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thrown out of any means of obtaining a living. He known how to take advantages of political changes to requested his brother, who was then delivering a course enrich themselves. But the peasants have not been of lectures on anatomy, to take him as an assistant in benefited by the change. They are still

, not by law but his dissecting-room-and intimated that if this proposal by necessity, bound to the soil, in a state of degradation, should not be accepted he would enlist as a soldier. His all their food consisting of a sort of bread made of brother, in reply, invited him to come to London. This Indian corn flour, of beans and weak sour wine ; they was in September, 1748, when he was in his twenty- seldom taste meat. Those who are employed on the first year. Never, perhaps, did any learner make a rice-grounds are still more wretched. They are obliged more rapid progress than John Hunter now made in to remain for hours with their legs in marshy water, his new study. Even his first attempt in the art of and this engenders a cutaneous disease known by the dissection indicated a genius for the pursuit; and name of pellagra, which they generally neglect until such was the success which rewarded his ardent and they lose the use of their limbs and are obliged at last persevering efforts to improve himself, that after about to go to the hospital where many of them die *." a year he was considered by his brother fully competent to În the ‘Letters from the North of Italy,' by Mr. S. take the management of a class of his own. His subse- Rose, the writer describes the following scene of misery, quent rise entirely corresponded to this promising com- -one out of a thousand :-"A few days ago I saw a mencement. It was not long before he took his place poor infant lying under a sack in the convulsions of an in the front rank of his profession, and had at his com- ague fit, and the next morning meeting another child mand its highest honours and emoluments. The sci- whom I knew to be his brother I asked him ‘How does ence of anatomy, however, continued to be his fa- your brother do?' to which he answered; Which vourite study; and in this he acquired his greatest brother, sir ?'— Your brother that has the fever.'glory. Not only the chief portion of his time, but * There are five of us with the fever, sir.'-'Where do nearly the whole of his professional gains, were de- you sleep ? — In an empty stable, sir.'—Where are voted to the cultivation of this branch of knowledge. your father and mother ? — Our mother is dead, and One of the principal methods to which he had re- our father begs or does such little chance-jobs as offer course, in order to throw light upon the structure of in the hotel.' — And what do you do?'—'I get up the the human frame, was to compare it with those of trees here and pick vine leaves for the waiters to stop the various inferior animals. Of these he had formed the decanters with, and they give us our panada.' This a large collection at his villa at Earl's Court, Bromp- is bread boiled in water with an infusion of oil or butter. ton;

“and it was to him," says Sir Everard Home, Had my pecuniary means been adequate to my desire “a favourite amusement in his walks to attend to to diminish this mass of misery, how was the thing to their actions and their habits, and to make them fa- be accomplished ? I do not believe that I could have miliar with him. The fiercer animals were those found a family that would have boarded these melanto which he was most partial, and he had several of the choly little mendicants, and am quite sure that no one bull kind from different parts of the world. Among would have had the patience to bear with the waywardthese was a beautiful small bull he had received from ness of sickly childhood. In England the parish the Queen, with which he used to wrestle in play, and workhouse, or some neighbouring hospital, would have entertain himself with its exertions in its own de- offered a ready resource. There are hospitals indeed fence. In one of these conflicts the bull overpowered here, but these are so thinly scattered (except those in the him, and got him down; and had not one of the ser- Roman States which are both numerous and magnifivants accidentally come by, and frightened the animal cent), and are administered on such narrow principles, away, this frolic would probably have cost him his life." exclusive of particular diseases and particular ages, and The same writer relates that on another occasion “two always turning upon some miserable question of habi leopards that were kept chained in an outhouse, had tancy within very confined limits, that they are usually broken from their confinement, and got into the yard insufficient to the purposes I have mentioned.” This among some dogs, which they immediately attacked. was written from the Venetian States some twelve years The howling this produced alarmed the whole neigh- ago, since which time workhouses have been introduced bourhood. Mr. Hunter ran into the yard to see what | into some of the principal towns. was the matter, and found one of them getting up the In Tuscany the peasantry are much better off. Lawall to make his escape, the other surrounded by the bourers' wages are there between ninepence and a shildogs. He immediately laid hold of them both, and car- ling a day, which, considering the low price of provisions, ried them back to their den ; but as soon as they were and the mildness of the climate, is comparatively a good secured, and he had time to reflect upon the risk of his remuneration. The women earn money by plaiting own situation, he was so much affected that he was in straw, out of which the Leghorn hats are made. The danger of fainting.” Mr. Hunter's valuable museum farmers are either small proprietors themselves, or if of anatomical preparations was purchased by Parliament tenants, share the produce with their landlord, who after his death for £15,000; and it is now deposited in stocks the farm and provides half the seeds and implethe hall belonging to the Royal College of Surgeons, in ments. This mode of holding land by persons not posLincoln's-Inn-Fields, where the public are admitted to sessing capital, is very ancient;—and is now called by view it on the order of any member of the society. This writers on political economy, “Metayer Rent.” distinguished person died suddenly on the 16th of Oc- Of the peasantry of the provinces of Bologna and tober, 1793, in the sixty-sixth year of his age.

Romagna, commonly called the Legations, and placed

under the sovereignty of the Pope, we have the followTHE LABOURERS OF EUROPE.-No. 1. ITALY.

ing interesting account in Simond's Travels in Italy :The condition of the Italian labourers varies in the dif

“ The peasants are not proprietors and have not even ferent states. The following accounts are from the best a lease of their farms, but hold them from father to son authorities :

by a tacit understanding most faithfully observed. The “The labourers in Lombardy (the most fruitful same roof often contains thirty or forty persons,-different region in Italy) have remained, throughout all the branches of the same family, with one common interest, changes of government, what they were before 1796, the and governed by a chief who is chosen by themselves servants of those whose lands they work; none have and is the sole person responsible to the landlord. He become proprietors. Before the revolution of 1796 the directs all without doors and his wife all within; one or greater part of the land was in the hands of the high two other women take care of all the children that the nobility and the clergy. Now it is partly in the posses- fathers and mothers may go to work. We have lost 4 sion of a small number of shrewd speculators who have

* Amministrazione del regno d'Italia.

child during the night, said one of them who was not had imagined ; 'that you cannot but by active force get herself a mother. There reigns in general a most per- down to the egg. Thus you feel the power of the water fect harmony in this patriarchal family. When the to support you, and learn to confide in that power ; chief becomes too old, or otherwise incapable, another while your endeavours to overcome it, and reach the is chosen who succeeds alike to the engagements and egg, teach you the manner of acting on the water with power of his predecessor. He gives half the pro- your feet and hands, which action is afterwards used ila duce to the landlord, and pays half the taxes. The swimming to support your head higher above water sandlord seldom takes the trouble to inspect the divi- or to go forward through it. I would the more earsions; he chooses only between the heaps laid out by nestly press you to the trial of this method, because the tenant, and the grain is carried home. The same though I think I satisfied you that your body is lighter plan is observed with the hemp, which is not divided than water, and that you might float in it a long time till it is pounded and put up into packets. As to the with your mouth free for breathing, if you put yourself grapes, they are picked into large barrels, and an equal in a proper posture and would be still and forbear number sent to the farm-house and to the landlord, an struggling; yet till you have obtained this experimental operation generally entrusted wholly to the farmer. confidence in the water, I cannot depend on your havThere are few villages, each farm-house being on the ing the necessary presence of mind to recollect that posfarm. These family associations live much at their ture and the directions I gave you relating to it. The ease, but have little money; they consume much of surprise may put all out of your mind. For though we their own produce and buy and sell very little. They value ourselves on being reasonable creatures, reason and have a great deal of poultry for home consumption. knowledge seem on such occasions to be of little use to The women spin and plait and can even dye. The us; and the brutes, to whom we allow scarce a glimcountry diversions go little beyond the game of bowls ; mering of either, appear to have the advantage of us. they have no dances and no merry-meetings, but in I will, however, take this opportunity of repeating those lieu they have fine processions with music, discharge of particulars to you, which I mentioned in our last concannon, and sometimes horse races. Though wine is versation, as, by perusing them at your leisure, you may very plentiful, a drunken man is a rarity; there are few possibly imprint them so in your memory as on occabloody quarrels, and few thefts, at least domestic ones. sions to be of some use to you. 1st. That though the The roads are safer here than in the Milanese, notwith- legs, being solid parts, are specifically something heavier standing the Austrian police of the latter, for there the than fresh-water, yet the trunk, particularly the upper farms are large and the work is done by poor labourers part, from its hollowness, is so much lighter than water, who have no tie; while here the tenants work for them as that the whole of the body taken together is too light selves, are at ease, and have no temptation. The edu- to sink wholly under water, but some part will remain cation of the people is entrusted to the priests, who give above, until the lungs become filled with water, which themselves little trouble, and very few peasants can read happens from drawing water into them instead of air, or write. Each large family generally consecrates a son when a person in the fright attempts breathing while to the Church; they call him priest Don Peter, Au- the mouth and nostrils are under water. 2ndly. That gustin, &c., and he becomes the oracle of the family, but the legs and arms are specifically lighter than salt water, all intimate ties with him are broken and he is called and will be supported by it, so that a human body “brother' no more.”

would not sink in salt-water, though the lungs were The hardy natives of the Genoese coast, hemmed in filled as above, but from the greater specific gravity of between the mountains and the sea, resort mostly to the head. 3rdly. That therefore a person throwing maritime occupations, in order to better their fortunes

. himself on his back in salt-water, and extending his Their voyages are generally short, being chiefly confined arms, may easily lie so as to keep his mouth and nosto the Mediterranean. By strict economy and frugality trils free for breathing; and by a small motion of his they save the best part of their earnings which they hands may prevent turning, if he should perceive any bring home to their families ; who, during their absence, tendency to it

. 4thly. That in fresh-water, if a man throws are employed in cultivating their gardens and lemon himself on his back near the surface, he cannot long trees, or in fishing. By these joint exertions, a nu- continue in that situation, but by proper action of his merous population is thriving on a barren soil; and the hands on the water. If he uses no such action, the whole line of the Riviera, or shore, for hundreds of miles, legs and lower part of the body will gradually sink till presents a succession of handsome bustling towns and he comes into an apright position, in which he will convillages, inhabited by a cheerful, healthy, and active race. tinue suspended, the hollow of the breast keeping the of the peasantry of Southern Italy and their con- head uppermost

. 5thly. But if, in this erect position, dition we shall speak on a future occasion.

the head is kept upright above the shoulders, as when

we stand on the ground, the immersion will, by the ART OF SWIMMING.

weight of that part of the head that is out of water, (Written by Dr. Franklin to a Friend.)

reach above the mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little “Choose a place where the water deepens gradually, above the eyes, so that a man cannot long remain sus. walk coolly into it till it is up to your breast, then turn pended in water with his head in that position. 6thly. round, your face to the shore, and throw an egg into The body continuing suspended as before, and upright, the water between you and the shore. It will sink to if the head be leaned quite back, so that the face looks the bottom, and be easily seen there, if your water is upwards, all the back part of the head being then under clear. It must lie in water so deep as that you cannot water, and its weight consequently in a great measure reach it up but by diving for it. To encourage yourself supported by it, the face will remain above water quite in order to do this, reflect that your progress will be free for breathing, will rise an inch higher every inspirafrom deeper to shallower water, and that at any time tion, and sink as much every expiration, but never so you may by bringing your legs under you and standing low as that the water may come over the mouth. 7thly. on the bottom, raise your head far above the water. If therefore a person unacquainted with swimming, and Then plunge under it with your eyes open, throwing falling accidentally into the water, could have presence yourself towards the egg, and endeavouring by the of mind sufficient to avoid struggling and plunging, and actions of your hands and feet against the water to get to let the body take this natural position, he might conforward till within reach of it. In the attempt you tinue long safe from drowning till perhaps help would will find, that the water buoys you up against your in-come. For as to the clothes, their additional weight clination; that it is not so easy a thing to sink as you while immersed is very inconsiderable, the water sup

porting it, though when he comes out of the water, he and earts were in requisition to perform this office, and by would find them very heavy indeed. But, as I said way of keeping up discipline upon us, and also to make a before, I would not advise you or any one to depend show of duty, they chose every now and then to step in and on having the presence of mind on such an occasion, detect us in a fraud and get us fined; if we submitted but learn fairly to swim, as I wish all men were taught ing at another fraud, and generally did so ; but if our indig.

quietly, they told us that they would make us amends by wins. to do in their youth; they would, on many occurrences, nation rendered passive obedience impossible, and we spoke be the safer for having that skill, and on many more our mind of their character and conduct, they enforced the the happier, as freer from painful apprehensions of dan- law on us, while they relaxed it on our neighbours, and ger, to say nothing of the enjoyment in so delightful and these being rivals in trade undersold us in the market, carwholesome an exercise. Soldiers particularly should, ried away our customers, and ruined our business. No inethinks, all be taught to swim; it might be of fre- did the bondage end here. We could not smuggle without quent service either in surprising an enemy, or saving the aid of our servants, and as they could, on occasion of themselves. And if I had now boys to educate, I should any offence given to themselves, carry information to the

head-quarters of excise, we were slaves to them also, and prefer those schools (other things being equal) where were obliged tamely to submit to a degree of drunkenness an opportunity was afforded for acquiring so advantage and insolence that appears to me now perfectly intolerabk. ous an art, which, once learned, is never forgotten." Farther, this evasion and oppression did us no good, for a

the trade were alike, and we just sold our goods so muel

cheaper the more duty we evaded, so that our individua. THE STORMY PETREL.

success did not depend upon superior skill and superior mo rality in making an excellent article at a moderate price, but upon superior capacity for fraud, meanness, Sycophancy, and every possible baseness. Our lives were anything but enviable. Conscience, although greatly blunted by practices that were universal and viewed as inevitable, still whispered that they were wrong; our sentiments of self-respect very frequently revolted at the insults to which we were exposed, and there was a constant feeling of insecurity from the great extent to which we were dependent upon wretches whom we internally despised. When the government took a higher tone and more principle, and greater strictness in the collection of the duties were enforced, we thought ourselves ruined; but the reverse has been the case. The duties, no doubt, are now excessively bur. densome from their amount, but that is their least evil. It it was possible to collect them from every trader with per

fect equality, our independence would be complete, and our (From English Songs and other Poems, by Barry Cornwall.') competition would be confined to superiority in morality and A THOUSAND miles from land are we,

skill. Matters are much nearer this point now than they Tossing about on the roaring sea;

were fifty years ago, but still they would admit of conFrom billow to bounding billow cast,

siderable improvement."
Like fleecy snow on the stormy blast:
The sails are scattered abroad, like weeds,
The strong masts shake, like quivering reeds,

Arab Account of Debtor and Creditor.-Corporal punish-
The mighty cables, and iron chains,

ments are unknown among the Arabs. Pecuniary fines are The hull, which all earthly strength disdains,

awarded, whatever may be the nature of the crime of which They strain and they crack, and hearts like stone

a man is accused. Every offence has its fine ascertained in Their natural hard proud strength disown

the court of justice, and the nature and amount of those Up and down! up and down!

graduated fines are well known to the Arabs. All insulting From the base of ihe wave to the billow's crown,

expressions, all acts of violence, a blow however slight, And amidst the flashing and feathery foam

(and a blow may differ in its degree of insult according to The Stormy Petrel finds a home,

the part struck,) and the infliction of a wound, from which A home, if such a place may be,

even a single drop of blood flows, all have their respective For her who lives on the wide wide sea,

fines fixed. The judge's sentence is sometimes to this effect: On the craggy ice, in the frozen air,

-(Bokhyt and Djolan are two Arabs who have quarrelled And only seeketh her rocky lair

and fought.)
To warm her young, and to teach them spring

Bokhyt called Djolan
At once o'er the waves on their stormy wing!

a dog." Djolan returned the in

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sult by a blow upon Bokhyt's arm; then Bokhyt cut O'er the deep! O'er the deep!

Djolan's shoulder with a knife. Bokhyt therefore owes to
Where the whale, and the shark, and the sword-fish sleep, Djolan-
Outflying the blast and the driving rain,

For the insulting expression

1 sheep The Petrel telleth her tale—in vain;

For wounding him in the shoulder :

• 3 cameis For the mariner curseth the warning bird

Djolan owes to Bokhyt-
Who bringeth him news of the storms unheard !

For the blow upon his arm

I camel
Ah! thus does the prophet, of good or ill,

Remain due to Djolan, 2 camels and 1 sheep.
Meet hate from the creatures he serveth still :

Burcklourdt's Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys.
Yet he ne'er falters:-So, Petrel ! spring
Oncc more o'er the waves on thy stormy wing!

The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at

59, Lincoln's-Inn Fields,
[From Combe's Constitution of Man.')

LONDON:-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. A GENTLEMAN who was subject to the excise laws fifty Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied. Wholesale by the following years ago described to me the condition of his trade at that Booksellers, of whom, also, any of the previous Numbers may be had :time. The excise officers, he said, regarded it as an under-Lvadon, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Liverpool, WILLMER and SNITs.


Manchester, ROBINSON ; and WEBB Aed stood matter that at least one half of the goods manufac- Bath, Simus. tured were to be smuggled without being charged with duty; Birmingham, Drake,

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLET. but then, said he, “they made us pay a moral and pecuniary Carlisle, Thurnam; and Scott,

Norwich, JARROLD and Sox.

Nottingham, WRIGHT, penalty that was at once galling and debasing. We were Derby, Wilkins and Son,

Sheffield, Ridge. required to ask them to our table at all meals, and

Falmouth, PHILP.

Dublin, WAKEMAN.

Edinburgh, OLIVER and BOFD. place them at the head of it in our holiday parties; when Leeds. Baines and Newsous, Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. they fell into debt, we were obliged to help them out of it ; Lincoln, Brooke and Sons. when they moved from one house to another, our servants

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES, Stamford-Street


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(Colosseum or Cosiseum of Rome.) When the imperial power was firmly established at Rome, works may be raised by the skill and perseverance of the sports of the amphitheatre were conducted upon a mara, and how vain are the nightiest displays of his scale to which the Consuls of the republic had scarcely power when compared with those intellectual efforts dared to aspire. Caligula, on his birth-day, gave four which have extended the empire of virtue and of science. hundred bears, and as many other wild beasts to be The Colosseum, which is of an oval form, occupies slain; and on the birth-day of Drusilla, he exhibited the space of nearly six acres. " It may justly be said these brutal spectacles, continued to the succeeding day to have been the most imposing building, from its appaon a similar scale *. Claudius instituted combats be- rent magnitude, in the world; the pyramids of Egypt tween Thessalian horsemen and wild bulls; and he also can only be compared with it in the extent of their plan, caused camels to fight for the first time with horses. as they cover nearly the same surface *.” The greatest Invention was racked to devise new combinations of length, or major axis, is 620 feet; the greatest breadth, cruelty. Many of the emperors abandoned themselves or minor axis, 513 feet. The outer wall is 157 feet high to these sports with as passionate an ardour as the un- in its whole extent. The exterior wall is divided into cultivated multitude. Sensuality debases as much as four stories, each ornamented with one of the orders of ignorance, because it is ignorance under another name. architecture. The cornice of the upper story is perClaudius rose at daylight to repair to the Circus, and forated for the purpose of inserting wooden masts, frequently remained, that he might not lose a single which passed also through the architrave and frieze, pang of the victims, while the people went to their after- and descended to a row of corbels immediately above noon meal. Sometimes, during the reigns of Claudius the upper range of windows, on which are holes to reand Nero, an elephant was opposed to a single fencer; ceive the masts. These masts were for the purpose of and the spectators were delighted by the display of indi- attaching cords to, for sustaining the awning which vidual skill. Sometimes, hundreds and even thousands defended the spectators from the sun or rain. Two corof the more ferocious beasts were slaughtered by guards ridors ran all round the building, leading to staircases on horseback; and the pleasure of the multitude was in which ascended to the several stories ; and the seats proportion to the lavishness with which the blood of man which descended towards the arena, supported throughand beast was made to flow. The passion for these sports out upon eighty arches, occupied so much of the space required a more convenient theatre for its gratification that the clear opening of the present inner wall next the than the old Circus. The Colosseum was commenced by arena is only 287 feet by 180 feet. Immediately above Vespasian, and completed by Titus (A. D. 79). This enor- and around the arena was the podium, elevated about mous building occupied only three years in its erection. twelve or fifteen feet, on which were seated the emperor, Cassiodorus affirms that this magnificent monument of senators, ambassadors of foreign nations, and other disfolly cost as much as would have been required for the tinguished personages in that city of distinctions. building of a capital city. We have the means of dis- From the podium to the top of the second story were tinctly ascertaining its dimensions and its accommoda- seats of marble for the equestrian order ; above the tions from the great mass of wall that still remains entire; second story the seats appear to have been constructed and although the very clamps of iron and brass that of wood. In these various seats eighty thousand specheld together the ponderous stones of that wonderful tators might be arranged according to their respective edifice were removed by gothic plunderers; and suc- ranks; and indeed it appears from inscriptions, as well ceeding generations have resorted to it as to a quarry as from expressions in Roman writers, that many of the for their temples and their palaces. Yet the "enor places in this immense theatre were assigned to parinous skeleton" still stands, to show what prodigious The Architectural Antiquities of Rome, by E. Cresy and G. Lo Dion. lib. lis,

Taylor: a work of equal accuracy and splendour. VOL. I.


ticular individuals, and that each might find his seat Gibbon, the historian, has given a splendid descripwithout confusion. The ground was excavated over the tion, in his twelfth book, of the exhibitions of the Colos surface of the arena in 1813; a great number of sub-seum; but he acknowledges his obligations to Montaigne, structions were then discovered, which by some anti- who, says the historian, “ gives a very just and lively quaries are considered to be of modern date, and by view of Roman magnificence in these spectacles." Our others to have formed dens for the various beasts that readers will, we doubt not, be gratified by the quaint were exhibited. The descriptions which have been left but most appropriate sketch of the old philosopher of by historians and other writers of the variety and extent France :of the shows, would indicate that a vast space and ample “ It was doubtless a fine thing to bring and plant conveniences were required beneath the stage, to accom- within the theatre a great number of vast trees, with all plish the wonders which were, doubtless, there realized their branches in their full verdure, representing a great in the presence of assembled Rome. We subjoin, from shady forest, disposed in excellent order, and the first Messrs. Cresy and Taylor's work, an interior view look- day to throw into it a thousand ostriches, a thousand ing west, taken at the time when the arena was so ex- stags, a thousand boars, and a thousand fallow deer, to cavated. It has since been filled up. The external be killed and disposed of by the people: the next view of this remarkable building is given as it existed in day to cause an hundred great lions, an hundred leothe time of Piranesi, in the last century.

pards, and three hundred bears to be killed in his pra

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[Interior View of the Colosseum.) sence : and for the third day, to make three hundred and by and by with silk of another colour, which they pair of fencers to fight it out to the last, -as the Emperor could draw off or on in a moment, as they had a mind. Probus did. It was also very fine to see those vast am- The net-work also that was set before the people to dephitheatres, all faced with marble without, curiously fend them from the violence of these turned-out beasts, wrought with figures and statues, and the inside spark- was also woven of gold." Jing with rare decorations and enrichments; all the “ If there be anything excusable in such excesses as sides of this vast space filled and environed from the these," continues Montaigne, “it is where the novelty bottom to the top, with three or four score ranks of seats, and invention create more wonder than expense. all of marble also, and covered with cushions, where an Fortunately for the real enjoyments of mankind, even hundred thousand men might sit placed at their ease ; under the sway of a Roman despot, “the novelty and and the place below, where the plays were played, to invention” had very narrow limits when applied to malmake it by art first open and cleft into chinks, repre ters so utterly unworthy and unintellectual as the cruel senting caves that vomited out the beasts designed for sports of the amphitheatre. Probus, indeed, transthe spectacle; and then, secondly, to be overflowed with planted trees to the arena, so that it had the appearance a profound sea, full of sea-monsters, and loaded with of a verdant grove ; and Severus introduced four hunships of war, to represent a naval battle : and thirdly, to dred ferocious animals in one ship sailing in the little make it dry and even again for the combats of the lake which the arena formed. But on ordinary pecagladiators ; and for the fourth scene, to have it strewed sions, profusion,--tasteless, haughty, and uninventive with vermilion and storax, instead of sand, there to profusion,—the gorgeousness of brute power, the pomp make a solemn feast for all that infinite number of people of satiated luxury-these constituted the only claim to -the last act of one only day.

the popular admiration. If Titus exhibited five thou"Sometimes they have made a high mountain ad- sand wild beasts at the dedication of the amphitheatre, vance itself, full of fruit-trees and other flourishing sorts Trajan bestowed ten thousand on the people at the conof woods, sending down rivulets of water from the top, clusion of the Dacian war. If the younger Gordian as from the mouth of a fountain : other whiles, a great collected together bears, elks, zebras, ostriches, boars, ship was seen to come rolling in, which opened and di- and wild horses, he was an imitator only of the speeta. vided of itself; and after having disgorged from the hold cles of Carinus, in which the rarity of the animals was four or five hundred beasts for fight, closed again, and as much considered as their fierceness. Gibbon has vanished without help. At other times, from the floor well remarked, “While the populace gazed with stupid of this place, they made spouts of perfumed waters dart wonder on the splendid show, the naturalist might their streams upward, and so high as to besprinkle all indeed observe the figure and properties of so many difthat infinite multitude. To defend themselves from the ferent species, transported from every part of the ancient injuries of the weather, they had that vast place one world into the amphitheatre of Rome. But this acciwhile covered over with purple curtains of needle-work, dental benefit, which science might derive froin folly,

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