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tending with the cloth, and care is taken by successive lessening, than in aggravating, human misery ; and applications to draw the impediment out: but all mecha- although strict in enforcing obedience-unrelenting in nical inventions hitherto made use of offer resistance to the punishment of hardened offenders—and capable of the knot; and, instead of yielding and breaking as the turning a deaf ear, even to a well-told tale, that has not teazle does, résist and tear it out, making a hole, or in- a good cause in its support-yet, the indiscriminate juring the surface. Thë dressing of a piece of cloth line of treatment now pursued towards all Crown priconsumes a great multitude of teazles, it requiring from soners is rather attributed others, in whose hands the 1500 to 2000 heads to accomplish the work properly. governor is a mere instrument, than to himself. In They are used repeatedly in the different stages of the many respects, however, the regulations that have been process; but a piecë of fine cloth generally breaks this adopted are very excellent, and have had the best and number before is finished, or it may be said that there most wholesome effect, not only on the convict popu. is a consumption answering to the proposed fineness-lation generally, but on many of the free inhabitants. pieces of the best kinds requiring one hundred and fifty The state of persons who are sent hither for their or two hundred runnings up, according to circumstances. offences should be one of punishment. They have no Abridged from the Journal of a Naturalist,
right to expect otherwise ; nor would it be advisable that CONDITION OF CONVICTS IN VAN DIEMEN’S which is misery to one man, is thought nothing of by
they should ever be led to think differently; yet that LAND.
another; and it is the indiscriminating, undeviating Van Diemen's LAND being a penal station for the re- course that is now pursued, not the system itself, that ception of offenders from Great Britain, it may perhaps is thought not to belong to Colonel Arthur. It is easy be expected that a portion of these pages should be enough for people, sixteen thousand miles distant, to allotted to a subject which is very imperfectly under- legislate ; but a discretion, and a great one too, should stood at home, although of very considerable impor. always be vested in the hands of the local authorities. tance. It may be well, therefore, to devote a small With regard to the second part of this subject, or space towards making known a few of the leading the indulgences that are open to prisoners of the Crown, principles under which the convict population are as a reward for good conduct, they are principallygoverned. There are two leading heads connected tickets of leave, by which the holder is free from comwith this subject-the one, the general state or con- pulsory labour-and emancipations, which restore freedition of Crown prisoners; and the other, the incen-dom, so far as regards the Colony, but ao not permit tives to good conduct which are presented to them, by the individual to leave it. But there are other interthe indulgences to which they are admissible. Upon mediate steps which may be considered to partake of the first point, it may be remarked, that all persons who the nature of indulgences, such as situations in the are transported hither, without reference to any previous police, &c., that are only conferred upon persons of circumstances whatever, are either placed in the public good character, but which open the road, at the end of service, or are assigned to private individuals immedi- a given period, to certain and considerable advantages. ately upon landing, according to their several qualifi. The fixed rule with regard to indulgence is, undeviating cations. Those who belong to the first class, are good conduct, and length of service. Persons who are compelled to devote the whole of their time to such transported for seven years, must have resided four in occupations as are allotted them ; and in return, are
the Colony, before they are admissible to a ticket of fed, clothed, and lodged at the expense of the Crown. leave—for fourteen, six-for life, eight. EmancipaAll mechanics and labourers reside in barracks, built tions may be hoped for, by fourteen years' men, at the exprèssly for the occasion; but those who are employed end of two-thirds of their sentence; by those who are as clerks in any of the public offices, are permitted to for life, after having been here twelve years; but one live elsewhere, and receive an annual pittance, varying single act that shall have brought the individual before from 101. to 18l. per annum, together with a small suin a magistrate, so as to have a record of misbehaviour for clothing. The regulations in force with respect to against his name, no matter how slight its nature, the whole body, and many of which are elsewhere given, throws him back there is no saying how long, and the effectually render their condition one of unvarying claim he might fancy he had, according to the rule now punishment; for they are not allowed the exercise laid down, becomes altogether forfeited. either of time or talents for their own advantage, nor
There are those in England who conceive that transare they suffered to possess property, even if they have portation is a state of ease and advantage. Let them friends who would place such at their disposal. Those but reside in Van Diemen's Land for one twelvemontii, who are assigned to private individuals, must be bona and their opinions will be changed. In it, as in all fide in the service of their masters. They are not other conditions of life, those who behave well are better allowed to live away from his roof-must not be paid off, in many respects, than others who show no signs of wages - not work for themselves —can go nowhere reformation; and God forbid it should ever be otherwithout a pass—in fact, although possessing a sort of wise! but even these have daily reason to ånd that comparative liberty, are still under the closest control their degree of punishment is ample. imaginable. The Colonial laws against harbouring
From the Van Diemen's Land Alinanac for 1882. prisoners are extremely severe, visiting with heavy fines all transgressors; and to which persons may very inno
PITCH SPRINGS. cently render themselves liable, so various and compre- In different parts of the world we find the phenomenon hensive are the enactments. It is only within the last of a kind of natural unctuous and inflammable subthree or four years, that the transportation system, so far stance oozing from the earth, which, under the various as regards this Colony and New South Wales, has names of natural pitch, earth pitch, naphtha; petroassumed that stern and rigid character by which it is leum (or rock oil), and bitumen, is very well known as now marked ; since, formerly, there were many channels to its general properties. The naphtha is the purest open, by which much of its severity was capable of state of this substance, which by a certain exposure to being mitigated. Although it has been under Colonel the air somewhat changes its quality, and becomes Arthur's government that the restrictions and regula. petroleum; and finally, after still longer exposure, be. tions now in förée have been introduced, it is generally comes what we call bitumen. believed that orders from home,'' rather than his own These phenomena are found in various parts of the natural disposition, have been the cause ; for he has world, but that which we are going briefly to notice is generally been remarked to have greater pleasure in in the southern part of Zante (the ancient Zacynthus), one of the islands of the Ionian Confederation, of state in a red scabbard, studded with golden fleurs-de-lis, or, as we sometimes term it, the Ionian Republic. the point upwards ; next came the Queen, in the fifty-sixth This natural exudation is found in the southern part of year of her age, (as we were told,) very majestic ; her face Zante, near the coast, and has been described by oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes small, yet black and several modern travellers. When Dr. Chandler visited pleasant; her nose a little hooked, her lips narrow, and her the place, the pitch was collected and put up in barrels as their too great use of sugar); she had in her ears two very
ieeth black, (a defect the English seem subject to, from an article of commercial value. (Chandler's Greece, ii. rich pearls with drops ; she wore false hair, and that red; p. 302.) It is always a matter of curiosity to determine upon her head she had a small crown, reported to have how long such natural phenomena have been in opera- been made of some of the gold of the celebrated Lunebourg tion, and in this instance we know that the pitch-springs table; her bosom was uncovered, as all the English ladies of Zante were as productive 2300 years ago as they are have it till they marry; and she had on a necklace of exnow, Herodotus in his travels visited this spot, of ceeding fine jewels; her hands were small, her fingers long, which he gives the following account in his fourth book, manner of speaking mild and obliging. That day she was (chap. 195): “ In Zacynthus I saw pitch brought up dressed in white silk, bordered with pearls of the size of out of the water of a pond. Indeed there are several | beans, and over it a mantle of black silk shot with silver of these ponds, but the largest of them is about seventy threads; her train was very long, the end of it borne by a feet square, and twelve feet deep. The mode of procuring Marchioness; instead of a chain, she had an oblong collar the pitch is the following. They take a pole, and push it of gold and jewels. As she went along in all this state and into the water with a myrtle branch at the end, and on magnificence, she spoke very graciously, first to one, then to palling it up they find the pitch adhering to it, which in another, (whether foreign ministers, or those who attend for smell is like asphaltus, but of a better quality than the besides being well skilled in Greek and Latin, and the
different reasons,) in English, French, and Italian; for common pine pitch. They collect this pitch in a kind guages I have mentioned, she is mistress of Spanish, of vat or receptacle which they have dug near the pond, Scotch, and Dutch. Whoever speaks to her it is kneeling ; and when the quantity is considerable they put it in large now and then she raises some with her hand. While we jars or barrels. If any pitch drops from the branch were there, William Slawator, a Bohemian baron, had into the pond, it goes under the ground and appears letters to present to her, and she, after puling off her glove, again in the sea, which is about half a mile (four stadia) gave him her right hand to kiss, sparkling with rings and from the pond.”
jewels, a mark of particular favour. Wherever she turned This pitch rises naturally to the surface, being speci- knees. The ladies of the court followed next to her, very
her face as she was going along, everybody fell down on their fically lighter than water. Herodotus appears merely handsome and well-shaped, and for the most part dressed in to be describing the mode of procuring it in greater white. She was guarded on each side by the Gentlemen quantities by bringing it up from the bottom, where it Pensioners, fifty in number, with gilt battle-axes. In the might possibly collect for some time before it rises. ante-chamber next the hall, where we were, petitions were The ponds are described as being now of smaller di- presented to her, and she received them most graciously, mensions than those which Herodotus states, and also which occasioned the exclamation of “God save the Queen
Elizabeth ?" she answered it with, “ I thançke youe myne nearer the sea. In an island so subject to the disturbances of earthquakes, it is possible that many physical
good peupel." changes may have taken place since the Greek traveller
THE EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE. saw the pitch fished up from the ponds of Zante. THERE is scarcely one of our readers, probably, who has
Near Kerkook, about forty miles east of the banks of not heard of the Eddystone Lighthouse. It is erected on the Tigris (lat. 35° 30') “ there is a great number of one of the rocks of that name, which lie in the English naphtha pits, which yield an inexhaustible supply of that Channel about fourteen miles S. S.W. from Plymouth. useful commodity. Many of the pits are in the bed of a The nearest land to the Eddystone rocks is the point small stream, which forces a passage through the rocks : to the west of Plymouth called the Ram Head, 'from they emit a disagreeable smell, are about three feet in which they are about ten miles almost directly south. diameter, and some of them eight or ten feet in depth. As these rocks (called the Eddystone, in all probability, The naphtha is here in a liquid state and perfectly black; from the whirl or eddy which is occasioned by the waters it is conveyed from the bottom to the top in leathern striking against them) were not very much elevated buckets, then put into earthen jars, and sent all over the above the sea at any time, and at high water were neighbouring country. * '
quite covered by it, they formed a most dangerous obsta
cle to navigation, and several vessels were every season DESCRIPTION OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
lost upon them. Many a gallant ship which had voy (From the Travels of Paul Hentzer, & German, who visited England in 1598.] aged in safety across the whole breadth of the Atlantic We arrived next at the Royal Palace at Greenwich, re- was shattered to pieces on this hidden source of destrucported to have been originally built by Humphrey Duke of tion as it was nearing port, and went down with its Gloucester, and to have received very magnificent additions from Henry VIII. It was here Elizabeth, the present
crew in sight of their native shores. It was therefore Queen, was born, and here she generally resides, particularly very desirable that the spot should, if possible, be pointed in summer, for the delightfulness of the situation. We out by a warning light. But the same circumstances were admitted, by an order Mr. Rogers had procured from which made the Eddystone rocks so formidable to the the Lord Chamberlain, into the presence chamber, hung mariner, rendered the attempt to erect a lighthouse upon with rich tapestry, and the floor, after the English fashion, them a peculiarly difficult enterprise. The task, how strewed with hay (query rushes), through which the Queen ever, was at last undertaken by a Mr. Henry Winstanley, commonly passes in her way to the chapel. At the door of Littlebury in Essex, a gentleman of some property, stood a gentleman dressed in velvet, with a gold chain, and not a regularly-bred engineer or architect, but only whose office was to introduce to the Queen any person of distinction that came to wait on her; it was Sunday, when a person with a natural turn for mechanical invention, there is usually the greatest attendance of nobility. In the and fond of amusing himself with ingenious experisame hall were the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of ments. His house at Littlebury was fitted up with a London, a great many counsellors of state, officers of the multitude of strange contrivances, with which he surcrown, and gentlemen, who waited the Queen's coming out, prised and amused his guests; and he also had an exwhich she did from her own apartment, when it was time to hibition of water-works at Hyde-Park Corner, which go to prayers, attended in the following manner :
First went Gentlemen, Barons, Earls, Knights of the appears from a notice in the Tatler to have been in exGarter, all richly dressed and bare-headed ; next came the istence in September, 1709. He began to erect his Chancellor, bearing the seals in a silk purse, between two, lighthouse on the Eddystone rocks in 1696, and it was one of which carried the royal sceptre, the other the sword finished about four years after. From the best informa• Kinaeir's M tion which can now be obtained it appears to have been
a polygonal (or many-cornered) building of stone, and, | dles in the lantern, found the place full of smoke, from when it had received its last additions, of about a hun- the midst of which, as soon as he opened the door, a dred feet in height. Still the sea in stormy weather fame burst forth. A spark from some of the twentyascended far above this elevation, so much so that per- four candles, which were kept constantly burning, had sons acquainted with the place used to remark, after the probably ignited the wood-work, or the flakes of soot erection of Winstanley's building, that it was very pos- hanging from the roof. The man instantly alarmed his sible for a six-oared boat to be lifted up upon a wave companions; but being in bed and asleep, it was some and to be carried through the open gallery by which it time before they arrived to his assistance. In the mean was surmounted. The architect himself, it is said, felt time he did his utmost to effect the extinction of the 80 confident in the strength of the structure that he fre-fire by heaving water up to it (it was burning four yards quently declared his only wish was to be in it during above him) from a tubful which always stood in the the greatest storm that ever blew under the face of the place. The other two, when they came, brought up heavens, that he might see what would be the effect. more water from below, but as they had to go down and But these words were perhaps merely ascribed to return a height of seventy feet for this purpose, their him after the event. On the 26th November, 1703, endeavours were of little avail. At last a quantity of he was in the lighthouse superintending some repairs, the lead on the roof having melted, came down in a when there came on the most terrible tempest which was torrent upon the head and shoulders of the man who ever known in England. Next morning not a vestige remained above. He was an old man of ninety-four, of of the building was to be seen. It had been swept into the name of Henry Hall, but still full of strength and the deep, as was afterwards found, from the foundation, activity. This accident, together with the rapid increase not a stone, or beam, or iron-bar remaining on the rock of the fire, notwithstanding their most desperate exerThe single thing left was a piece of iron chain, which tions, extinguished their last hopes, and making scarcely had got so wedged into a deep cleft that it stuck there any further efforts to arrest the progress of the destroytill it was cut out more than fifty years afterwards. ing element, they descended before it from room to room,
Such was the end of the first Eddystone Lighthouse. till they came to the lowest floor. Driven from this also, Soon after, the Winchelsea, homeward-bound from Vir- they then sought refuge in a hole or cave on the eastern ginia, was lost on the rocks, when the greater part of side of the rock, it being fortunately by this time low her crew perished. An Act of Parliament was then water. Meanwhile the conflagration had been observed passed for the building of a new lighthouse, on a lease by some fishermen, who immediately returned to shore granted to a Captain Lovet, or Lovell, for ninety-nine and gave information of it. Boats of course were imyears. It so turned out that on this occasion again the mediately sent out. They arrived at the lighthouse person employed to erect the structure was not a builder about ten o'clock, and with the utmost difficulty a landby profession. The individual whom Lovet made ing was effected, and the three men, who were by this choice of for this purpose was a Mr. John Rudyerd, a time almost in a state of stupefaction, were dragged silk-mercer on Ludgate-hill, whose recommendation through the water into one of the boats. One of them, as appears to have been merely his general sagacity, and soon as he was brought on shore, as if struck with some perhaps some genius which he was supposed to possess panic, took flight, and was never more heard of. As for mechanics. He began the building of his light-for old Hall, he was immediately placed under medical house in July, 1706; it was so far advanced that a care ; but although he took his food tolerably well, and light was put up about two years from that time; and seemed for some time likely to recover, he always perin 1709 it was completed in all its parts. It differed sisted in saying that the doctors would never bring him from its predecessor in two important respects; being not round, unless they could remove from his stomach the of stone, but of wood, and not angular, but perfectly lead which he maintained had run down his throat when round. Its entire height was ninety-two feet
it fell upon him from the roof of the lantern. Nobody could believe that this notion was anything more than an imagination of the old man; but on the twelfth day after the fire, having been suddenly seized with cold sweats and spasms, he expired; and when his body was opened there was actually found in his stomach, to the coat of which it had partly adhered, a flat oval piece of lead of the weight of seven ounces five drachms. An account of this extraordinary case is to be found in the 49th volume of the Philosophical Transactions.
As there was still more than half a century of their lease unexpired, the proprietors, who by this time had become numerous, felt that it was not their interest to lose a moment in setting about the re-building of the lighthouse. One of them, a Mr. Weston, in whom the others placed much confidence, made application to Lord Macclesfield, the President of the Royal Society, to recommend to them the person whom he considered most fit to be engaged. His lordship immediately named and most strongly recommended Mr. Smeaton, who had recently left the business of mathematical instrument maker, which he had practised for some years in London, and taken up that of a civil engineer, for which his genius admirably fitted him. Once more, therefore, the Eddystone Lighthouse was destined to have
a self-educated architect for its builder. Mr. Smeaton A. Winstanley's, and B. Rudyerd's Lighthouses.
has himself recorded the history of his lighthouse, in a This building, notwithstanding some severe storms very magnificent publication, from which we have dewhich it encountered, particularly one on the 26th of Sep- rived the particulars regarding the preceding structember, 1744, stood till the 2nd December, 1755. About tures. When it was first proposed that the work two o'clock on that morning, one of the three men who should be put into his hands, he was in Northumberland, had the charge of it, having gone up to snuff the can-1 but he arrived in London on the 23d of February,
1756. On the 22d of March the architect set out
On one occasion the sloop in which Mr. Smeaton was, with eighteen seamen and labourers, was all but lost in returning from the work.
During this time the belief and expressed opinion of all sorts of persons was that a stone lighthouse would certainly not stand the winds and seas to which it would be exposed on the Eddystone. However, on the 12th of June, 1757, the first stone was laid.
[Eust side of the Eddystone Lighthouse.? discern it, and a feeling almost of wonder mixed itsell with the joy, and thankfulness, and pride of the architect's friends, as they with difficulty descried its form through the still dark and troubled air. It was uninjured, even to a pane of glass in the lantern. In a letter from Plymouth upon this occasion the writer says, “ It is now my most steady belief, as well as every
body's here, that its inhabitants are rather more secure (Horizontal Section of the lower and solid part of the Eddystone Lighthouse; in a storm, under the united force of wind and water,
showing the mode in which the courses of stone are dovetailed together.) than we are in our houses from the former only."
From this period the work proceeded with great rapidity. On the 26th of August, 1759, all the stonework was completed. On the 9th of October following the building was finished in every part ; and on the 16th of the same month the saving light was again streaming from its summit over the waves. Thus the whole undertaking was accomplished within a space of little more than three years,
“ without the loss of life or limb," says Mr. Smeaton, “to any one concerned in it, or accident by which the work could be said to be materially retarded." During all this time there had been only 421 days, comprising 2674 hours, which it had been possible for the men to spend upon the rock; and the whole time which they had been at work there was only 111 days 10 hours, or scarcely sixteen weeks. Nothing can show strikingly than this statement the extraordinary difficul. ties under which the work had to be carried on.
Smeaton's lighthouse has stood ever since, and promises yet to stand for many centuries. It is, as has been mentioned, of stone, and is a round building, gradually decreasing in circumference from the base up to a certain height, like the trunk of an oak, from which the architect states that he took the idea of it. Among many other tempests which it has endured unshaken, was one of extraordinary fury, which occurred in the beginning of the year 1762. One individual, Smeaton tells us, who was fond of predicting its fate, declared, on that occasion, that if it still stood it would stand till the day of judgment. On the morning after the storm had spent its chief fury, many anxious observers pointed their glasses to the spot where they scarcely expected ever again to
(Eddystone Lighthouse in a storm!
seat was within the rails of the altar, the communionAugust 1.—Lammas Day. Before inclosures had be- table was his desk; and like Shenstone's school-mistress, come so general throughout England, the householders the master employed himself at the spinning-wheel, while of many parishes had the privilege of turning their cattle the children were repeating their lessons by his side. into cultivated grass lands, after the hay-harvest--and Every evening after school-hours, if not more profitably the time for exercising this right was regulated by Lam- engaged, he continued the same kind of labour, exchang mas Day. The meadows subject to this privilege were ing, for the benefit of exercise, the small wheel, at which sometimes called Lammases. Antiquaries differ in he had sate, for the large one on which wool is spun, opinion as to the origin of the word Lammas. Some the spinner stepping to and fro. Thus was the wheel derive it from Lamb-mass, because at this time lambs constantly in readiness to prevent the waste of a mowere offered to the church ;-others from Loaf-mass, a ment's time. Nor was his industry with the pen, when feast of thanksgiving for the first-fruits of corn. occasion called for it, less eager. Entrusted with ex
tensive management of public and private affairs, he
acted in his rustic neighbourhood as scrivener, writing WONDERFUL ROBERT WALKER.
out petitions, deeds of conveyance, wills, covenants, &c. WONDERFUL Robert Walker, as he is still called in the with pecuniary gain to himself, and to the great benefit district of the country where he resided, was curate of of his employers. These labours, at all times considerSeathwaite, in Cumberland, during two-thirds of last able, at one period of the year, viz. between Christmas century. The fullest account that has appeared of Mr. and Candlemas, when money transactions are settled in Walker is that given in the notes to his series of sonnets this part of the country, were often so intense, that he entitled "The River Duddon,' by Mr. Wordsworth. passed great part of the night, and sometimes whole From this memoir it appears that Walker was born in nights, at his desk. His garden, also, was tilled by his the parish of Seathwaite, in 1709; that, being of deli- own hand; he had a right of pasturage upon the mouncate constitution, it was determined by his parents, tains for a few sheep and a couple of cows, which whose youngest child he was, to breed him a scholar; required his attendance ; with this pastoral occupation and that accordingly he was taught the elements of he joined the labours of husbandry upon a small scale, reading, writing, and arithmetic by the clergyman of renting two or three acres in addition to his own, which the parish, who also officiated as schoolmaster. He was less than one acre of glebe; and the humblest afterwards contrived to acquire a knowledge of the drudgery which the cultivation of these fields required, classics; and becoming in this manner qualified for was performed by himself. He also assisted his neightaking holy orders, was ordained, and appointed to the bours in haymaking and shearing their flocks, and in the curacy of his native parish, which was at this time performance of this latter service he was eminently dex(about the year 1735) of the value of five pounds per terous. They, in their turn, complimented him with the annum. On obtaining possession of this living, Walker present of a haycock, or a fleece, less as a recompence married,—his wife bringing him what he calls himself, in for this particular service, than as a general acknowone of his letters, a fortune of forty pounds. About ledgment. The sabbath was in a striet sense kept holy; twenty years after Walker's entrance upon his living, we the Sunday evenings being devoted to reading the Scripfind its value, according to his own statement, increased tures, and family prayers. The principal festivals aponly to the amount in all of seventeen pounds ten pointed by the Church were also duly observed; but shillings. At a subsequent period it received a further through every other day in the week, through every augmentation, to what amount is not stated; but it was week in the year, he was incessantly occupied in works not considerable. Before this Mr. Walker had declined of hand or mind; not allowing a moment for recreation, to accept the adjoining curacy of Ulpha, to be held, as except upon Saturday afternoon, when he indulged himproposed by the bishop, in conjunction with that of self with a newspaper, or sometimes with a magazine. Seathwaite, considering, as he says himself, that the The frugality and temperance established in his house annexation "would be apt to cause a general discontent were as admirable as the industry. Nothing to which among the inhabitants of both places by either thinking the name of luxury could be given, was there kuown; in themselves slighted, being only served alternately, or the latter part of his life indeed, when tea had been neglected in the duty, or attributing it to covetousness brought into almost general use, it was provided for visiin me; all which occasions of murmuring I would tors, and for such of his own family as returned occawillingly avoid.”. Yet at this time he had a family of sionally to his roof, and had been accustomed to this eight or nine children. One of his sons he afterwards refreshment elsewhere ; but neither he nor his wife ever maintained at the college of Dublin till he was ready for partook of it. The raiment worn by his family was taking holy orders. He was, like his predecessors in comely and decent, but as simple as their diet; the the same cure, schoolmaster as well as clergyman of his home-spun materials were made up into apparel by their parish; but “he made no charge," says his biographer, own hands. At the time of the decease of this thrifty "for teaching school; such as could afford to pay, gave pair, their cottage contained a large store of webs of him what they pleased." His hospitality to his parishion- woollen and linen cloth, woven from thread of their own ers every Sunday was literally without limitation; he spinning. And it is remarkable that the pew in the kept a plentiful table for all who chose to come. Econo- chapel in which the family used to sit, remained a few mical as he was, no act of his life was chargeable with years ago neatly lined with woollen cloth, spun by the anything in the least degree savouring of avarice; on pastor's own hands. It is the only pew in the chapel so the contrary, many parts of his conduct displayed what distinguished; and I know of no other instance of his in any station would have been deemed extraordinary conformity to the delicate accommodations of modern disinterestedness and generosity. Finally, at his death, times. The fuel of the house, like that of their neighin 1802, he actually left behind him no less a sum than bours, consisted of peat, procured from the mosses by two thousand pounds.
their own labour. The lights by which, in the winter There is in all this, as Mr. Wordsworth remarks, evenings, their work was performed, were of their own something so extraordinary as to make some explanatory manufacture, such as still continue to be used in these details necessary. These we shall give in his own cottages; they are made of the pith of rushes dipped in words:—"And to begin,” says he, “with his industry; fat. White candles, as tallow candles are here called. eight hours in each day, during five days in the week, were reserved to honour the Christmas festivals, ana and half of Saturday, except when the labours of hus- were, perhaps, produced upon no other occasions. Once bandry were urgent, he was occupied in teaching. His a month, during the proper season, a sheep was drawn