cities and from fields, To sell their liberty for charnis

fully preserve, and even augment, the number of these of tawdry lace and glittering arms;

sublime discoveries, which form the delight of thinking And when Ambition's voice commands,

beings. They have rendered important services to navigaTo march, and fight, and fall, in foreign lands.

tion and astronomy; but their great benefit has been ihe I hate that drum's discordant sound,

having dissipated the alarms occasioned by extraordinary

celestial phenomena, and destroyed the errors springing from Parading round and round and round; To me it talks of ravag'd plains,

the ignorance of our true relation with nature; errors so And burning towns, and ruin'd swains,

much the more fatal, as social order can only rest on the basis And mangled limbs and dying groans,

of these relations. Truth, Justice; these are its immutable And widows' tears, and orphans' moans,

laws. Far from us be the dangerous maxim, that it is someAnd all that Misery's hand bestows,

times useful to mislead, to enslave, and to deceive mankind, To fill the catalogue of human woes.

to ensure their happiness. Cruel experience has at all times Scott OF ANWELL. proved, that with impunity these sacred laws can never be

infringed.-Pond's Translation of the Système du Monde, Truth.-Truth will ever be unpalatable to those who are par La Place. determined not to relinquish error, but can never give offence to the honest and well-meaning: for the plain-deal- Prosperous condition of the Jews under Charlemagne.ing remonstrances of a friend differ as widely from the ran- To the flourishing commerce of the Israelites, the extended cour of an enemy, as the friendly probe of a physician dominions of Charlemagne opened a wide field; from the from the dagger of an assassin.-E. W. Montague. ports of Marseilles and Narbonne their vessels kept up a

constant communication with the East; in Narbonne they | an earthen vessel was placed over the southern portal from were so flourishing, that of the two prefects or mayors of the which the sacred water was continually dripping, and against city, one was always a Jew: and as we shall see presently, which no evil could prevail. Whether my friend's supply the most regular and stately part of the city of Lyons was of the holy water failed, or Murri disregarded such opposithe Jewish quarter. The superior intelligence and educa- tion, she reached his palace--and he himself fell her viction of the Jews, in a period when nobles and kings, and tim.-Colonel Tod's Annals of Rajasthan, even the clergy, could not always write their names, pointed them out for offices of trust. They were the physicians, the Fidelity and Maternal Attachment. - A celebrated ministers of finance, to nobles and monarchs; and when preacher, named Bucholz, who resided at Hasmark in HunCharlemagne, either with some secret political design, or gary, had occasion to go to the village of Eperies, distant from an ostentatious show of magnificence, determined on about twenty English miles from his own place of abode. sending an ambassador to the splendid Caliph, Haroun al He travelled on foot, and took with him a small terrier Raschid, Europe and Asia beheld the extraordinary spec-bitch, then in the last week of her pregnancy. After having tacle of a Jew, named Isaac, setting forth on this mission, been detained several days at Eperies by floods, he was with two Christian Counts, who died on the road, and con- compelled to return home without his dog, which in the ducting the political correspondence between the courts of mean time had brought forth a litter of five puppies. He Aix-la-Chapelle and Bagdad. It cannot be wondered if this had not been in the house an hour when to his surprise the embassy gave rise to the wildest speculation in that ignorant bitch came in bearing a puppy in her mouth, which she age, both as to its objects and its event. It was given out carefully placed upon the mat where she ordinarily lay, and that the Caliph granted Judea as a free gift to Charlemagne, immediately rushed out of the house again on the road to others limit his generosity to Jerusalem, others to the key of Eperies. In the space of twenty-four hours, she went and the Holy Sepulchre. The secret objects probably never returned four times more; on each occasion bringing home transpired beyond the councils of Charlemagne; but it was a puppy in her mouth. It is hardly necessary to state that known that Ísaac returned with presents of a wonderful the puppies were quite dead as the mother brought them nature from the east. Among these was an enormous ele- into the house. As the poor creature laid the last puppy phant, of such importance that his death is faithfully chro- upon the mat, she could scarcely stand for weariness; she nicled by the monkish annalists; apes, a clock, and some

whined and trembled, looking pitifully upon her dead puprich robes, doubtless of silk. Isaac acquitted himself with pies; and after walking once or twice round the mat, she such ability, that he was intrusted by his imperial protector laid herself down beside them, and died in a few minutes. with another mission to the same quarter.-Milman's His- In twenty-four hours the animal had run about 180 miles.tory of the Jews, vol. iii. p. 280.

From a German Magazine. Effects of Industry and Economy.-When I first knew Life Assurance in Germany.-In 1827 Dr. Arnoldi of A. B. he was in a state of poverty, possessing, it is true, a Weimar, having met with the Comparative View of the cottage of his own, with a very small garden; but his con- various Institutions for the Assurance of Life,' was struck stitution being delicate, and health precarious, so that he with the advantage of establishing a society on the prinwas not a profitable labourer, the farmers were unwilling to ciple of the Equitable in the centre of Germany. His first employ him. In this condition he came into my service: step was to publish a German translation of Mr. Babbage's his wife at that time having a young child, contributed very volume, and having formerly been in the service of the little to the general maintenance of the family: his wages Kings of Saxony and Bavaria, he applied to those sovereigns were ten shillings per week, dieting himself, and with little for their patronage. At the annual meeting of the German besides that could be considered as profitable. We soon Philosophers, which took place at Munich, the proposed perceived that the clothing of the family became more neat Institution became more known, and towards the end of and improved; certain gradations of bodily health appeared ; 1828 it was established at Gothæ. In four years its success the cottage was white-washed, and enclosed with a rough has been so extended that at the beginning of the present wall and gate; the rose and the corchorus began to blossom year 4000 persons were assured, and the sum of the assuabout it; the pig became two; and a few sheep marked rances amounted to about 6,000,000 of dollars, or above one A. B. were running about the lanes : then his wife had a

million of money. little cow, which it was “hoped his honour would let eat some of the rough grass in the upper field;" but this was

The Calmuck Tartars.-Calmuck women ride better than not entirely given. This cow in spring was joined by a the men. A male Calmuck on horseback looks as if he was better ; but finding such cattle difficult to maintain through intoxicated, and likely to fall off every instant, though he the winter, they were disposed of, and the sheep augmented. never loses his seat; but the women sit with more ease, and After about six years service, my honest, quiet, sober ride with extraordinary skill

. The ceremony of marriage labourer died, leaving his wife and two children surviving, a among the Calmucks is performed on horseback. A girl is third had recently died. We found him possessed of some first mounted, who rides off at full speed. Her lover purmoney, though I know not the amount; two fine hogs, and sues; and if he overtakes her, she becomes his wife, returna flock of forty-nine good sheep, many far advanced in lamb; ing with him to his tent. But it sometimes happens that and all this stock was acquired solely with the regular the woman does not wish to marry the person by whom she wages of ten shillings a week, in conjunction with the sim. is pursued, in which case she will not suffer him to overtake ple aids of rigid sobriety and economy, without a murmur, her; and we were assured that no instance occurs of a a complaint, or a grievance.-Journal of a Naturalist. Calmuck girl being thus caught, unless she has a partiality

for her pursuer.-Dr. Clarke's Travels in Russia, &c. Indian Method of driving away the Cholera Morbus.It was only during our last journey through Boondi, that

Sir Horace Vere, on being asked by the Marquis Spinola, I was amused with my friend's expedient to keep death out a celebrated general, the cause of his brother's death, is said of the capital, as likewise with the old regent's mode of get- to have replied, "He died, sir, of having nothing to do." ting rid of this most unwelcome visitor in Kotah. Having

“ Alas!" said the Marquis, “that is cause enough to kill assembled the brahmins, astrologers, and those versed in any general of us all.” incantations, a grand rite was got up, sacrifice made, and a solemn decree of desvatto, or banishment, was pronounced

The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at

59, Lincoln's-Inn-Fields. against murri (the cholera); Accordingly an equipage was prepared for her, decorated with funeral emblems, painted

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. black, and drawn by a double team of black oxen; bags of Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied. Wholesale by the following grain, also black, were put into the vehicle, , that the lady

Booksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :might not go forth without food, and, driven by a man in London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer. Alley, Lincoln, Brookz and Sons.

Paternoster-Row.

Liverpool, WILLMER and SNITH, sable vestments, followed by the yells of the populace, Murri Bath, Sinus.

Manchester, ROBINSON ; and WEBB AAD was deported across the Chumbul, with the commands of Birmingham, Drake.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLEY. the priests that she should never set foot again in Kotah.

Carlisle, THURNAM; and Scott. Norwich, JARROLD and Son. When my friends heard of the cholera's expulsion from Derby, Wilkins and Son, Nottingham, WRIOHT. Kotah, and that she was supposed to be on the road to Doncaster, Brooke and Co. Sheffield, Ridge.

Dublin, WAKEMAN. Boondi, he called ail the wise men of this city to provide Hull, STEPHENSON.

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Boyd. means to keep her from entering therein. To this end all | Leeds, BAINES and NEWSOME. Olasgow, ATKINSON and Co. the waters of the sacred Ganges at hand was in requisition,

Printed by WILLIAN CLOWES, Slawford-Street.

SIXMs.

Bristol, WESTLEY and Co.

THE PENNY MAGAZINE

OF THE

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

21.

June 30 to July 31, 1832.

PUNGERFORD MARKET

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*River Front of Hungerforu Market. An act was obtained in 1830, incorporating a company, a range of counters, &c., and a walk in front. The of proprietors for the re-establishment of Hungerford roof of the nave, or centre compartment of the building, Market. The site of the old market has been pur- being raised above the other parts by a tier of open chased, together with the surrounding houses, those in arches, ensures an ample supply of light and air ; the Hungerford-street, and some few in the Strand, in order roots of the aisles are likewise open in the centre, in to ensure a proper frontage and secure a convenient order still further to secure that important object. Unaccess to that thoroughfare. Many of these buildings derneath the whole of the hall is a range of arched are pulled down. The architect of the New Market cellars or vaults, having approaches in various directions. is Mr. C. Fowler. The front to the river is completed The upper court corresponds nearly with the lower court externally, and forms a very elegant structure, as repre- or Fish-Market, but al the level of a story above it. sented in the above view. The basement of the centre The colonnades are here combined with shops and next the river constitutes the Fish-Market. The wings dwellings for resident shop-keepers. The columns, stairs, are intended for taverns, connected by a colonnade with pavement, and parts of the front of this important build a terrace which occupies the entire front. From the ing are of granite. Fish-Market the ascent is by a spacious flight of steps We subjoin the measurements of the different diviin the centre externally, and two staircases within, at the sions of the Market. The width of the upper and lower extremities of the portico, which is separated from the areas is that of the uncovered space. That of the Great hall by a screen of arches. The hall, exclusive of the Hall is the total width : porticoes, is 157 feet long by 123 feet wide, consisting

Length. of a nave and two aisles, besides ranges of shops against

Upper Area the side walls, with galleries over. These galleries are

The Great Hall..

157 0 123 approached by four staircases at the extremities. The

Lower Area.

130 0 63 floor of the hall will be occupied by ranges of stands The two Colonnades connecting the divifor casual business, with convenient avenues between

sions, and leading to Gallery-Stair

each 11 6 them. The galleries will be appropriated for the sale

Total width of building, river front ..

126 of such articles as require a neat display, and will be

Total length of building from River to disposed somewhat in the manner of a bazaar, with Hungerford Street. ..... .........

475 6 VOL. I.

Widtb. feet, 69

140 0

cases,

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The VILLAGE POOR-HOUSE. By a COUNTRY | or the artisan work out his own mental improvernent, Curate. Smith, Elder, & Co. 1832.

and then, most assuredly, will he find bis moral dignity This little volume claims our attention by the high elevated and his comforts increased. poetical talent it displays. It professes, moreover, to deseribe the actual state of feeling amongst the poor,

HEALTH AND LONGEVITY. or the labouring borly in England—that class of society [The Effects of Arts, Trades, and Professions, and of Civil States to whose wants and improvement our humble bours and Habits of Living, on Health and Lo evity. By C. Turner are mainly directed.

Thackrah, Esq. Second Edition. Longman, 1832.]
The author thus beautifully opens his subject: The author of this book is a medical practitioner at

Leeds; and the object of his work, than which there can
Our village has a pleasant look,
A happy look as e'er was seen-

be none more important, is to exhibit, in most cases Right through the valley flows a brook

from personal observation, the influence of particular Which winds in many a flowery nook

occupations on the health of the individuals pursuing And freshens all the green.

them and on the duration of their lives. His general On either side, so clear and white,

impression is, that the employments of large manufacA row of cottages you see

turing towns, such as Leeds, Manchester, Birmingham, And jessamine is clustered o'er

and Sheffield, are decidedly unfavourable to health and The humble trellis of each door, Then left to clamber free

consequently to happiness; and he says, with regard to And shake its blossoms far and wide

the town in which he lives, “ every day we see sacriO'er all the white-wash'd cottage side.

ficed to the artificial state of society one, and sometimes As dying evening sinks away,

two victims, whom the destinies of nature would have The old church tow'r, erect and grey,

spared.” Doubtless, continued and laborious occupaCatches far up the parting light

tion in crowded rooms is not favourable to health: but, And half grows holy to the sight.

on the other hand, it should be considered that these But from this description of the village itself the very employments, by increasing the comforts of the anthor passes to its inhabitants, and then would prove great mass of consumers, have a direct tendency to to us, that this external beauty is but a veil to cover secure the general health of the community; and that what is in reality a more disgusting place than a char- if the term “ destinies of nature" is to be taken to nel-house. For within the village, he says, there is apply to man in an uncivilized state, it is perfectly cernothing but tyranny and slavery,-pampered luxury on tain that the artisan who pursues his calling under the the part of the few, and the most abject poverty on the most unfavourable circumstances is far better off in his part of the many. There is not one family, he would physical condition, and therefore in his capacity for show, in those happy circumstances, below wealth but long life, than the poor dweller in the forests of America above poverty and dependence-there is not a single or the wilds of Africa, whose supply of food and clothindustrious, contented labourer. All here is misery-ing is wholly dependent upou chance, and who is en. the most degrading, unrelieved suffering, and unrepented tirely without medical aid in sickness. It is a wellcrime, among the poor; from the rich few, there is not known fact, that in this country, a century ago, the to be drawn a single gleam of commiseration or charity average mortality in a year was one in thirty; it is now to break the horrid gloom. Were all the plagues of about one in sixty: that is, where one person in a year Egypt busy at once on the devoted place, the village dies now, two died a century ago, as compared with the could not be so loathsome as it is here represented, gross amount of the population. When it is considered,

We are fully prepared to admit the existence of evils therefore, how large a number of our countrymen are among the labouring classes of this country, but we are employed in manufactures, it would seem that, upon the sure that the state of things represented in this poem whole, manufacturing employments are not so unfavour has no more foundation in truth than those poetical able to health as might at first be imagined. An attenpictures of rural life which our author, justly enough, tive examination of Mr. Thackrah's book will show, pronounces to be only poetical.

that even in the most apparently unwholesome emHas the “ Country Curate” seen anything of the ployments there is a wonderful compensation in the condition of the peasantry in other countries ?-If not, power of habit; and it is beyond all doubt that cleanlilet him ask those who have, and they will assure him ness, temperance, and that habitual cheerfulness which that it is nearly every where inferior to that of the pea- leads the spirit to triumph over the most adverse circumsantry of England. We do not say this from any stances, will enable those who would appear necessarily overweening national pride, or from any desire to make the most unfortunate, to pass through life with compathe people idly contented with their state as it is, and rative happiness and comfort. Still

, it is very imporindifferent to future improvement. No! we would say tant to examine what occupations have the most unfato the peasantry, as to every other class, Keep your eyes vourable influence on health,--not with the view of makever open to your rights; strive to make what is in- ing those who follow them dissatisfied with their condidifferent-good, what is good-better; and persevere tion, but for the purpose of suggesting every preventive in that moral and intellectual improvement which can and remedial measure, within the range of human knowalone render you sensible of your rights, and fit you for ledge, to the attention of the capitalist, whose first duty their enjoyment! You are not now what you were a is to provide for the happiness of those around him; century or two ago, because you are better informed and and above all to show the working-man himself how more civilized than then ; and a century hence your con much he has it in his own power to mitigate the evils dition will be so much the better, as you will be more which he cannot altogether avoid. In this point of view civilized than now. We would rescue the wealthier Mr Thackrah's book deserves the most serious considebody from the insane jealousy and hatred which the ration of all classes. It is most satisfactory to know, verses of the Country Curate' have a direct tendency upon Mr. Thackrah's authority, that " in many of our to excite against them in the breasts of the poor ; we occupations the injurious agents might be immediately would hint at the exertions now pretty generally made removed or diminished." by that body to promote the welfare and instruction of For the convenience' of his inquiry the writer before the labouring classes, with which their own welfare is us divides society into five great classes, viz. - 1. Opeclosely linked. But still we would not have the poor ratives. II. Dealers. HII. Master-Manufacturers, depend entirely on what the rich may bestow upon them, and Merchants. JV. Men independent of business and or assist them in obtaining. We would have the peasant | labour. V. Professional men. The first section of

operatives he sub-divides into—1, those whose employ- | circumstances are not exempt from those corroding cares ments are chiefly in the open air : 2, those whose and unnatural excitements which injure health, and deemployments are carried on in an atmosphere confined stroy life, as speedily as crowded rooms and extreme and impure : 3, those whose employments produce dust, heat or cold. Let us take Mr. Thackrah's description odour, or gaseous exhalations: 4, those whose employ of the class of shopkeepers :ments injure or annoy by acting on the skin : 5, those They are generally temperate in their diet. They inwhose employments expose them to wet and steam : jure health, not by direct attacks, not by the introduction 6, those who are exposed to a high temperature, or great of injurious agents, but by withholding the pabulum of life variations of temperature. When we state that in these food for the constitution. Be it remembered that man sub

-a due supply of that pure fluid, which nature designed as six sub-divisions of the great class of operatives, Mr. sists upon the air, more than upon his meat and drink. Thackrah describes the peculiar effects of about two Numerous instances might be adduced of persons existing hundred different employments, it must be evident that for months and years on a very scanty supply of aliment, we cannot attempt even to enumerate the occupations but it is notorious that no one can exist for an hour without whose influence upon health is here noticed. To show, a copious supply of air. The atmosphere which shopkeepers however, the interesting mode in which this inquiry is breathe is contaminated and adulterated; air, with its vital for the most part conducted, we subjoin an abridged principles so diminished, that it cannot fully decarbonize extract, descriptive of the condition of the grinders and the blood, nor fully excite the nervous system. Hence shopmachine-makers of Sheffield :

keepers are pale, dyspeptic, and subjeci to affections of the

head. They often drag on a sickly existence, die before the “Dr. Knight, in the North-of-England Medical Journal, proper end of human life, and leave a progeny like themstates that the fork-grinders, who use a dry grindstone, die selves." at the ages of 28 or 32, while the table-knife grinders, who work on wet stones, survive to between 40 and 50. Dr. K.'s fortunate, though he may appear to have a greater com

The merchant and manufacturer is probably not more paper very properly alludes to the combination of injurious agents and circumstances. It is not merely the pernicious

mand of worldly comforts :employment, but the want of sieve and ventilation in the most frequent and important. When we walk the streets

“Of the causes of disease, anxiety of mind is one of the apartments where the men now work,- the want, moreover, of that exercise in the open air which they formerly took in of large commercial towns, we can scarcely fail to remark going to work and returning from it; and finally, the intem- the hurried gait and care-worn features of the well-dressed perance which results from their congregation, and still passengers. Some young men, indeed, we may see, with more from their desperation of life. It appears, that in 1822, I countenances possessing natural cheerfulness and colour; “out of 2,500 grinders, there were not 35 who had arrived but these appearances rarely survive the age of manhood. at the age of 50, and perhaps not double that number who Cuvier closes an eloquent description of animal existence had reached the age of 45, and out of more than 80 fork and change, with the conclusion that life is a state of grinders, exclusive of boys, it was reported that there was force. What he would urge in a physical view, we may not a single individual 36 years old." The symptoms of the more strongly urge in a moral

. Civilization has changed grinders disease are those of slow but certainly fatal con our character of mind as well as of body. We live in a state sumption. The remedies judiciously recommended by Dr. of unnatural excitement;-unnatural, because it is partial, Knight, are, Ist. Dusting the machinery, before the work irregular, and excessive. Our muscles waste for want of commences; 2nd. Great reduction in ihe time of labour ; action : our nervous system is worn out by excess of action. 3rd. Use of wet stones as much as possible ; 4th. Largé Vital energy is drawn from the operations for which nature fiues to be laid on the floor for ventilation, and currents of designed it

, and devoted to operations which nature never air to be forced through them by the machines ; 5th. Fork- contemplated... If we cannot adopt the doctrine of a foreign grinding to be confined to criminals.

philosopher, that a thinking man is a depraved animal,' we " Draw-filing cast iron is a very injurious occupation. may without hesitation affirm, that inordinate application The dust is much more abundant, and the metallic particles of mind, the cares, anxieties, and disappointments of commuch more minute, than in the filing of wrought iron. The mercial life, greatly impair the physical powers." particles rise so copiously as to blacken the mouth and

Let us see if the idle man of independent fortune is nose. The men first feel the annoyance in the nostrils. placed under more favourable circumstances for the cnThe lining membrane discharges copiously for some time, joyment of existence: and then becomes preternaturally dry. Besides the dust "A man supplied with food and comforts without labour there are some very bright scales, called kisk, very visible and care, has constantly full opportunity of attending to though scarcely tangible, which rise from the castings, as health. But manis a social animal. The Creator has orthese are taken out of the moulders' boxes, and considerably dained that no individual shall live to himself, and live in irritate the air-tube. But these scales produce much less happiness. A man without an object is like a tree without frequent annoyance than the particles detached by the file, a leading shoot. e has not the vigour of his fellows; his notwithstanding the dust of the employ. Respiration is not strength is either dissipated in irregular pursuits, or decays promptly impeded. Of ten men whom I examined with from listlessness. In professions and trades the nervous reference to this point, but one had difficulty of breathing system is often exhausted by excessive application; here, as as a primary symptom. The subsequent symptoms are frequently, it declines from the want of exertion. Need I determined chiefly by intemperance, and the constitutional add, that the vices which result from the want of employdisposition to consumption. The machine-makers earn high ment, undermine the constitution, and shorten life?" wages, and many consequently are addicted to liquor. În Mr. Thackrah has stated, in many instances, the all the breathing becomes, in a few years, more affected modes which he conceives applicable to the mitigation by exertion ; but in the intemperate it is most affected :

or removal of the evils of particular employments. It the morning cough is attended with retchings, disorder of the liver and of the other organs of digestion becomes is, of course, not within our province to follow him in established, and at length pulmonary consumption closes these details. But throughout his work he notices also the list of symptoms. Scarcely a filer can be found in those habits which are best calculated to preserve man health. Few bear the employ, 'even modified as it is by in health in every situation. These best remedies, which frequent changes of material, for twenty-five years. Only are in a great degree within the reach of us all, may be one instance have I been able to find of a working filer comprised in the words temperunce, cleanliness, exercise exceeding the age of fifty. What can be done to prevent in the open air, and cheerful relaxation. It should be this lamentable waste of life? Magnetic mouth-pieces, the aim of every working-man to employ these remewhich attraet the particles of iron inhaled in respiration. dies for any evils of his occupation, as far as he can and thus greatly diminish the quantity which would enter the air-tube, were many years ago introduced in Sheffield, himself :-it is the duty of every employer, as much as and ought ere this to have been more extensively tried in him lies, so to regulate his periods of labour, that no But there is a strange apathy both among the men and the artisan shall be unable, from want of time, to take his masters."

evening walk in the fresh fields, to cultivate his little If the working-classes, in the ordinary acceptation of garden, or to afford an hour to that improvement of his the term, have abundant evils in their employments, mind which will invigorate and refresh his body, by the those who would appear to be placed under happier cheapest and the purest of all pleasures.

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