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Nor God alone in the still calm we find, The monk's humility, the hero's pride ;
Passions, like elements, tho' born to fight, l 'Th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill,
Pleasures are ever in our hands and eyes ; See anger, zeal and fortitude supply:
As man, perhaps, the moment of his breath, Reason the bias turns to good from ill,
Tho' each by turns the other's bounds invade, And pours it all upon the peccant part.
As in some well wrought picture, light and shade, Nature its mother, habit is its nurse;
And oft so mix, the diff 'rence is too nice
We, wretched subjects tho' to lawful way, If white and black blend, softon, and unite
As, to be hated, needs but to be seen;
But where th'Extreme of Vice, was ne'er agreed. She but removes weak passions for the strong: Ask where's the North ? at York, 'tis on the So, when small humors gather to a gout, In Scotland, at the Orcades; aod there, (Tweed The doctor fancies he has driven 'them out. | AtGreenland, Zembla, or the Lord knows'where.
Yes, nature's road must ever be preferr'd; No creature owns it in the first degree, Reason is here no guide, but still a guard; But thinks his neighbour farther gone than he Tis here to rectify, not overthrow,
Evn those who dwell bertcatb its very zone, And treat this passion more as friend than foe; i Or never feel the rage, or never own; Amightier Pow'r the strong direction sends, What happier natures shrink at with affright, And sov'ral men impels to sev'ral ends :
The hard inhabitant contends is right. Like varying winds, by other passions tost, Virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be ; This drives them constant to a certain coast. Few in th'extreme, but all in the degree : Let pow'r or knowledge, gold or glory please, The 'rogue and fool, by fits, is fair and wise ; Or (oft more strong than all the love of ease, and ev'n the best, by fits, what they despise. Thro' llfe 'tis followed, even at life's expence; J T'is but by parts we follow good or ill! The merchant's toil, the gage's indolence,
Por, Vice or Virtue, Self directs it still;
Fachindividual seeks a sev'ral goal; Whole:1 another. The happiness of Animals mutual. But Heaven's great view is One, and that the - Reason e Instiuct operates alike to the That counterworks each folly and caprice; good of each Iridividual.- Reason or Instinct That disappoints th' effect of ev'ry vice;
opcrates also to Society in all animals.-- How Thal, happy fruilties to all ranks applied
far Society is carried by Instinct.-llou muck Shame to the virgin, to the marron pride, farther by Reason. -- Of That which is called Fear to the statesman, rashness to the chief, the State of Nature. - Reason instructed by To kings presumption, and to crowds belief: Instinct in the Invention of Arts, and in the That, Virtue's ends from vanity can raise,
Forms of Society. -- Origin of Political SoWhich seeks no int'rest, no reward but praise ; cieties. ---Origin of Monarchy.- Patriarchal And builris on wants, and on defects of mind, Government. - Origin of true Heligion and The joy, the peace, the glory of Mankind. Government, from the same principle of
Heaven, forming each on other to depend, Love. - Origin of Superstition and Turanny, A master, or a serrant, or a friend,
from the same principle of fear. – The inBids each on other for assistance call, fall. fiuence of self-love operating to the social and Till one Man's weakness grows the strength of public Good. - Restoration of true Religion llants, frailties, passions, closer still ally
and Government on their first Principle.The common int'rest, or endear the tie.
Mixed Gorernment - Various Forms ojcack, to these we owe true friendship, love sincere, and the true End of all. Each home-fele joy wiat life inherits here; llere then we rest : • The Universal Caase Vet froin the same we learn, in its decline, l' Acts to one end, but acts by various laws.' '}'hose jovs, those loves, those int'rests to resign ; In all the madness of superfluous health, Taughi half by Reasun, half by mere decay, 'The train of pride, the impudence of wealth, To welcome death, and calmly pass away. Let this great truth be present night and day; :
Whate or the Passion,knowlidge, fame.or pelf, But most be present, if we preach or pras.
Sec Matter nexi, with various life endved,
| (By turns we caich the vital breath, sind die); Hope travels through, nor quits us when we die. Like bubbles on the sea of Matter borne,
Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, They rise, thov Isreak, avid to that sea return. Pleas'd with a ratile, lickled with a straw; Nothing is foreign ; Paris relate to Whole; Some livelier plaything gives his youth delight, One all-extending, all-preserving Soul A little louder, but as empty quite;
('onnerts each heing, greatest with the least; Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, Made Beast in aid of Man, and Man of Beast; and beads and pray'r-books are the toys of age : All serv'd, all serving : nothing stands alone; Pleas'd with this bauble still, as that before; The chain holdson, and where it ends unknown. Till tir'd be sleeps, and Life's poor play is o'er. Has God, thou fool! work'd solely for thy Nicanwhile Opinion gilds with varying rays
Lores of his own and raptures swell the note. Er'n mean Self-love becomes, by force divine, The bounding steed you pompously bestride The scale to nieasure others' wants by thine. Shares with his lord ihe pleasure and the pride. See! and confess, one comfort still must rise ; Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain? 'Tis this tho Man 's a fool, vet God is wise. The birds of heaven shall vindicate their grain. ;. EPISTLE INI.
Thine the full harvest of the golden year?
Part pays, and justly, the deserving steer. Of the Nature and State of Man with respect The hog that plonghs not, nor obeys thy call, to Society,
Lives on the labors of this lorri of all. The whole l’nirerse one System of Society-No-. Now, Nature's children shall divide her care, thing mode wholly for itsell, no wholly for| The sur that warms a monarch warınd a bear.
While Man exclaims, See all things for my use! God, in the nature of each being, founds
See man for mine!' replies a pamper'd goose: Its proper bliss, and sets its proper bounds:
Grant that the porx'rful still the weak control, So, from the first, eternal order ran, ,
The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend. That very life his learned hunger craves, The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, He saves from famine, from the savage saves; There stops the Instinct, and there ends the care; Nay, feasts the animal he dooms his fcast, The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace; And till he ends the being, makes it blest; | Another love succeeds another race. Which sees no more the stroke, or feels the pain, A longer care Man's helpless kind demands ; Than favor'd Man by touch ethereal slain. | That longer care contracts more lasting bands : The creature had his feast of life before; Reflection, Reason, still the ties improve, Thou too must perish when thy feast is o'er! At once extend the int'rest and the love: To each unthinking being, Hcáven a friend, With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Gives not the useless knowledge of its end! Each Virtue in each Passion takes its turn; To Man imparts it; but with such a view | And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise, A3, while he dreads it, makes him hope it too : That graft benevolence on charities. The hour conceald, and so remote the fear, Still as one brood, and as another rose, Death still draws nearer, never seeming near. These nat'ral love maintain, habitual those : Great standing miracle ! that Hcaven assign'd The last scarce ripen'd into perfect Man, Its only thinking thing this turn of mind. Saw helpless him from whom their life began:
Whether with Reason or with Instinct blest, Mem'ry and forecast just returns engage; Know, all enjoy that pow'r which suits them That pointed back to vouth, this on to age : To bliss alıke by that direction tend, (best;While pleasure, gratitude, and hope combin'd, And find the means proportion'd to their end. Still spread the int'rest, and preserv'd the kind. Say, where ful Instinct is th' unerring guide, Nor think, in Nature's state they blindly trod; What Pope or Council can they need beside ? | The State of Nalure was the reign of God: Reason, however able, cool at best,
Self-love and Social at her birth began ; Cares not for service, or but seryes when prest, Unicu the bond of all things, and of Man. Stays till we call, and then not often near; Pride then was not; nor Arts, that Pride to aid; But honest Instinct comes a volunteer,
Man walk'd with bcast, joint tenant of the shade; Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit;
The same his table, and the same his bed; . While still 100 wide or short is human Wit; No muri'er cloth d him, and no murder fed. Sure by quick Nature happiness to gain, In the same temple, the resounding wood, Which heavier Reason labors at in vain. | All vocal beings hyinn'd their equal God:
This too serves always, Reason never long; The shrine with gore unistain'd, with gold un'One must go right, the other may go wrong,
drest; See then the acting and comparing pow'rs Unbrib'dl, unbloody, stood the blanieless priest: One in their nature, which are two in ours; | Heaven's attribute was Universal Care; And Reason raise o'er Instinct as you can, | And Man's prerogative to rulc, but spare. In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis Man. Ah! how unlike the man of times to coine !
Who taught the nations of the field and wood Of half that live the butcher and the tomb ; To shun their poison, and to choose their food? / Who, foc to Nature, bears the gen'ral groan, Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand, Murders their species, and betrays his own. Build on the wave, or arch beneath the sand? But just disease to luxury succeeds, Who made the spider parallels design,
And ev'ry death its own avenger breeds; . Sure as De Moivre, without rule or line? The fury passions from that blood began, Who bid the stork, Colunbus like, explore And turn'd on Man a fiercer savage, Man. Ilear'ns, not his own, and worlds unknown See him from Nature rising slow to Art! before?
To copy Instinct then was Reason's part : Who calls the council, states the certain day? Thus then to Man the voice of Nature spake Who furins the phalanx and who points the way? lo Go, from the Creatures thy instructions take:
.“ Learn " Learnfromthebirdswhat food the thicketsyield: No ill could fear in God; and understood “ Learn from the bcasts the physic of the field; A Sovereign Being but a sou'reign good. “ Thy arts of building from the bee receive; True faithi, true policy, united ran; “ Learn of the moleto plough, the wormto weave; That was but love of God, and this of Man, “ Learn of the little Nautilus to sail,
Who tirst taught souls enslav'd,and realms un“ Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale. Th' enormous faith of many made for one; (done, " Here too all forms of social union find, That proud cxception to all Nature's laus,
' And hence let Reason, lale, instruct mankind: T: invert the world, and counterwork its Cause? «Here subterranean works and cities sce; Force first made Conquest, and that Conquest " There towns aérial on thc waving trec. Till Superstition taught the Tyrant awe;[Law, “ Learn each small People's genius, policies, Then shar'd the Tyranny, then lent it aid,
" How those in common alltheir wealth bestow, She, 'midst the lightnings blaze, and thunder's • And Alarcly without confusion know;
sound, " And thcze for cver, tho'a Monarch reisi, When rock'd the mountains, and when groan'd "Tlveir sep'rate cells and properties maintain
the ground, * Mark what unvaried lan's preserve eaclı state, She taught the weak to bend, the proud to pras, • Laws wise as Nature, and as fix'd as Fate. To Pow'r unseen, and mightier far than ther: " lo vain thy Reason finer webs shall draw, She from the rending earth, and bursting skics, " Entangle Justice in her net of Law; Sw.gods descend, and hends infernal rise : “ And right, tuo rigid, harden into wrong, Here fix'd the dreadful, there the blest abodes; “ Still forthe strong too weak, theweaktoostrong. Fear made her Devils, and weak Hope herGods; " Yet go! ond thus o'er all tlie creatures sway, Gods partial, changeful, passionate, unjust, « Thus let the wiser make the rest obev: Whose attributes were Rage, Revenge, or Lust; " And for those arts incre Instinct could afford, Such as the souls of cowards inight conceive, * Be crown'd as Monarchs, or as Gods ador'd." And, form'd like tyrants, tyrants woull believe.
Great Nature spoke; observant Man obey'd; Zeal then, not charity, became the guide! Cities were built, Societies were made: And hell was built on spite, and heavenon pride. Here rose one little state ; another near
Then sacred seem'd th'ethereal vault no more; Grew by like means, and jom'd thro' love or fear. Ahars grew marble then, and reek'd with gore: Did here the trees with ruddier burlens bend, Then first the Flamen tastal living food, And there the streains in purer rills descend ! Next his grim idol smear'd with hupran blood; WhatWarcould ravish,Commerce could bestow, With heaven's own thouders shook the world And he return'd a friend who came a foe. Avd play'd the god an engine on his fue.[below, Converse and Loveinankind might strongly draw, So drives Self-love, throjust, and thro'umust; When Love was Liberty, and Nature Law. To one mian's pow'r, ambition, lucte, lust: Thus states were forn'd; the name of King un- The same Self-love in all, becomes the cause known,
Of what restrains him, Government and Laws. Till common int'rest plac'd the sway in one. For, what one likes, if others like as well; Twas Virtue only (or in arts or arms,
What serves one will, when many wills rebel? Diffusing blessings, or averting harmıs),' How shall he keep, what, sleeping or awake, The same which in a Sire the Sons obey'd, A werker may surprise, a stronger take? A Prince the Father of a People made. (sate His safety must his liberty restrain: · Till then, by Nature crown'd, each Patriarch All join'd 10 guard what each desires to gain. King, Priest, and parent, of his growing state; Forc'd into Virtuc thus by Self-defence, On him their second Providence, they hung; Ev'n Kings learn'd justice and benevolence : Their law his eye, their oracle his tongue. Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, He from the wand'ring furrow call'd the food, And found the private in the public good. Taught to command the sire, control the food, 'Twas then the studious beador gen'rous mind, Draw forth the monsters of th' abyss profound, Follower of God, or friend of human kind, Or fetch th' nërial eagle to the ground.
| Poet or Patriot, rose but to restore Till drooping, sick'ning, dying they began, The faith and moral Nature gave before; Whom they tercrd as God, to mourn as Man: Resum'd her antient light, not kindled new; Then, looking up, from sire to sire, explor'd If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; One great First Father, and that First ador'd. Taught Powr's due use to People and to King, Or plain tradition that this All begun, | Taughunor to slack nor strain its tender strings, Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The less or greater set so justly true, The worker from the work distinct was kuown, That touching one must strike the other too; And simple Reason nerer sought but one: Till jarriug int'rests of themselves create Ere Wit oblique had broke that steady light, Th' according music of a well-mix'd state.
Such is the world's great harmony, that-springs To Virtue in the Paths of Pleasure trod, From Order, Union, full Consent of things : And own'd a Father when he own'd a God. Where small and great, where weak and mighty Love all the faith and all th' allegiance then:
made For Nature knew no right divine in Men, | To serve, not suffer : strengthen, not invade ;
More More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, | That something still which prompts the eternal And, in proportion as it blesses, blest :
For which we bear to live, or dare to die ; (sigh, Draw to one point, and to one centre bring Which still so dear us, yet beyond us lies; Beast, Matt, or Angel, Servant, Lord, or King. O'erlook'd, seen double, by the foot and wise.
For forms of Government let fools contest; Mant of celestial seed ! if dropt below, Whate'er is best administer'd is best :
Say, in what mortal soil thou deign'st to grow ? For Modes of Faith let graceless zealots fight : Fair qu'ning to some Court's propitious shine, His can't be wrong whose life is in the right: Tor deep with diamonds in the Harning inine ? In Faith and Hope the world will disagree, Twind with the wreathsParnassian laurels yield, But all Mankind's concern is Charity :
Or reap'd in iron harvests to the field ? (toil, All must be false that thwart this One greatEnd: Where grows? where grows it noi? if rain our And all of God, that bless Mankind, or niend. We ought to blame the culture, not the soil. Man, like the ven'rous vine, supported lives! Fix'd to no spot is happiness sincere, The Strength he gains is fron; the etnbrace he 'Tis no where to be found, or ev'ry where: gives.
'Tis never to be bought, but always free; fthee. On their own Axis as the Planets rui,
And Aed from monarchs, St. Johin, dwells with Yet make at once their circle tound the Sun; Ask of the Learn'd the way: The Learn'd are So two consistent motioris act the Soul,
bliad: And one regards Itself, and one the Whole. This bids to serve, and that to shun mankind;
Thus God and Nature link'd the gen'ral frame, Some place the bliss in action, some in ease; And bade Self-love and Social be the same. Those call it pleasure, and contentment these: . EPISTLE IV.
Some sunk tó beasts, find pleasure end in pain; ARGUMENT,
Some swellid to gods, confess ev'n virtue vain! Of the Nature and State of Man, with respect Or indolent to each extreme they fall, to Happiness.
|To trust in ev'ry thing, or doubt of all. False Notions of Happiness, Philosophical and Who thus define it, say they more or less
Popular - It is the End of all Men, and at-Than this, that happiness is happiness? tainable by all. God intends Happiness to "Take Nature's path, and inad opinions leare; le equal; and to be so, it must le social, since All states can reach it, and all heads conceive; . all particular Happiness depends on general, Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; and since he governs ly general not particular There weeds but thinking right, and meaning Laus. As it is necessary for Order, and the well; peuce and welfare of Society, that external And mourn our various portions as we please, goods should be unequal, Happiness is not Equal is common sense and common ease. made to consist in these. But, notwith. Remember, Man, “ the Universal Cause standing that inequality, the balance of “ Acts not by partial, but by gen'ral laws ;" Happiness anong mankind is kept even ly And makes what Happiness we justly call Proridence, by the tuo Passions of Hope and Subsist not in the good of one, but all. fear. What the Happiness of Individuals There 's not a blessing individuals find, is, as far as is consistent with the con. But some way leans and hearkens to the kind. stitution of this world; and that the Good No bandit fierce, no tsrant mad with pride, Man has here the advantage. The error No cavern'd hermit rests self-sarisfied: of imputing to Virtue what are only the cala- Who most to shun or haie mankind pretend, milies of Nature or of Fortune. The folly Seek an admirer, or would fix a friend : of expecting that God should alter his general Abstract what others feel, what others think, laws in fuoor of particulars. That we are All pleasures sicken, and all glories sink ; not judges who are goal; but that, whoever Each has hisshtire; and who would more obtain, They are, they must be happiest. That er- Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. ternal goods are not the proper rewards, but Order is Heaven's first law; and this confest, often inconsistent with, or destructive of,Some are, and must be, greater than the rest, Virtue. - That even these can make no Man More rich, more wise; but who infers from hence happy without Virtue : Instanced in Riches That such are happier, shocks all common sense. Honors – Nobility - Greatness - Fame Heaven to mankind impartial we confess, Superior Talents With pictures of human If all are equal in their happiness: infelicity in Men possessed of them all.That But mutual wants this happiness increase ; Mirtue only constitutés a Ilappiness whose ot. All nature's diff'rence kceps all nature's peace, ject is universal, and whose prospect eternal. Condition, circuinstance, is not the thing; That the perfection of Virtue and Happiness Bliss is the same in subject or in king consists in a conformity to the Order of Pro-In who obtain defence, or who defend, vidence here, and a Resignation to it here and In him who is, or him who finds a friend':* hercaser..
Heaven breathes thro'ev'rymember of the wholo O HAPPINESS! out being's end and aim! One common blessing, as one cominon soul. Good, Pleasure, Ease, Content, whate'er thy But fortune's gifts if each alike possessid, Aanue;
And cach were equal, must not all contest?