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notions oftener, if they were not deterred by an erro- the hills depends the employment of the people, their neous fancy of what belongs to genius. They think numbers on a given space, and in a great degree their that such exertions as we recommend belong only to a state of morals, intelligence, and political independence. plodding fellow, whilst the man of genius does every And here we have a reason for things, and see them ihing by a sudden act which costs him nothing.

connected with one another in a manner at once easier This is an unhappy mistake. All our eminent men to remember, and much more satisfactory to understand have been distinguished by fixing upon some great when we do remember it. Some instances of this, object, and possessing themselves with such a lively given in detail, may appear in one of our future conception of it that it has led them on through years of numbers. toil.

The Flower Garden (June).- It will now be time for you to HOW TO UNDERSTAND GEOGRAPHY. take up those bulbs, of which the leaves are nearly decayed. Every one says that geography is one of the most I can fix no particular day for this operation; because, as the useful things that can be learnt; yet nothing is learnt bulbs flower at different seasons, so the leaves will decay in so ill, because nothing is taught so ill. Look into any fully, as soon as the leaves have turned yellow, and to lay

like manner; but the general rule is, to take them up careof the elementary books of geography, and read what is them under a south wall to dry and ripen; taking care to said about England. First we are told that it is divided cover them with fine, dry, sandy earth, in layers, 'so that into forty counties ; then, perhaps, follows an account of they may not touch each other. When the leaves are quite the several law circuits ; and then, after some short decayed, the bulbs must be removed, and spread again to notices about religion, government, produce, and manu- dry under shelter of a green-house, or in a room; and, factures, there are given lists of the chief towns, moun-finally, after cleaning them from the dirt, take off their old tains, rivers, and lakes. But all these things are given coats, or skins, and put them away in bags, or drawers, in without any connexion with each other, and it is a mere

a cool dry place, till they are wanted for replanting in the

autumn. “I must here explain why bulbs are taken up matter of memory to recollect what is no more than a every year: the great object is in this, as in all other string of names. And if a man does recollect them, operations of gardening, to imitate Nature ; to make the still he is not much the wiser for them; he has got no existence of foreign plants as near as it can be to what they clear and instructive notions about the country, but has enjoy in their native place. Tulips, hyacinths, and most of merely learnt his map, and knows where to find certain those bulbs which are taken up, come from countries where names and lines upon it.

the whole summer is dry, and in winter the ground is If we wish to know geography really, we must set life and flower. Travellers describe whole regions in Persia

covered with snow; the spring rains alone call them into about it in a very different manner. Take one of the

as being covered in the spring with enamelled carpets of skeleton maps published by the Useful Knowledge scilla (hyacinths), tulips, and other bulbous plants : long Society; there is not a single name upon them, nothing drought succeeds' the rains of spring, the leaves die away, is given but the hills and the rivers. These are the true and the plant rests again under the dry earth till the folalphabet of geography. The hills are the bones of a lowing spring. As in our country they can have no dry country, and determine its form, just as the bones of an earth naturally to rest in during the summer, the best imianimal do. For according to the direction of the hills tation of it is io take up the bulb, which would otherwise be must be the course of the rivers : if the hills come very antumn; in which latter case, the plant would not flower

rotted by the summer rains, or caused to grow in the near the sea, it makes the rivers very short and their in the spring, as the flower-stalks would be killed by the course very rapid ; if they are a long way from the sea, wet and cold of winter, before it came to the surface: it makes the rivers long and gentle. But rivers of this From The Garden,'a very agreeable and instructive book for childrea, latter sort are generally navigable, and become so large orming one of the volumes of a series called • The Little Library. near the sea as to be capable of receiving ships of large

"A little Learning is a dangerous Thing."-Then make size. Here then towns will be built, and these towns it greater. No learning at all is surely the most dangerous will become rich and populous, and so will acquire thing in the world; and it is fortunate that, in this country political importance. Again, on the nature of the hills at least, it is a danger which cannot possibly exist. After depend the mineral riches of a country; if they are all, learning is acquired knowledge, and nothing else. A composed of granite or slate, they may contain gold, man who can read his Bible has a little learning; a man who silver, tin, and copper; if they are composed of the can only plough or dig, has less; a man who can only break limestone of Derbyshire or Durham, they are very in one of the islands in the South Sea, stood with great

stones on the road, less still, but he has some. The savages likely to have lead mines; if of the sand or gritstone of Northumberland, Lancashire, and Yorkshire, it is water in

reverence round a sailor who had lighted a fire to boil some

saucepan; but as soon as the water began to probable that there will be coal at no great distance. boil, they ran away in an agony of terror. Compared with On the contrary if they are made up of the yellow lime- the savages, there is no boy in Europe, of the age of ten stone of Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, and Northamp- years, who may not be called learned. He has acquired a tonshire, or of chalk like the hills in Wiltshire, Berkshire, certain quantity of practical knowledge in physics ; and, as and Hampshire, or of clay like those about London, it this knowledge is more than instinct, it is learning; learnis quite certain that they will contain neither coal, nor

ing which differs in degree only from that which enables a lead, nor any valuable mineral whatsoever. But on the

chemist to separate the simple metals from soda or potash.

The geographer Malte Brun remarks, that in many cities mineral wealth of a country, and particularly on its having of the United States, that which is called a mob scarcely coal or not having it, depends the nature of the em- exists. Now it will be found that in these cities education ployment of its inhabitants. Manufactories are sure to has been unstintedly bestowed upon all classes, down to the follow coal mines; whereas, in all those districts of very lowest. England where there is no coal, that is, in all the

LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. counties to the south-east of a line drawn from the Wash in Lincolnshire to Plymouth, there are, generally

Shopkeepers and Harkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following

Bouksellers: speaking, no manufactories ; but the great bulk of the London, GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Liverpool, WILLMER and SMITH.

Manchester, ROBINSON, and Wiss and people are employed in agriculture. Thus then on the direction and composition of the Birmingham, DRAKE.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, CHARNLET.

Norwich, JARROLD and Son, hills of a country depends first of all the size and cha- Carlisle, Tuurnam.

Nottingham, WRIGHT, racter of its rivers.

Sheffield, Ridge.
On the character of its rivers Derby. W 11.Kins and Son.

Dublin, WAKEMAN. depends the situation and importance of its towns, and Hull, STEPHENSON,

Edinburgh, OLIVER and Bord.

Glasgow, ATKINSON and Co. its greater or less facilities for internal communication Lincoln, Brooke and Son. and foreign trade. And again, on the composition of

Printed by WILLIAM Clowęs, Stamford-Street

Paternoster-Row,
Bath, SIMMS.

SIMMS.

Co.

Leeds, Baines and NEWSOME,

OF THE

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 14.] PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

(JUNE 23, 1832. THEBES.

respected ;-this sanctuary, abandoned, isolated through barbarism, and surrendered to the desert from which it was won; this city, shrouded in the veil of mystery by which even colossi are magnified; this remote city, which imagination has only caught a glimpse of through the darkness of time—was still so gigantic an apparition, that, at the sight of its scattered ruins, the army halted of its own accord, and the soldiers, with one spontaneous movement, clapped their hands.”

Thebes lay on each side of the Nile, and extended also on both sides as far as the mountains. The tombs which are on the western side reach even into the limits of the desert. Four principal villages stand on the site of this ancient city,—Luxor and Carnak on the eastern, Gournou and Medinet-Abou on the western side. The temple of Luxor is very near the river, and there is here a good ancient jettée, well built of bricks. The entrance to this temple is through a magnificent gateway, facing the north, 200 feet in front, and 57 feet high above the present level of the soil.

Before the gateway stand the two most perfect obelisks that exist, formed, as usual, of the red granite of Syene, and each about 80 feet high, and from 8 to 10 feet wide at the base. Between these obelisks and the gateway are two colossal statues, also of red granite ; from the difference of the dresses it is judged that one was a male, the other a female, figure ;- they are nearly of equal sizes. Though buried in the ground to the chest, they still measure 21 and 22 feet from thence to the top of the mitre.

It is this gateway that is filled with those remarkable sculptures, which represent the triumph of some ancient monarch of Egypt over an Asiatic enemy, and wbich we find repeated, both on other monuments of Thebes, and partly also on some of the monuments of Nubia, as, for example, at Ipsambul.

This event appears to have formed an epoch in Egyptian history, and to

have furnished materials both for the historian and the "Luxor.)

sculptor, like the war of Troy to the Grecian poet. The All travellers agree that it is impossible to describe the whole length of this temple is about 800 feet. effect produced by the colossal remains of this ancient

The remains of Carnak, about one mile and a quarter capital. No knowledge of antiquity, no long-cherished lower down the river, are still more wonderful than associations, no searching after something to admire, is Luxor. An irregular avenue of sphinxes, considerably necessary here. The wonders of Thebes rise before the more than a mile in length (about 6560 feet) connected astonished spectator like the creations of some superior the northern entrance of the temple of Luxor with it; power. “ It appeared to me,” says Belzoni,“ like en- but this was only one of several proud approaches to per tering a city of giants, who, after a long conflict, were haps the largest assemblage of buildings that ever was all destroyed, leaving the ruins of their various temples erected. The irregularities in the structure and apas the only proofs of their former existence.” Denon's proaches of this building show that the various parts of description of the first view of Thebes by the French it were raised at different periods. Some parts, both of army, which he accompanied in the expedition into this temple and of the larger building at Carnak (someUpper Egypt, is singularly characteristic. “ On turning times called a palace), have been constructed out of the the point of a chain of mountains which forms a kind of materials of earlier buildings, as we see from blocks of promontory, we saw all at once ancient Thebes in its stone being occasionally placed with inverted hieroglyfull extent—that Thebes whose magnitude has been phics. It is impossible, without good drawings and pictured to us by a single word in Homer, hundred-gated, very long descriptions, to give anything like an adequate a poetical and unmeaning expression which has been so idea of the enormous remains of Carnak, among which confidently repeated ever since. This city, described in we find a hall whose roof of flat stones is sustained by a few pages dictated to Herodotus * by Egyptian priests, more than 130 pillars, some 26 feet, and others as much which succeeding authors have copied-renowned for as 34 feet, in circumference. numerous kings, who, through their wisdom, have been

The remains on the western side of the river are, perelevated to the rank of gods; for laws which have been haps, more interesting than those on the east. revered without being known; for sciences which have That nearly all the monuments of Thebes belong to been confided to proud and mysterious inscriptions, a period anterior to the Persian conquest, B. c. 525, and wise and earliest monuments of the arts which time has that, among them we must look for the oldest and

• Herodot:as has given no description of Thebes. Denon several most genuine specimens of Egyptian art, is clear, both times quotes Herodotus for what is not in that author,

from the character of the monuments themselves and Vol. I.

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from historical records ; nor is this conviction weakened | wonderfully wise man, and one who was well versed in by finding the

name of Alexander twice on part of the all the learning of Egypt. He was said to heve spent buildings at Carnak, which will prove no more than twenty-three years under ground in a certain secret that a chamber might have been added to the temple chamber, where he was instructed by Isis in the magic and inscribed with his name; or that it was not unusual art. At first I did not know who he was, but I soon for the priests to flatter conquerors or conquerors' depu- observed, whenever the boat stopped, that he did a ties by carving on stone the name of their new master. number of surprising tricks. He would ride on the [From the British Museum-Egyptian Antiquities.')

back of a crocodile and swim about among these

monsters, while they would show great awe of him and WONDERFUL STORIES.

wag their tails with pleasure. Then I saw he must be It is curious to trace in all ages the passion that has a sacred man, and by degrees I became so familiar with existed for marvellous stories, which, however, we al- him that he told me all his secrets, and at last persuaded ways find to have been strongest where knowledge was me to leave my servants at Memphis and to accompany least diffused. At the present day we may venture to him alone, for we should never want servants, he said. assert, that any stories which are directly contradictory The following was our mode of life Whenever we to daily experience and sound reason, will hardly be re

came to a lodging place, the man would take the doorceived except with a smile by a numerous class, who bar, or a broom, or a pestle, and, after putting some once gave a ready ear to the wildest absurdities.

clothes on it and uttering certain words, the stick would The history of our own country will supply the me-walk about and look just like a man.

It would go mory of our readers with many examples of very gene- and fetch water, bring provisions, cook them, and in ral belief at certain periods, in witchcraft

, charms, every respect act like a good servant. When its work potions, and supernatural appearances. Unfortunately was finished, my companion would turn it back into its the spirit of gross superstition is closely allied to that of former shape by uttering some fresh words. I felt a fear, and fear, the most cruel of the passions, has often great desire to know the secret, but I could not get it hurried persons otherwise humane to join in the severest out of him, though he made no scruple about telling persecution of supposed witches and conjurors, who me anything else. But at last one day, having hid mywere generally either ignorant old women, deserving pity, self in a dark corner, I overheard the charm, which was or cunning knaves whom a sensible man would avoid. a word of three syllables ; immediately after my com

Lucian *, a witty Greek writer of the second century of panion went out, after giving the pestle his orders for our era, has given us in one of his amusing dialogues the day. some specimens of the kind of stories that were in vogue “ On the next day, when the wise man had gone in his day, from which it will appear that lying and out on some business, I took the pestle, dressed it up, credulity are in all ages pretty much alike.

and uttering the magic syllables bade him go for “There is a statue in my house,” says one of the water. Straightway he brought the pitcher full of water, lovers of marvellous tales, “ which steps down from his when I said, “Siop!--no more water: be a pestle pedestal as soon as it is dark, and walks all about the again!' But the pestle, instead of obeying, went on house. It is an ordinary occurrence for the family to fetching water till he had filled the house. Being at meet him. Sometimes he goes about singing, and my wit's end for fear the man should return, I look an never hurts any one, provided you get out of his way. axe and chopped the pestle in two, when, lo! each part Frequently he takes a bath, and amuses himself all night snatched up a pitcher and went on fetching water as long, when you may hear the dashing of the water. I hard as he could. In the mean time the wise man rewill tell you how the statue treated a rascal who stole turned, and seeing what had happened he turned the the halfpence that we give him every new moon. There water carriers into sticks again. But after this he diswas a considerable quantity of these pence lying' at his appeared, and I never could learn what became of him.” feet, with some silver coins that were fastened to his legs by wax, besides thin silver leaf which had been given

NECESSITY THE MOTHER OF INVENTION. him for his services in curing several people of fever. We believe that there are very few educated people who Now we had an African servant, a groom, who was a will dispute the immense benefit which the invention most abominable thief. He formed a plan to carry off of new and improved machinery has, in the long run, all the money, which he accomplished one night by conferred upon all ranks and classes of mankind. watching his opportunity when the statue had gone to There is a general opinion, which many people too take his walk. When the statue returned he found he often take for granted, that inventions of machinery are had been robbed ; and straightway he inflicted a most necessarily attended with at least a temporary injury to summary vengeance on the thief, for he kept him all the operative mechanic. That this is not always the night long in the hall pacing round and round and case--that we are not obliged at all times to look far into would not let him get out. Accordingly there the rogue the future for the advantages of improved machinerywas found in the morning with the money on him, and is shown by the following striking instance of prompt a sound thrashing he got for his pains. But this was as well as permanent benefit derived by a manufacturing not all,

He died shortly after in a most miserable way, population from a sudden and unexpected invention. being beaten and bruised every night, as he told us; The Reverend John Thomas Becher, in his evidence and indeed the marks on his body every morning were before a Committee of the House of Lords, during the plain enough for any one to see.

course of last session, gives the following narrative : “ When I was a young man,” says another, “and " In the county of Nottingham, in 1812, there was a was in Egypt where my father had sent me for my edu- suspension of the manufacturing profits, and a difference cation, I felt a desire to visit Coptos, and thence to take of opinion between the masters and the workmen. At a trip to hear the wonderful vocal Memnon at sun-rise. one time these disagreements proceeded to such a height, And indeed I did hear him, but not in the ordinary and to such tumultuous conduct on the part of the way, uttering some unmeaning sounds, for the Memnon workmen, that vast numbers of them were thrown out actually opened his mouth and addressed me in seven of employ, and whole districts became extensively pauverses ; which I would repeat to you, if it were perized by a mass of artificers thrown upon the poornecessary

rates. Several parishes declared that the expenditure On the voyage we happened to have among the for the poor was equal to their income ; and an applipassengers a man of Memphis, one of the priest class, a cation was made to the county magistrates for a rate * Philopseudes.

upon other hundreds in aid of the parishes so oppressed

with poor. The magistrates were almost inclined to Early Frugality.-In early childhood, you lay the founenter upon the question ; but some of the parties having dation of poverty or riches, in the habits you give you consulted counsel for the purpose of resisting this ap- children. Teach them to save everything, - not for their plication, it appeared that the beds must be sold from own use, for that would make them selfish-but for some under the poor before such a rate in aid could be but never allow them to destroy anything. I once visited

use. Teach them to share everything with their playmates; legally granted. This necessarily threw the poor them

a family where the most exact economy was observed ; yet selves, as well as the proprietors of estates, upon the nothing was mean or uncomfortable. It is the character of consideration of other resources. A sum was raised, true economy to be as comfortable with a little, as others by voluntary subscription, amounting to about 6,0001., can be with much. In this family, when the father brought and a committee was appointed from different parts, of home a package, the older children would, of their own whom I happened to be one, to meet from time to time, accord, put away the paper and twine neatly, instead of in the centre of the distressed districts, so as to relieve throwing them in the fire, or tearing them to pieces. If the these artificers. It was then determined to employ this spin a top, there it was in readiness; and when they threw

little ones wanted a piece of twine to play scratch-cradle, or subscription solely in manual labour, and the framework it upon the floor, the older children had no need to be told knitters were employed at small wages,-I think about to put it again in its place. From the Frugal Housewife. tenpence a-day, a very meagre pittance for men who had been earning from 11. to 21. a-week. The consequence lived in the seventeenth century, and wrote an interesting ac

Pietro della Valle, an enterprising Italian traveller, who was, that this threw the artificers upon devising the of self-support; and what was the consequence ? They count of many regions of the East, rarely visited by Euroinvented, among other means, the lace-machinery; and peans, married, when in Assyria, a beautiful girl of Christian I saw that population, which had been a little while young and delicate, the fair Giserida accompanied the wan

parentage, and a native of Mesopotamia. Though very before declared to be superabundant, rise up into such dering Italian wherever he went, and was with him even progressive improvement, that the supply of human in battle when he fought as an officer of the Persian King. labour was quite unable to meet the demand. Even A premature death separated her from the husband of her the upper servants in gentlemen's families were tempted choice, as he was preparing to carry her to India-her body in several instances to withdraw not only their persons, board of ship, in the cabin where he slept. For four years

he did carry: he had it secured in a coffin, and placed on but the capital which they had accumulated, for the it was the inseparable companion of his long and perilous purpose of dedicating both their persons and their pro- journeys, by sea and by land ; and at the end of that period, perty to the advancement of these manufactures.

In a he deposited it

, with great pomp, in the tomb of his noble word, lace-making proceeded at such an incredible ancestors at Rome, pronouncing himself a funeral oration rate, that single families of artificers were earning at of considerable beauty, which contained an account of her the rate of ten guineas a week. This they effected by extraordinary life, the father and son working their machines both day and night: they took it in turns, and consequently they were quite sufficient to put up an iron rod, with one end in the

Lightning Conductors. It is fancied by many that it is enabled to work permanently. So valuable were the ground and the other a few feet higher than the roof

, to promachines fabricated by the ingenuity of those men (for iect a building from lightning. It should be impressed the inventions were all, or nearly all, originated by on the public that conductors, unless perfectly insulated, working men), that some of those lace-machines were are calculated to produce the disaster they are intended to sold for more than 1,0001. a-piece. Even common per- prevent. The best mode of insulating them is for them to sons, for filing the parts of those machines, were men pass through glass rings, and in no part to be in contact with hired at the rate of one guinea or more per week.”

any thing but glass. The lightning conductors placed on The inference which the witness draws from this fact, the Royal Exchange at Paris are a perfect model in this

respect. is that a man's wits, when fairly left to themselves, will go much farther than is generally supposed to provide In a small treatise on naval discipline, lately published, profitable employment for his labour; and that we ought the following whimsical and ingenious mode of punishing not hastily to assume that there is no employment for a drunken seamen is recommended. Separate for one month man, or for a set of men. In fact, until all a man's own every man who is found drunk from the rest of the crew ; mental and bodily energies have been awakened by the mark his clothes, DRUNKARD; give him six-water grog, spur of necessity—until so stimulated he has himself or, if beer, mixed one-half water; let him dine when the tried and failed, -—relief may do him more harm than work." In a case where this was tried, the effects were so

crew has finished ; employ him in every dirty and disgraceful good; for it will assuredly, if too easily attained, blunt salutary, that in less than six months, not a drunken man those keen faculties of the mind, through which means was to be found in the ship. The same system was introalone unassisted man, if such he can be called while in duced by the writer into every ship on board which he subpossession of the gifts of his all-wise Creator, has so sequently served. When First Lieutenant of the Victory often triumphed over the greatest difficulties; and and Diomede the beneficial consequences were decidedly acwithout which, under no circumstances, can he expect knowledged. The culprits were heard to say, that they

would rather receive six dozen lashes at the garrgway, and to improve his condition. Mr. Becher has given much attention to the means of (for so it was termed) for a month.-Anatomy of Drunk.

have done with it, than be put into the “ drunken_messo improving the system of our poor-laws, and of putting enness. an end to one of its greatest abuses. That abuse is the system of relieving able-bodied labourers by making up Quoits in India.-Quoits, as a manly and healthy exercise their wages out of the poor's-rate. Of the mischief done or game, were once very popular throughout England, and by this practice to the labourer, to his employer, and to that they are used as implements of war by the Seikhs, an

are still not uncommon. It appears from Captain Mundy the country at large, we believe there is no one who now

independent and very martial tribe in India. “ The Seikhs entertains a doubt, or who does not wish to see it got have a great variety of weapons. I observed the musket, rid of. This good riddance has been effected by Mr. matchlock, sword, spears of sundry forms, dagger, and battle. Becher in his own neighbourhood, and by several other axe: but the arm that is exclusively peculiar to this sect is active and intelligent gentlemen, who acted upon his the quoit: it s made of beautiful thin sieel, sometimes inlaid advice, in other parts of the country. His success, as

with gold; in using it, the warrior twirls it swiftly round well as that of others, affords a proof that when the the fore finger, and launches it with such deadly aim, as, nightmare of parish-allowance no longer presses upon eighty paces." It appears they wear these war-quoits on

according to their own account, to be sure of his man at the faculties and industry of the agricultural labourer, their arms like armlets, and on the top-knot (which is pehe is not far behind his manufacturing brethren in the culiar to the Seikhs) of their turban. The edges of the quoits active and successful pursuit of employment.

are very sharp.-Mundy's Sketches.

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THE TEMPLE CHURCH.

an accurate copy of the inscription had been taken a short time before, and it has lately been replaced in its old situation. The order of the Templars was suppressed in 1312; and the Temple was then given by the King, Edward II., to the Knights Hospitallers ot St. John of Jerusalem, whose chief seat in London was the magnificent establishment of St. John's Clerkenwell, a fragment of which, the well-known gate, is still standing. The new proprietors of the Temple, however, do not appear to have ever taken up their residence here; but about the middle of the fourteenth century they granted a lease of the house to the society of students of the common law, who then occupied Thavies Inn, in Holborn. The lawyers, now divided into two societies, have kept possession of the Temple ever since, having, in 1609, obtained a perpetual lease of it, at a rent of 201. from the Crown, into whose hands it had come, on the dissolution of the order of the Knights Hospitallers, and all other monastic institutions, in the reign of Henry VIII.

The Temple Church very nearly fell a sacrifice to the great fire in 1666. It was the stone-work of this building, indeed, by which the flames were first effectually resisted. It suffered much injury, however, in 1695, from another fire, which entirely destroyed a considerable part of the Temple. On that occasion, and also in 1811, it underwent extensive repairs; but it has within the last few years been still more completely renovated under the direction of Mr. Smirke, who has shewn great taste in his restoration of the decayed parts of the building. The Temple Church has generally been considered as having been built on the model of the Basilica, or Metropolitan temple, of Jerusalem, from which the knights, by whom it was founded, derived their name. The following is the architectural description of the edifice, as given by Mr. Brayley in his Londiniana: “All

the exterior walls which are five feet in thickness are [Interior of the Temple Courch.] The interesting church, of the interior of which the above is a representation, is, in part at least, perhaps the very oldest building now remaining in the metropolis. The character of the architecture of the circular edifice which forms its western extremity, in which the windows are terminated by the circular or Norman, and not by the pointed or Gothic arch, proves it to be a work of not a later date than the twelfth century. And this inference is confirmed by the historical fact of its having been dedicated to the Virgin Mary, by Heraclius, the patriarch of Jerusalem, when he was in England, in the year 1185. At this time it was probably newly built. The ground now occupied by what are called the Inner and the Middle Temples, and also a

18 space lying to the west of the latter, formerly

designated the Outer Temple, and now covered by Essex-street and its neighbourhood, was anciently the property and chief seat, in England, of the wealthy and renowned community of military monks, the Knights Templars. The first house, or preceptory, as it was called, which the Templars had in this country, was situated on the south side of Holborn, on the spot where the Southampton-buildings now stand. From thence they removed, probably about the time of the dedication of the church, to this dwelling in Fleet-street, which accordingly went for a long time by the name of the New Temple. The body, or eastern part of the church, appears to have been built about the year 1240; and here the arches of the windows are pointed, in conformity with the style which had by this time been generally introduced. Formerly the dedication of the church by Heraclius was recorded in a Latin inscription, cut in the characters of the time, on a stone over the south-west entrance to the rourd end. This stone was broken by the workmen, who were employed in executing some repairs on the building after a fire, in 1695; but

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