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"-he, that hath learned no wit by nature nor art, may complain of good breeding"-Dr. Johnson doubts whether custom did not formerly authorize this mode of speech, and make "complain of good breeding" the same with "complain of the want of good breeding.' In the last line of the MERCHANT OF VENICE, we find that to "fear the keeping" is to "fear the not keeping." Johnson might have asserted this with less hesitation, for such use is found colloquially even now, and is common, as Whiter remarks, in all languages.

"good MANNERS"-" Manners" is here used in the sense of morals, both senses being included in the Latin mores. Morals is not found in any of the old dictionaries, or authors.


God make INCISION in thee"-It has been ingeniously urged that insition, or graffing, is here meant, and that the phrase may be explained, “God put knowledge into thee;" but we want instances to confirm this. Stevens thought the allusion here was to the common expression of cutting for the simples; and the subsequent speech of Touchstone, "That is another simple sin in you," gives colour to this conjecture. Nares asks, "Can it have been a phrase borrowed from surgery?" A quotation from the "Time's Whistle, or a New Daunce of Seven Satires," (MS.,) made by Dr. Farmer, shows that it was

Be stout, my heart; my hand, be firm and steady;
Strike, and strike home-the vaine world's vaine is ready :
Let ulcer'd limbes and goutye humors quake,
Whilst with my pen I doe incision make.

And the following curious passage from Baret's " Alvearie" proves it:-"Those hell houndes which lay violent hands upon other men's goods are like biles and blotches

in the body of the common-weale; and must be cured either by incysion and letting blood in the necke-vaine, or by searing with a hot yron, or els with a caudle of hempseed chopt halter-wise," etc. His purpose is to illustrate why a thief is called felon, which also signified a bile. Shakespeare uses “incision" for opening a vein in LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST, (act iv. scene 2 :)—"A fever in your blood, why then incision will let her out in


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—fairest LIN'D"-i. e. Delineated; not limn'd, as it has been sometimes printed.

"-the FAIR of Rosalind"-"Fair" for fairness, beauty-as in COMEDY OF ERRORS, (act ii. scene 1;) but it is common in the Elizabethan poets.

"the_right_butter-women's RANK"-So the old copies; and "rank" is certainly as good as rate, or rant, which some would substitute. "Rank," as Whiter observes, means the order in which they go one after another; and therefore Shakespeare says, "butter-women's," and not butter-woman's, as it has been corrupted. As applied to the verses, it is a sneer at their uniformity of cadence.


Why should this a desert be"-Tyrwhitt and other editors would read, "Why should this desert silent be?" No alteration of the old copies seems absolutely neces


"CIVIL sayings"-" The term civil is here used as when we say civil wisdom, or civil life, in opposition to a solitary state, or to the state of nature. • This desert (says Orlando) shall not appear unpeopled, for every tree shall teach the maxims or incidents of social life."" JOHNSON.

"Helen's cheek, but not her heart,

Cleopatra's majesty,

Atalanta's better part,

Sad Lucretia's modesty."

The commentators have filled many pages with the discussion of the precise meaning of the "better part" of Atalanta's excellence. "Better part" seems to have been often used for any peculiar excellence, whatever it was, in the individual; and Ovid, in the passage on which all the allusions to Atalanta are founded, makes the spectator doubt whether she were "better" (more admirable) for swiftness, or grace of form:—

Laude pedum formæne bono præstantior esset. This may have been in the author's mind, whether he read it in Latin or in Golding's Old-English. Tollet makes it refer to her virgin chastity. Whiter, whose commentary on this play is mainly an ingenious illustratration of the doctrine of the association of ideas suggesting images and language, thus applies his theory to this passage:

"The imagery selected to discriminate the perfections of Helen, Cleopatra, Atalanta, and Lucretia, was not derived from the abstract consideration of their general qualities; but was caught from those peculiar traits of beauty and character which are impressed on the mind of him who contemplates their portraits. It is well known that these celebrated heroines of romance were, in the days of our Poet, the favourite subjects of popular representation, and were alike visible in the coarse hangings of the poor, and the magnificent arras of the rich. In the portraits of Helen, whether they were produced by the skilful artist or his ruder imitator, though her face would certainly be delineated as eminently beautiful, yet she appears not to have been adorned with any of those charms which are allied to modesty; and we accordingly find that she was generally depicted with a loose and insidious countenance, which but too manifestly betrayed the inward wantonness and perfidy of her heart. With respect to the 'majesty' of Cleopatra, it may be observed that this notion is not derived from classical authority, but from the more popular storehouse of legend and romance. I infer, therefore, that the familiarity of the image was im

pressed, both on the Poet and his reader, from pictures or representations in tapestry, which were the lively and faithful mirrors of popular romances. Atalanta, we know, was considered by our ancient poets as a celebrated beauty; and we may be assured, therefore, that her portraits were everywhere to be found. Since the story of Atalanta represents that heroine as possessed of singular beauty, zealous to preserve her virginity even with the death of her lovers, and accomplishing her purposes by extraordinary swiftness in running, we may be assured that the skill of the artist would be employed in displaying the most perfect expressions of virgin purity, and in delineating the fine proportions and elegant symmetry of her person. Lucretia (we know) was the grand example of conjugal fidelity throughout the Gothic ages;' and it is this spirit of unshaken chastity which is here celebrated under the title of 'modesty.'


"Such, then, are the wishes of the lover in the formation of his mistress-that the ripe and brilliant beauties of Helen should be united to the elegant symmetry and virgin graces of Atalanta; and that this union of charms should be still dignified and ennobled by the majestic mein of Cleopatra, and the matron modesty of Lucretia."

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POINT-DEVICE"-A customary old phrase for exact, dressed with nicety.

Who fears a sentence, or an old man's saw, Shall by a painted cloth be kept in awe.

"— a LOVING humour of madness"-"The old copies have it, living humour of madness;' which is not very intelligible, unless it mean (as Stevens supposed) lasting humour of madness. The antithesis is however complete, if, with Johnson, we read loving, which is only the change of a letter; and this reading is supported by the MS. correction of the early possessor of the first folio, in the library of Lord Francis Egerton. The meaning thus is, that Rosalind drove her suitor from his mad humour of love, into a humour in which he was in love with madness, and forswore the world."-COLLIER.


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- the FALCON her BELLS"-Master Stephen, in Every Man in his Humour," says, "I have bought me a hawk and a hood, and bells and all." Gervase Markham, in his edition of the "Boke of St. Albans," says, "The bells which your hawk shall wear, look in any wise that they be not too heavy, whereby they over load her, neither that one be heavier than another, but both of like weight: look also that they be well-sound ing and shrill, yet not both of one sound, but one at least a note under the other."

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"-CAPABLE impressure"-Thus the old copies, and it is intelligible in the sense of "the impression which is capable of being made," that which may be taken from the "rush." But there is much likelihood of truth in the suggestion that "capable" is a misprint of palpable.

"-though you have no beauty"-This passage was very needlessly altered, by Malone and Stevens, by substituting mo, or more, for "no," because, in Lodge's "Rosalynde," in a similar speech, it is said, "Because thou art beautiful," etc. Shakespeare's intent is differ ent, and very obvious. Rosalind intends, throughout her speech, to check the vanity of Phebe; and begins

by telling her that she has no beauty, and therefore no excuse for being "proud and pitiless."

"Foul is most foul, being foul to be a scoffer"-i. e. "The ugly seem most ugly, when, though ugly, they are scoffers."-JOHNSON.

"YOUR foulness"-The modern reading is her. We suppose Rosalind here turns to the parties before her, and addresses each.


'Dead shepherd! now I find thy saw of might; 'Who ever lov'd, that lov'd not at first sight?'" "The 'dead shepherd' was Christopher Marlowe, who was killed in 1593, and whose paraphrase of Hero and Leander,' from Musæus, was not printed until 1598. He did not finish the work, but it was completed by Geo. Chapman, and published entire in 1600. The line above quoted concludes a passage in the first 'Sestiad,' the whole of which Shakespeare seems to have had in his mind when he wrote this scene; and it runs thus:

It lies not in our power to love or hate,

For will in us is over-ruled by fate.

When two are stripp'd, long ere the course begin,

We wish that one should lose, the other win:

And one especially we do affect

Of two gold ingots, like in each respect.
The reason no man knows: let it suffice,
What we behold is censur'd by our eyes.
Where both deliberate, the love is slight:
Who ever lov'd, that lov'd not at first sight?"


"the old CARLOT"-" Carlot (Douce says) is a word of Shakespeare's coinage." It is derived from carl, and means a peasant.


"DISABLE all the benefits of your own country”— i. e. Underrate them, speak slightingly of them. So, afterwards "He disabled my judgment." Beaumont and Fletcher have the same use of the word.

"SWAM in a GONDOLA"-i. e. Been at Venice; then the resort of all travellers, as Paris now is. Shakespeare's contemporaries also point their shafts at the corruption of youth by travel. Bishop Hall wrote his little book "Quo Vadis?" to stem the fashion.


-a better LEER than you"-Tyrwhitt, in his glossary to Chaucer, explains lere to mean the skin; and he derives it from the Saxon. Here it is to be taken as complexion, or feature. It occurs again in TITUS ANDRONICUS, (act iv. scene 2,) in a similar sense. Sir F. Madden translates it countenance, in his excellent glossary to "Syr Gawayne."

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Then sing him home, the rest shall bear this burthen. With most former editors, I have thought that the first four words were part of the song, and the rest a stagedirection. But Knight and Collier omit all, and the latter insists that "The words, "Then sing him home: the rest shall bear this burden,' are clearly only stage-directions, although, by error, printed as part of the song in the old copies. Then sing him home' has reference to the carrying of the lord, who killed the deer, to the duke; and we are to suppose that the foresters sang as they quitted the stage for their 'home' in the wood. 'The rest shall bear this burden' alludes to the last six lines, which are the burden of the song. Modern editors have taken upon them to divide the song between the first and second lord, by the figures '1' and '2;' but without any warrant. It is to be observed that it is found in Playford's Musical Companion,' without the words, 'Then sing him home.' It is also in 'Catch that Catch can,' (1652,) in the same form."

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"MUCH Orlando"-Ironically, no Orlando here; as we still say, "I shall get much by that"-meaning, I shall get nothing.

"To sleep. Look, who comes here"-The mockheroic tone assumed by Celia is well kept up by the measure, and her speech is thus printed in the original, which in later editions has been printed as prose.

"-sweet and bitter FANCY"-" Fancy" here signifies love, as composed of contraries; probably suggested by Lodge's "Rosalynde"-"I have noted the variable disposition of fancy: a bitter pleasure wrapped in sweet prejudice."

"HURTLING"-To hurtle is to move with impetuosity and tumult. It is used in JULIUS CESAR

A noise of battle hurtled in the air.


"Is't possible"-" Shakespeare, by putting this question into the mouth of Orlando, seems to have been aware of the improbability in his plot, caused by deserting his original. In Lodge's novel, the elder brother is instrumental in saving Aliena from a band of ruffians; without this circumstance, the passion of Aliena appears to be very hasty indeed."-STEVENS.

"all OBEISANCE"-The original has observance, which, as it also ends the next line but one preceding, seems to be a misprint; and I have adopted Ritson's conjecture. Malone proposed obedience.

"WHY do you speak, TOO"-This is the old reading which is perfectly intelligible, when addressed to Orlando; who replies, that he speaks "too," notwithstanding the absence of his mistress. It was altered, by Rowe and other editors, to "Who do you speak to."

ACT V. SCENE 2.-I know into what struts of fortune she is iriven.


"to be a woman of the world"-i. e. To be married.

"SONG"-This song may be seen more at large in Chappell's "Collection of National English Airs," from a MS. now in the Advocates' "Library," Edinburgh, believed to have been written within sixteen years after this play. This confirmed the previous conjecture that a transposition of the first and second stanzas had taken place in the old editions. It also clears up another difficulty, the folios in the fourth line having rang time, which Johnson and others printed rank-i. e. luxuriant. The "ring-time" is the time for marriage.


"As those that fear; they hope, and know they fear"In the folio the line is printed thus:

As those that fear they hope, and know they fear. This, Caldecott, Collier, and others, retain unaltered, explaining it that "Orlando is in the state of mind of those who fear what they hope, and know that they fear it." Yet, with Johnson and other editors, I must confess that I cannot extract that or any other sense from the old reading. This edition, therefore, adopts the suggestion of Henley, which requires only a slight alteration of the pointing; and then Orlando may be understood as comparing himself to "those who fear, but yet hope while they are still conscious of real fear." Perhaps, however, the text requires a still bolder correction; and I have been much inclined to adopt Heath's reading, which is more Shakespearian in its antithesis, and its boldness of expression:

As those that fear their hope, and know their fear.

"a lie seven times removed"-"Touchstone here enumerates seven kinds of lies, from the retort courteous to the seventh and most aggravated species of lie, which he calls the lie direct. The courtier's answer to his intended affront, he expressly tells us, was the retort courteous. When, therefore, he says that they found the quarrel was on the lie seven times removed,' we must understand, by the latter word, the lie removed seven times, counting backwards, (as the word 'removed' seems to intimate,) from the last and most aggravated species of lie-the lie direct."-Illust. Shak.

"we quarrel in print, by the book"-"The Poet (says Warburton) has, in this scene, rallied the mode of formal duelling, then so prevalent, with the highest humour and address: nor could he have treated it with a happier contempt, than by making his Clown so knowing in the forms and preliminaries of it. The particular book here alluded to is a very ridiculous treatise of one Vincentio Saviolo, entitled, 'Of Humours and Honourable Quarrels,' in quarto, printed by Wolf, (1594.) The first part of this tract he entitles, A Discourse most necessary for all Gentlemen that have in regard their Honours, touching the giving and receiving the Lie, whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers Forms doth ensue; and many other Inconveniences, for lack only of true Knowledge of Honour, and the right Understanding of Words, which here is set down.' The contents of the several chapters are as follow:-1. What the Reason is that the Party unto whom the Lie is given ought to become challenger, and of the Nature of Lies. 2. Of the Manner and Diversity of Lies. 3. Of Lies certain, [or direct.] 4. Of conditional Lies, [or the lie circumstantial.] 5. Of the Lie in general. 6. Of the Lie in particular. 7. Of foolish Lies. 8. A Conclusion touching the wresting or returning back of the Lie, [or the countercheck quarrelsome.] In the chapter of conditional Lies, speaking of the particle if, he says-Conditional lies be such as are given conditionally, as if a man should say or write these words:if thou hast said that I have offered my lord abuse, thou liest; or if thou sayest so hereafter, thou wilt lie. Of these kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention in words-whereof no sure conclusion can arise."

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