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is surely insufficient to justify such a wanton abuse of published in a cheaper form, and above 9,000 copies the public riches.” The prodigal waste of the public of each volume had been sold. This sale of the third riches, however, was not the weightiest evil of the sports and fourth volumes appears to have been effected in the of the Circus. The public morality was sacrificed upon course of the preceding three months ; during which the same shrine as its wealth. The destruction of time, however, very few copies, if any at all, of the first beasts became a fit preparation for the destruction of and second volumes, would seem to have been disposed of. men. A small number of those unhappy persons who For, in No. 448, we are told that of these two volumes an engaged in fight with the wild animals of the arena, edition of about 10,000 copies had already been carried were trained to these dangerous exercises, ás are the off. It may be concluded, therefore, that this was the matadors of Spain at the present day. These men were whole number which the demands of the public would accustomed to exhaust the courage of the beast by false be made to absorb. Many editions, however, of what attacks; to spring on a sudden past him, striking him extent we do not know, were sold in the course of the behind before he could recover his guard; to cast a next twenty or thirty years. We have before us Toncloak over his eyes, and then despatch or bind him at son's tenth edition, published in 1729 ; and his eleventh, this critical moment of his terror; or to throw a cup full dated 1733. There had been a new edition, therefore, of some chemical preparation into his gaping mouth, so about once in every two years since the first appearance as to produce the stupefaction of intense agony. But of the work. the greater part of the human beings who were exposed It was probably this stamp duty which chiefly conto these combats, perilous even to the most skilful, were tributed to bring the “Spectator' to a close. In the disobedient slaves and convicted malefactors. The number in which the rise of price is announced, considerChristians, during their persecutions, constituted a very able hesitation is expressed as to whether the publicalarge number of the latter class. The Roman power was tion should be continued or dropt, as it was understood necessarily intolerant; the assemblies of the new religion many of the other penny papers would be. From a became objects of dislike and suspicion; the patience letter in No. 461, it appears that the Spectator' was the and constancy of the victims increased the fury of their only one of these periodicals which had doubled its price; oppressors; and even such a man as the younger Pliny the others which survived contented themselves with held that their obstinacy alone was deserving of punish- merely charging their subscribers the additional halfment. Thus, then, the imperial edicts against the early penny required to defray the tax. These, however, Christians furnished more stimulating exhibitions to the could not have allowed the retailers any additional popular appetite for blood, than the combat of lion with profit concurrent with the additional price. "On account lion, or gladiator with gladiator. The people were of the increased price several coffee-houses had left off taught to believe that they were assisting at a solemn act taking the • Spectator.' In No. 488 we have again a of justice ; and they came therefore to behold the tiger notice of complaints made by subscribers on account of and the leopard tear the quivering limb of the aged and this rise in the price of the publication. In a short time the young, of the strong and the feeble, without a desire after this we find the writers evidently beginning to make to rescue the helpless, or to succour the brave.
preparations for concluding their work. The members Abridged from Menageries, vol. ii.
of the club drop off one by one. In No. 513 the clergy
man is laid on his death-bed. No. 517 announces the SALE OF THE SPECTATOR.
death of Sir Roger; and No. 530 the marriage of It is Addison's friend Tickell who tells us that the sale Will Honeycomb. In No. 541 the Templar withdraws of the “Spectator' sometimes amounted to 20,000 himself to study law. “ What will all this end in ?" copies. The statement, however, is scarcely credible says a letter in the next day's publication ; " we are In the tenth number of the work it is mentioned on afraid it portends no good to the public. Unless you the authority of the publisher, that the sale was speedily fix a day for the election of new members, we already 3,000 a day. We question if it ever are under apprehensions of losing the ‘British Specmuch higher than this. No. 445, which appeared on tator.'” But the process of dissolution goes on. No. the 31st of July, 1712, was the last published without 544 communicates, in an epistle from himself, the transa stamp; and in it the writer (Addison) intimates formation of Captain Sentry into a Squire; and, finally, that the price will in future be two-pence instead of a No. 549 the removal of Sir Andrew Freeport by the penny. Half of the addition was to pay for the same fate. Another week terminated the original series halfpenny stamp, and the other half to compensate for of the “Spectator,' after it had continued to delight the the diminished circulation. A hope is at the same time public for about a year and three quarters. It was reexpressed that the country may receive “five or six sumed about half a year afterwards, as a thrice-a-week pounds a day” by means of this tax laid on the work. publication; but the attempt is not understood to have Even if this hope had been realised to its utmost extent, met with the success by which it had formerly been it would have implied a sale of only 2,850 copies. But attended; and the work was again laid down after it in point of fact this appears to have been nearly the full had continued for about six months. circulation before the duty was put on; for, in No. 555, the concluding paper (of the first series) which is written
AGE OF THE HORSE. and signed by Steele, the Editor, the average produce The method of judging the age of a horse is by examining of the tax is only rated as being then “ above 201. a the teeth, which amount to forty when complete ; namely, week.” The sale must therefore have been only about six nippers, or incisors, as they are sometimes called, two 1600 a day. And yet it seems to be intimated that it when first born, has in each jaw the first and second grinders
tushes, and six grinders on each side, in both jaws. A foal, had for some time been rather recovering from the de- developed; in about a week the two centre nippers make pression occasioned by the imposition of the tax: it was their appearance, and within a month a third grinder. Beat first reduced, we are told, “to less than half the tween the sixth and ninth month the whole of the nippers number that was usually printed before this tax was appear, completing the colt's mouth. At the completion of laid." The circulation before the imposition of the the first year a fourth grinder appears, and a fifth by the tax, therefore, could not have greatly exceeded 3,000; end of the second year. At this period a new process comand, such being its average amount, it seems scarcely mences, the front or first grinder giving way, which is sucpossible that even on extraordinary occasions it shoulů ceeded by a larger and permanent tooth, and between two have ever risen to anything like the number mentioned displaced, and succeeded by permanent teeth. At three
years and a half and three years the two middle nippers are by Tickell. At the time he wrote, however, the papers years old the sixth grinder has either made or is about making the first four volumes had been reprinted and making its appearance. In the fourth year another pair of
nippers and the second pair of grinders are shed; and found its way to Paris, where it was used in the form of the corner nippers, toward the end of the fifth year, are suc, a powder by Catherine de Medici. Tobacco then came ceeded by permanent teeth, when the mouth is considered under the patronage of the Cardinal Santa Croce, the mare. What is called the mark of the teeth by which a pope's nuncio, who, returning from his embassy at the judgment of the age of a horse for several years may be Spanish and Portuguese courts, carried the plant to his formed, consists of a portion of the enamel bending over own country, and thus acquired a fame little inferior to and forming a little pit in the surface of the nipper, the that which, at another period, he had won by piously inside and bottom of which becomes blackened by the food. bringing a portion of the real cross from the Holy Land. This soon begins to wear down, and the mark becomes Both in France and in the Papal States it was at once shorter and wider, and fainter. By the end of the first year received with general enthusiasm, in the shape of snuff; the mark in the two middle teeth is wide and faint, and but it was some time after the use of tobacco as snuff becomes still wider and fainter till the end of the third year, that the practice of smoking it commenced. This pracby which time the centre nippers have been displaced by the permanent teeth, which are larger than the others, though tice is generally supposed to have been introduced into not yet so high, and the mark is long, narrow, deep, and black. England by Sir Walter Raleigh; but Camden says, in At four years the second pair of permanent nippers will be his Elizabeth,' that Sir Francis Drake and his comup, the mark of which will be deep, while that of the first panions, on their return from Virginia in 1585, were pair will be somewhat fainter, and that of the corner pair the first, as far as he knew, who introduced the Innearly effaced. At this age, too, the tushes begin to appear. dian plant, called Tabacca or Nicotia, into England, Between the fourth and fifth year, the corner nippers have having been taught by the Indians to use it as a remedy long deep irregular mark; the other nippers bearing evident against indigestion. And from the time of their re tokens of increasing wearing. At six years the mark on turn," says he, “it immediately began to grow into very the centre nippers is worn out, but there is still a brown hue general use, and to bear a high price; a great many in the centre of the tooth. At seven years the mark will be persons, some from luxury, and others for their health, worn from the four centre nippers, and will have completely being wont to draw in the strong-smelling smoke with disappeared at eight years from them all. It may be added, insatiable greediness through an earthenware tube, and that it is the lower jaw of the horse that is usually examined, then to puff it forth again through their nostrils : so and which is here described. The changes of the teeth that tabacca-taverns (tabernæ tabaccanæ) are now as taking place in both jaws about the same time, but the generally kept in all our towns, as wine-houses or beercavity of the teeth in the upper jaw being somewhat deeper, houses." No doubt the tobacco-taverns of Queen the mark lasts longer, though the exact period is a matter of Elizabeth's times were not
unworthy predecessors of authority, however, it may be stated that at nine years the the splendid cygar divans of the present day. It apmark will be worn from the middle nippers, from the next pears from a note in the • Criminal Trials,' vol. i. pair at ten, and from all the upper nippers at eleven. p. 361, that in 1600 the French ambassador, in his During all this time the tushes (the extremities of which despatches, represented the Peers, on the trial of the are at first sharp-pointed and curved) become gradually Earls of Essex and Southampton, as smoking tobacco blunter, shorter, and rounder. For further information on copiously while they deliberated on their verdict. Sir this subject, the volume on the Horse, published by the Walter Raleigh, too, was accused of having sat with his Society, may be advantageously consulted.
pipe at the window of the armoury, while he looked on TOBACCO.
at the execution of Essex in the Tower. Both these stories are probably untrue, but the mere relation of them by contemporaneous writers shows that they were not then monstrously incredible, and they therefore prove the generality of the practice of smoking at that time amongst the higher class of society. After a time, however, the practice of smoking tobacco appears to have met with strenuous opposition in high places, both in this country and other parts of Europe, Its principal opponents were the priests, the physicians, and the sovereign princes; by the former its use was declared sinful; and, in 1684, Pope Urban VIII. published a bull, excommunicating all persons found guilty of taking snuff when in church. This bull was renewed in 1690, by Pope Innocent; and, about twenty-nine years afterwards, the Sultan Amurath IV. made smoking a capital offence. For a long time smoking was forbidden in Russia, under pain of having the nose cut off; and in some parts of Switzerland, it was likewise made a subject of public prosecution—the police regulations of the canton of Berne, in 1661, placing the prohibition of smoking in the list of the Ten Commandments, immediately under that against adultery. Nay, that British Solomon, James I., did not think it beneath the royal dignity to take up his pen upon the subject. He accordingly, in 1603, published his famous Counterblaste to Tobacco,' in which the following remarkable passage occurs :-" It is a custom loathesome to the eye, hatefull to the nose, harmfull to the braine, dangerous to
the lungs, and in the black stinking fume thereof Tobacco was introduced into Europe from the province nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit of Tabaca in Domingo 1559, by Spanish gen
that is bottomless." But notwithstanding this regal tleman, named Hernandez de Toledo, who brought a and priestly wrath, the use of the plant extended itself small quantity into Spain and Portugal. From thence, far and wide ; and tobacco is, at this moment, perhaps by the means of the French ambassador at Lisbon, Jean the most general luxury in existence. The allusion to Nicot, from whom it derived its name of Nicotia, it the practice in the following lines, taken from the · Mar
row of Compliment,' written in 1654, seems to show | far the popular notion is borne out by the fact. In 1807, the prevalence of smoking at that period
according to him, it rained with us on the day in “Much meat doth Gluttony procure
question, and a dry time followed ; and the same in To feed men fat as swine ;
1808. In 1818 and 1819 it was dry on the 15th, and But he's a frugal man indeed,
a very dry time in each case followed. The other sumThat on a leaf can dine ! He needs no napkin for his hands,
mers, occurring between 1807 and 1819, appear to have His fingers' ends to wipe,
come under the general proposition, “ that in a majority That hath his kitchen in a box,
of our summers, a showery period, which, with some His roast meat in a Pipe !"
latitude as to time and local circumstances, may be
admitted to constitute daily rain for forty days, does THE WEEK.
come on about the time indicated by the tradition of St. Swithin."
July 20.-The birth-day of Francis Petrarch, one of the three renowned fathers of the literature of modern Italy. He was born in 1304, at Arezzo, in the Florentine territory, the same district which had the glory of giving birth to his immediate predecessor Dante, and also to the other member of the illustrious trio, his contemporary and friend Boccaccio. Petrarch's father had been a notary in the city of Florence, but had, like Dante, been banished some time before the birth of his son in consequence of one of the political convulsions then so frequent. Being intended by his father for his own profession, he was sent to study first at Montpellier and afterwards at Bologna ; but he soon became deeply smitten with the charms of the newly-revived literature of antiquity, Virgil and Cicero stealing most of the hours which were professedly devoted to more rugged pages.
His father is related to have been so much displeased on discovering how his son employed his time, that he took his favourite authors from him and threw them into the fire. This severity, however, failed to make a lawyer of Petrarch. His father died when he was about two and twenty, and he immediately abandoned the law alto
gether. He then chose the church for his profession; 1 Petrarch.)
but he never was ordained, although in the latter July 15.-Saint Swithin.-Swithin, or Swithum, was
part of his life some valuable clerical preferments
were be a bishop of Winchester who died in 868. He was, if had gained by his poetical fame.
owed upon him by the patrons whom he
The remainder of the tradition connected with his memory is to be believed, Petrarch's life took much of its colour from an incident a man of sense ; for he was above observing one of the which happened to him in his twenty-seventh year, vain distinctions which exist even in our own day. He his meeting at Avignon, in Provence, with the celcdesired that he might be buried in the open church-yard, brated Laura, whose name he has rendered in so instead of the chancel of the minster, where the great many beautiful verses as immortal as his own. After reposed ; and Bishop Hall adds, that he wished his body the researches of a long succession of biographers and to be laid " where the drops of rain might wet his grave; critics, all is still uncertainty as to who or what this lady thinking that no vault was so good to cover his
grave as that of heaven." This was a wise and a Christian wish; spent his life in pouring out his passionate rhymes to a
really was. Many have even believed that Petrarch for assuredly the desire that the worthless body shall be mere ideal being, or vision of his imagination. The same cutoinbed beneath the sacred aisles where the living obscurity hangs over the very existence of Laura as come to elevate their thoughts with the hopes of immor- over that of Dante's Beatrice. Several succeeding years tality, is a poor clinging of the soul to the perishable were spent by the poet in wandering through Italy and garment with which it is clothed. The wish of Swithin other countries. He then retired to Vaucluse, a solitary that his ashes should speedily mingle with the elements, retreat not far from Avignon, and it was during several and that the rains of heaven should water his grave, studious years which he spent there that he composed his showed a humble and a truly religious mind. His principal works. The most memorable event of his life monks, says the tradition, thought more highly of worldly after this was his coronation, in 1340, as poet-laureat distinctions; and therefore, upon the good bishop being in the Capitol of Rome. "Twelve patrician youths," canonized, resolved to remove his body from the common cemetery into the choir of their church. This was to tatives of the most illustrious families, in green robes,
were arrayed in scarlet ; six represenhave been done on the 15th of July; but it rained so with garlands of flowers, accompanied the procession ; violently for forty days that the design was abandoned. in the midst of the princes and nobles, the senator, Mr. Howard, in his interesting work on the Climate of Count of Anguillara, a kinsman of the Colonna, asLondon, says, “ The tradition is so far valuable as it cended the throne; and at the voice of a herald, proves that the summers in this southern part of our Petrarch arose. island were subject a thousand years ago to occasional and thrice repeating his vows for the prosperity of Romne,
After discoursiug on a text of Virgil, heavy rains, in the same way as at present.”. The popu- he knelt before the throne, and received from the senator Jar superstition connected with St. Swithin's day is ex
a laurel crown, with a more precious declaration, .This pressed in a Scotch proverb :
is the reward of merit.' The people shouted, 'Long “ Saint Swithin's day, gif ye do rain, For forty days it will remain ;
life to the Capitol and the Poet! A sonnet in praise of Saint Swithiu's day, an ye be fair,
Rome was accepted as the effusion of genius and gratiFor forty daies 'twill rain nae mair."
tude; and after the whole processiou had visited the Mr. Howard has taken some pains to ascertain how Vatican, the profane wreath was suspended before the shrine of St. Peter. In the diploma which was pre- | lawn, the shady grove, the variegated landscape, the boundsented to Petrarch, the title and prerogatives of poet- less ocean, and the starry firmament, are contemplated with laureat are revived in the capitol, after the lapse of pleasure by every attentive beholder. But the emotions of thirteen hundred years; and he receives the perpetual different spectators, though similar in kind, differ widely in privilege of wearing, at his choice, a crown of laurel, ivy, degree : and to relish, with full delight, the enchanting
scenes of nature, the mind must be uncorrupted by avarice, or myrtle, of assuming the poetic habit, and of teaching, sensuality, or ambition; quick in her sensibilities; elevated disputing, interpreting, and composing, in all places in her sentiments; and devout in her affections. He who whatsoever, and on all subjects of literature. The grant possesses such exalted powers of perception and enjoyment, was ratified by the authority of the Senate and people, may almost say, with the poetand the character of citizen was the recompense of his
“ I care noi, Fortune, what you me deny;
You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace; affection for the Roman name." After these honours
You cannot shut the windows of the sky, he made other journeys to different parts of Italy, and Through which Aurora shows her brightening face ; also to Paris, in 1360, where he was received with great You cannot bar my constant feet to trace distinction. An archdeaconry in the church of Parma,
The woods and lawns, by living streams, at eve: a priory in the diocese of Pisa, and a canonry at Padua,
Let health my nerves and finer fibres brace,
And I their toys to the great children leave: were also bestowed upon him, as more substantial
Of fancy, reason, virtue, nought can me bereave!” rewards of his merit and attestations of the public admi- Perhaps such ardent enthusiasm may not be compatible ration. Our own Chaucer is supposed to have met with the necessary toils and active offices which Providence with Petrarch either in 1368, at the marriage of Lionel has assigned to the generality of men. But there are none Duke of Clarence with the daughter of the Duke of to whom some portion of it may not prove advantageous; Milan, or more probably in the beginning of the year which is consistent with the indispensable duties of his
and if it were cherished by each individual in that degree 1373, when he is supposed to have gone on an embassy station, the felicity of human life would be considerably to Genoa. At this interview Petrarch is thought to augmented. From this source the refined and vivid plea, have communicated to the English poet the beautiful sures of the imagination are almost entirely derived; and and pathetic tale of Griselda, which he had recently re- the elegant arts owe their choicest beauties to a taste for ceived from his friend Boccaccio, and had translated from the contemplation of nature. Painting and sculpture are the latter's Italian into Latin. This translation, which express imitations of visible objects: and where would be Warton, in his History of English Poetry, inadvertently the charms of poetry, if divested of the imagery and emaffirms never to have been printed, may be found in bellishments which she borrows from rural scenes? Pain. several of the old folio editions of Petrarch's works. to acknowledge themselves the pupils of nature; and, as
ters, statuaries, and poets, therefore, are always ambitious Petrarch, in a letter to Boccaccio, tells us, says Warton, their skill increases, they grow more and more delighted " that on showing the translation to one of his Paduan with every view of the animal and vegetable world. But friends, the latter, touched with the tenderness of the the pleasure resulting from admiration is transient; and to story, burst into such frequent and violent fits of tears, cultivate taste without regard to its influence on the passions that he could not read to the end.”
and affections, “ is to rear a tree for its blossoms which is Petrarch spent the last four years of his life at the capable of yielding the richest and most valuable fruit. beautiful mountain village of Arquà, about twelve miles each other, that they may be considered as different grada
Physical and moral beauty bear so intimate a relation to from Padua; and here he died suddenly, in all proba- tions in the scale of excellence; and the knowledge and bility of apoplexy, on the 19th of July, 1374, having relish of the former should be deemed only a step to the just completed his seventieth year. He was found that nobler and more permanent enjoyments of the latter. morning in his library, with his head resting on a book. Whoever has visited the Leasowes, in Warwickshire, must Here, too, his remains were deposited and are still pre- have felt the force and propriety of an inscription which served. Many of our readers will remember Lord meets the eye at the entrance into these delightful grounds; Byron's fine lines on this subject :
“ Would you, then, taste the tranquil scene ?
Be sure your bosom be serene;
Devoid of hate, devoid of strise,
Devoid of all that poisons life :
And much it'vails you, in this place
To graft the love of human race.”
Now, such scenes contribute powerfully to inspire that
serenity which is necessary to enjoy and to heighten their Watering the tree which bears his lady's name
beauties. By a sweet contagion the soul catches the harmony With his melodious tears, he gave himself to fame. which she contemplates; and the frame within assimilates “They keep his dust in Arquì, where he died ;
itself to that which is without. For The mountain-village, where his latter days
"Who can forbear to smile with nature ?
Can the strong passions in the bosom roll
While every gale is peace, and every grove
In this state of composure we become susceptible of yir-
tuous impressions from almost every surrounding object; Than if a pyramid formed his monumental fame.
an equal and extensive benevolence is called forth into " And the soft quiet hamlet where he dwelt
exertion; and having felt a common interest in the gratiIs one of that complexion which seems made
fications of inferior beings, we shall be no longer indifferent For those who their mortality have felt,
to their sufferings, or become wantonly instrumental in And sought a refuge from their hopes decayed
producing them. In the deep umbrage of a green hill's shade,
It seems to be the intention of Providence that the lower Which shows a distant prospect far away
order of animals should be subservient to the comfort, conOf busy cities, now in vain displayed,
venience, and sustenance of man. But his right of dominion For they can lure no further; and the ray
extends no further; and if this right be exercised with Of a bright sun can make sufficient holiday.”
mildness, humanity, and justice, the subjects of his power
will be no less benefited than himself; for various species THE ADVANTAGES OF A TASTE FOR THE of living creatures are annually multiplied by human art, BEAUTIES OF NATURE.
improved in their perceptive powers by human culture, and [From Dr. Percival's . Moral and Literary Dissertations.') plentifully fed by human industry. The relation, therefore, That sensibility to beauty, which, when cultivated and is reciprocal between such animals and man; and he may improved, we term taste, is universally diffused through the supply his own wants by the use of their labour, the produce human species ; and it is most uniform with respect to those of their bodies, and even the sacrifice of their lives; whilst objects, which, being out of our power, are not liable to va- he co-operates with all-gracious Heaven in promoting hapriation, from accident, caprice, or fashion. The verdant piness, the great end of existence.
But though it be true that partial evil, with respect to ber of ladies who devote themselves to this duty considifferent orders of sensitive beings, may be universal good, derably exceeds that of the gentlemen. The recomand that it is a wise and benevolent institution of nature, to mendation most urged by the visitors is the exercise of make destruction itself, within certain limitations, the cause frugality. The industrious poor are exhorted to save, at of an increase of life and enjoyment; yet a generous person will extend his compassionate regards to every individual a time when they have the power of doing so—thus rethat suffers for his sake; and whilst he sighs
serving to themselves the means of obtaining the en“ Even for the kid, or lamb, that pours its life
joyment of such comforts as they could not otherwise Beneath the bloody knife,"
procure, at periods when their exertions produce to he will naturally be solicitous to mitigate pain, both in them less profit. As an inducement to prefer the fature duration and degree, by the gentlest mode of inflicting it. I am inclined to believe, however, that this sense of the funds of the society is made to the savings of indi
good to the present gratification, a small addition from humanity would soon be obliterated, and that the heart
viduals. would grow callous to every soft impression, were it not for the benignant influence of the smiling face of nature. The The visitors receive deposits, however small-enter Count de Lauzun, when imprisoned by Louis XIV. in the these sums in a book-and pay them over to the treaCastle of Pignerol, amused himself, during a long period of surer. The depositors feel that they may have their time, with catching flies, and delivering them to be devoured money at any moment they think proper to call for it, by a rapacious spider. Such an entertainment was equally unchecked in their demand, save by the moral restraint singular and cruel, and inconsistent, I believe, with his which would prevent them from requiring it for vicious former character and subsequent turn of mind. But his cell had no window, and received only a glimmering light
or wasteful occasions. Deposits are returned either in from an aperture in the roof. In less unfavourable circum- money or in such articles as are wanted by those receivstances, may we not presume that, instead of sporting with ing them, the small gratuity already noticed being always misery, he would have released the agonised flies, and bid duly added. The number of depositors, and the sums them enjoy that freedom of which he himself was bereaved ? deposited, have been gradually increasing. Many of
But the taste for natural beauty is subservient to higher these depositors have, at various times, candidly conpurposes than those which have been enumerated; and the fessed to the visitors, that but for their interference and cultivation of it not only refines and humanizes, but dignifies the facility thus afforded to them for saving, their money and exalts the affections. It elevates them to the admiration and love of that Being who is the Author of all that is fair, would have been spent on things useless in comparison sublime, and good in the creation. Scepticism and irreligion with those comforts which frugality has enabled them are hardly compatible with the sensibility of heart which to procure. arises from a just and lively relish of the wisdom, harmony, Here then was a sum of money distributed among and order subsisting in the world around us; and emotions those who had a right to it—who were under no obliof piety must spring up spontaneously in the bosom that is gation to any one, farther than that which is incurred in unison with all animated nature. Actuated by this di- when others interest themselves in our welfare. While vine inspiration, man finds a fane in every grove; and, the depositors enjoy the comforts thus obtained, they versal chorus, or muses the praise of the Almighty in more feel, with a proud satisfaction, that these are not doled expressive silence. Thus they
out to them by means of the poors' rates, nor adminis~ Whom nature's works can charm, with God himself tered to them by the hand of charity, but are derived Hold converse; grow familiar, day by day,
from their own savings, and result from their own inWith his conceptions; act upon his plan, And form to his the relish of their souls."
dustry, prudence, and forbearance.
This feeling of independence thus called forth, raises DISTRICT SOCIETY OF BRIGHTON. man in the scale of being ; and an institution which fos. Among the numerous benevolent schemes and institu- ters or awakens this ennobling sentiment, offers, besides tions formed by the wealthy to assist their poorer all other claims to merit, a sufficient proof of its great brethren, many may no doubt be found, which instead value. of being beneficial are pernicious in their effects—pal- The above outline has been given in the hope that its sying the hand of industry, and destroying the sense of consideration may prove of general utility. independence by mere almsgiving. All those societies, That class of labourers whose earnings are the least however, which give motives for industry, and which profitable, generally earn more in the summer than in tend to create a sympathy and union between the two the winter, while their expenses during the latter season classes of those who have abundance and those who are always the greatest. It is then during the former want, must be of moral benefit to both parties, and few period that the prudent labourer would lay by to meet can doubt their practical utility.
the increased demands at the latter time. If a person The following is a slight sketch of a Society which can only get twelve shillings per week during the winter appears eminently to combine the above advantages. months, and fourteen shillings per week during the sum
About five or six years back “The District Society' mer, since he can live much better on twelve shillings was formed at Brighton, in consequence of the sugges- per week in summer than on fourteen shillings per week tions of that benevolent lady, Mrs. Fry. The purport in winter, he would act wisely to lay by two or three of this association was, that its members should visit the shillings weekly at the one time, and thus provide for poor at their own houses-affording them assistance the deficiencies of the other. But he may ask, how is where required, and encouraging in them habits of in- this to be effected ?-he has no district society' in his dustry and frugality. The idea was eagerly seized by neighbourhood-no kind visiting friend to remind hin those of the inhabitants whose activity and influence of the propriety of saving, and to receive his small de. were best able to promote this object, and in a very short posits. The savings' bank is at some distance—it is time the society was established.
inconvenient to send there it requires time, and is This society is divided into three departments—the therefore expensive to be constantly going there himmendicity department—the relief department—and the self-in short, a thousand reasons will always suggest department for the encouragement of frugality and themselves as excuses for not doing at all what is not saving. It is not our intention at present to touch upon done with hearty good will. But to save money it must the first or second of these, but to confine ourselves be put as much beyond our reach as possible—it will burn solely to the latter object.
in our pockets, and will be got rid of somehow or other. The town is divided into six districts, and each dis- What then is to be done? We remember when we were trict into about twelve divisions. To each of these divi- young possessing a small earthenware pot with only a sions a visitor is appointed, and this office is voluntarily slit in it for an opening, and so constructed that whatever undertaken by some benevolent individual. The num- was put in could not be got out again without destroy