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Shakespeare's time; yet, so rapidly did the fashion of explains as escaping "from a danger as imminent as language change, that, in 1651, it is noted, by Cart when ice breaks under the passenger." Stevens adopts wright, as obsolete!
Rowe's correction of “brakes of vice," and explain it
as the brakes" used in the time of the Tudors, as an “– and that's my pith of business instrument of inquisitorial torture-a species of rack. 'Twixt you and your poor brother.'
It is mentioned and pictured in the old editions of Fox's We have here, as after, preferred the original metri Martyrs.” The sense, on this supposition, is that cal arrangement to that of the ordinary modern text, some escape the judicial rack, due to vice, while others which reads,
suffer for a single fault. Neither of these seem as probTo soften Angelo; and that's my pith
able as a third solution, which is still not fully satisfacOf business 'twixt you and your poor brother.
tory. “Brake" is taken, in its more usual sense, for a Here, as after, the metre is irregular, but not more so thicket; and it refers to the thorny paths of vice, from than the rhythm of broken dialogue allows; while, as which, thick-set as they are, some escape without pun. in many other instances of the metrical changes of the ishment, while others are condemned for a single error. modern editors, a syllabic regularity has been gained Ben Jonson has a similar metaphorical application of by the distribution of the lines, at the expense of the
the word natural melody
Look at the false and cunning man
Crush'd in the snaky brakes that he had past. “ – they themselves would owE”—“Owe” is taken our own author has, in Henry VIII., used the word in in its oldest sense, for own, have; so that he says“ Their petitions are as much theirs as they themselves
the same sense, though with an opposite application of
the figure :wish to have them.”
"Tis but the fate of place, and the rough brake - the mother"-i.e. Of the convent; the prioress.
That virtue must go through.
“ Brake” is also said to have been anciently used for a ACT II.-SCENE I.
trap, or snare, which again would allow another inter
pretation. Between the obscure brevity of expression "— TO FEAR the birds of prey”-i. e. To affright; and the doubt as to the right correction of the certain as in the MERCHANT OF VENICE.
misprint, I do not venture to decide with confidence,
but prefer the third solution—"the thickets of vice." “ — FALL, and bruise to death" -The verb is here used actively, as to fall a tree; and in As You Like IT “ — they are not China Dishes”—The use of China“ The execution falls not the axe upon,” etc.
ware, and its comparative value, mark the progress of
In the days of classical profusion, a mode" – thieves do pass on thieves”-i. e. How can the
rate China service, such as is now found in very unos. laws take cognizance of what I have mentioned? How
tentatious life, would have vied with a service of silver. can they know, whether the jurymen, who decide on
It formed part of the splendour of Genoa and Venice, in the life or death of thieves, be themselves as criminal as
the dawning of modern commerce. Here we find those whom they try? To “pass on" is a phrase of the
“China dishes” familiar to the popular luxury, but still common-law, for “deciding upon," "giving their ver
something above vulgar use. The dramatists of the day dict upon.”
speak of them in this estimate. In Massinger's “ Rene“For I have had such faults"—i. e. Because, by rea
gado," the servant of the Venetian tells his master that son that I have had such faults.
Are safe unladen; not a crystal crack'd, “Some run from BRAKES OF VICE”—The words are
Or China dish needs soldering. printed, in all the older copies, " brakes of ice,” which “China dishes (says Knight) were not uncommon things is certainly a misprint, for which two or three conjectu in the days of Elizabeth and James. We captured them ral emendations have been suggested ; no one of which on board the Spanish carracks; and we purchased them is so evidently right as to leave little doubt as to what from Venice. Cromwell imposed a duty on China were the author's true words. Some read, as Tieck dishes; so that they had in his time become a regular translates into German, “ breaks of ice," which Collier article of commerce."
“ - QLOWER CHAIR"— The comment of Stevens, meant that peculiar turn of the human mind that sixty years ago, shows how fashions go their rounds, inclines it to a spiteful and unseasonable mirth. Had and will amuse the reader of the present day :
the angels that, they would laugh themselves out of “Every house had formerly, among its other furni their immortality, by indulging a passion unworthy of ture, what was called a low chair, designed for the ease that prerogative. of sick people, and, occasionally, occupied by lazy ones. Of these conveniences I have seen many, though, per
" — FOND shekels"_"Fond" is foolish, and in this
instance worthless, or only valued by the foolish. haps, at present they are wholly disused." " – an open room, and good for winter"-i. e. Open but may thus be explained. Isabella prays, 'Heaven
"Where prayers cross"—“The meaning is not clear, to the sun, and thus pleasant in winter-a matter on which the English of that day, like the old Romans, tempted as I am, I pray for one thing, you for another.
keep your honour safe:' Angelo answers, ' Amen; for, (imperfectly supplied with the means of agreeable artificial leat,) laid great stress.
You pray heaven to keep my honour safe, I the con
trary; and thus our prayers cross.'”—COLLIER. " — three pence a BAY"-I should take this to mean, It rather means, I think, “ where prayers cross” (not " three pence” for each large window ; but “bay” is each other, but) our intended or wicked purpose. The explained, in Coles's Dictionary, (1677,) as a front of concluding speech, " From thee," etc., supports this twenty-four feet.
“I pray you home to dinner with me"- This pas “ — as the carrion does, not as the flower"-i. e. “! sage amusingly marks the “ early habits” of the period ; am not corrupted by her, but by my own heart, which for, although the scene is laid in Vienna, we find in this excites foul desires, under the same benign influences play, as in others, that Shakespeare often attributes the that exalt her purity; as the carrion grows putrid by local manners and customs of his own country to his those beams which increase the fragrance of the violet." personages, wherever the scene may be laid.
This image, as little agreeable as it may be, occurs SCENE II.
again in the celebrated and much-contested passage in
Hamlet—"For if the sun breed maggots in a dead “ To fine the faults, whose dog," etc. the law already records as its due, and let the criminal escape. In this same dialogue we have “the recorded
more forcibly express the aggravated profligacy of Anlaw."
gelo's passion, which the purity of Isabella served but
the more to inflame. The desecration of edifices de - touch'd with that REMORSE"-Here, and in act v., voted to religion, by converting them to the most abject (“My sisterly remorse confutes my honour.") "remorse' purposes of nature, was an eastern method of expressing is used for pity; as in OTHELLO, (act iii. scene 3.) contempt." (See 2 Kings x. 27.)-HENLEY. “ Become them with one half so good a grace
" — the FLAMES of her own youth"— The old copies he is sometimes fond of reproducing the same train of
read flawes for - flames," which word Davenant, in his thought, modified and coloured by a different passion in
· Law against Lovers,” (a play patched up from this the speaker, or a difference of character. Thus, through- and Much Ado About Nothing,) restored. The misout this dialogue, the reader cannot but observe that the
print of w for m was common in old works; and as the topics of the argument for mercy, and even the illustra flames of youth is a natural expression, and the metations of it, are the same as those employed by Portia,
phor requires fire to produce the blistering in the next in her appeal to Shylock. Yet, (as Mrs. Jameson says,)
line, there is little doubt that Davenant, who flourished “how like and how unlike! Portia's eulogy on mercy
near the time of Shakespeare, was right. This reading is a piece of heavenly rhetoric; it is the voice of a de
has been adopted in all the editions since Warburton's
, scended angel addressing an inferior nature.
except those of Knight, who retains flaws, as merely a premeditated, it is at least a part of a preconcerted
redundant confusion of metaphor. scheme; while Isabella's pleadings are forced from the abundance of her heart, in broken sentences, and with
“ – LEAST you do repent"_" The modern editors
have printed lest instead of least,' as it stands in the the artless vehemence of one who feels that life and
old copies, and have thus confused the meaning: which death hang upon her appeal.”
is, “You do repent least that the sin hath brought you “Like man nero made"_" This reduction of man to
to this shame,' instead of repenting most the sin itself
. the first associations of his primitive creation, when his
This true reading makes the sense of the Duke's obser. soul was all innocence, and expanding with the ardent
vation complete at • But as we stand in fear,' without fulness of anxious sympathy, is one of the most exqui- supposing his unfinished sentence to be broken in upon site images in SHAKESPEARE. It tells us that man is all
by Juliet, as it has been commonly printed.”—COLLIER. merciful when all innocent: how much more, then,
The reply of Juliet supports Mr. Collier's return to should he be merciful towards his fellow-creatures
the old reading, which I think certainly right. when, as now, most guilty !"-Illust. Shak.
Scene IV. “ — WHERE they live to end—The reading of the folios is—" here they live." Hanmer altered the text “— SEVERAL subjects"—“Several" is here used not to “ere they live, to end; and Malone to " where they merely numerically, as we now use it, (" to a number of live, to end.” Collier maintains the old reading, as subjects,'') but in its stricter and older sense, for sepameaning that the law there had formerly slept, and
rate, distinct subjects. Here there are only two, but criminals escaped; but now it is awake, and resolves those wholly opposed. to punish crimes—" but here they live to end." Here
" — the air beats for vain"— The old copies have crimes live only that they may be brought to an end. vaine, which is the ancient orthography for “vain", The misprint of here for “where,” in the old mode of “ Which the air beats for being vain.”
But several edi. writing, was very common; and the sense is thus clearer. The phrase, so amended, is Shakespearian; || i. e. which the air beats about as a weathercock.
tors of authority follow Malone in reading it " for vane"as in Julius CÆSAR
"Wrench awe from fools"_" Here Shakespeare ju. And where I did begin, there shall I end.
diciously distinguishes ihe different operations of high " — with our spleens"—By “spleens” Shakespeare l' place upon different minds Fools are frighted, and
wise men are allured. Those who cannot judge but by has probably given the right explanation :-“If he is the the eye, are easily awed by splendour: those who con only one who holds by the common tenure of human sider men, as well as conditions, are easily persuaded frailty, and who ‘owes' and succeeds by'—(i. e. pos. to love the appearance of virtue dignified with power." sesses and succeeds to)--an inheritance of this infirmity." Johnson.
*" — SMELL of calumny"-"Your accusation will apBlood, thou art blood”—Most editions, to remedy pear so gross, that it will stifle yourself, and be consid. the supposed defect of the metre, read—“Blood, thou ered a calumny. Shakespeare has suffered from the art but blood ;” and “Blood, thou still art blood.” But
love of the literal in his commentators. Stevens informs the rhythm seems shortened to make the stronger em
us that the above is 'a metaphor from a lamp or candle phasis" Blood, thou art blood;" and this would be extinguished in its own grease ! He would have done İost by another syllable.
better, in this way, to have said that it was taken
from a cannon stified in its own report, by the smell of “Let's norite good angel on the devil's horn, gunpowder. The word 'smell is, however, used here 'Tis not the devil's cresl."
in a sense common with Shakespeare; as though he had “ Angelo's reasoning is–O place! O form! thongh said smacks of calumny."—Nlust. Shak. you wrench awe from fools, and tie even wiser souls to your false seeming, yet you make no alteration in the
ACT III.-SCENE I. minds or constitutions of those who possess, or assume you. Though we should write good angel on the “ That Dost this habitation"-"Sir T. Hanmer devil's horn, it will not change his nature, so as to give changed 'dost' to do, without necessity or authority: him a right to wear that crest.' It is well known that The construction is not, the skyey influences that do,' the crest was formerly chosen either as emblematical but, .a breath thou art, that dost,' etc. If •Servile to of some quality conspicuous in the person who bore it, all the skyey influences' be enclosed as a parenthesis, or as alluding to some remarkable incident of his life;
all the difficulty will vanish."-Porson. and on this circumstance depends the allusion."-M.
“ – thou art DEATH's Fool”—This allegorical imagery Mason.
is not used in an abstract sense only, for such things "THE GENERAL, subject to a well-wish'd king”—This were actually represented on the stage, in Shakespeare's is the old and intelligible reading. “The general" is time. In some of the pieces called “Moralities," or the people. So, in HAMLET—"'twas caviare to the “ Mysteries,” a figure of Death, with a large mouth, general," (act ii. scene 2;) and Lord Clarendon—" as would appear, and the Clown, or Fool of the piece, ran rather to be consented to, than that the general should about in every direction to avoid him, and yet nearly suffer."
fell into his jaws at almost every turn. In Stowe's
• Survey,” the initial letter contains a drawing of one " — more for number than for accompt"-Sinful actions, done under compnlsion, may add to the number
of these struggles between Death and the Fool. of our wrong deeds, but are not of much account in - nurs'd by BASENESS"—The condensation of suimming up our guilt. This is sometimes literally true, thought, in single words and phrases, which is so charbut is here applied with a moral sophistry characteristic
acteristic of this and all the later dramas of its author, of the speaker.
cannot be better shown than by comparing these lines
with Johnson's excellent note on them; yet the para" — your answer"-i. e. For you to answer.
phrase would furnish the material for many a page. in “Or seem so, CRAFTY”—This is the old reading, and a still more diluted exposition of the same humbling not craftily, as it has been modernized.
“ Or seem so,
truth :being crafty," is the meaning.
“A minute analysis of life at once destroys that splen “When it doth tax itself”-i. e. Accuse—an old
dour which dazzles the imagination. Whatever gran sense of the word, now become rare in modern use, but
deur can display, or luxury enjoy, is procured by .base
ness'-by offices of which the mind shrinks from the not quite antiquated.
contemplation. . All the delicacies of the table may be "— in the loss of QUESTION"—i. e. In idle supposi- traced back to the shambles and the dunghill; all mag; tion; in “loss" of more profitable converse. The nificence of building was hewn from the quarry; and phrase, however, is obscure.
all the pomp of ornament dug from among the damps
and darkness of the mine."--Johnson. - the ALL-BINDING law”—The old folios have “ all-building law." This Collier retains, as “ referring “ – a poor worm"-"Worm" is put for any creeping to the constructive and repairing power of law." But thing, or serpent. Shakespeare adopts the old notion, this has no application to the context, which agrees per that a serpent wounds with his tongue, and that his fectly with the emendation of “all-binding," which all
tongue is forked. In old tapestry and paintings, the other editors have concurred in adopting.
tongnes of serpents and dragons always appear barbed, “ Ignomy in ransom"_“Ignomy" was a frequent
like the point of an arrow. mode of writing ignominy. Davenant, in his alteration " — death, which is no more"-Johnson is indignant of this play, has given the sense of this somewhat ob at this passage, as teaching that “death" is only sleepscure allusion in his paraphrase
a sentence which in the friar is impious, in the reaIgnoble ransom no proportion bears
soner foolish, in the poet trite and vulgar." Surely the To pardon freely given.
Poet is here misunderstood. The friar does not speak
of the “ something after death," but of the transit from If nol a peoDARY, but only he,
life, which he compares to that into sleep. The great Owe, and succeed this weakness."
hereafter is a subject the Poet is not wont to treat with The word this' (instead of thy, as in the old copies) levity. Provokist, in this passage, is another instance is from an old MS. note in Lord Egerton's first folio. of his peculiar use of words of Latin derivation, emIt is probably right; and the meaning of the whole pas ploying them in their original sense, and not in the de. sage seems to be- If we are not all frail, let my rivative one in more common use. Provoke is not to brother die, if he alone offend, and have no feodary irritate, but to solicit, to invite. (companion) in this weakness.' To ‘owe' is here, as in many other instances, to own."-Collier.
“ – palsied ELD"-i. e. Old age, or old people. “Feodary" meant, originally, vassal, and is some "- an everlasting Leiger"-A “ leiger" was a pertimes taken for one who, as a vassal, assists his lord in manently resident ambassador. This is best explained any matter. The passage is, in any way, dark, and || by Lord Bacon:-“ Leiger ambassadors, or agents, crowded with remote allusions. Nares ("Glossary") were sent to remain in or near the courts of those
princes, or states, to observe their motions, or to hold ** And blown with restless violence round about correspondence with them.” The same association of The pendent world," etc. ideas is carried forward in the word appointment, which This idea does not belong to any form of Christian Stevens explains as preparation for death. But the word doctrine or opinion, but comes from the ancient philosoespecially belongs to an ambassador, as we find in Bur phy, taught by Cicero in his “ Somnium Scipionis:"net:-“ He had the appointments of an ambassador, but “Eorum animi qui se corporis voluptatibus dediderunt, would not take the character."
corporibus elapsi circum terram ipsam volutantur," etc. * - all the world's VASTIDITY"-i. e. Though you
The metrical harmony of the spheres, so beautifully inwere the possessor of the vast world, the terms proposed
troduced in the MERCHANT OF VENICE, (act v. scene 1.,) will fetter you to a fixed limit.
is also one of the topics of Cicero, in this same philo
sophical fragment; so that it is probable that the Poet “ — the poor beetle, that we tread upon"— These may have drawn that, as well as this poetic notion of tines, taken apart from the context, would indicate that the old philosophy, from the same source. If it is not The bodily pain, such as is attended with death, is felt allowed that he could read the original, yet he might with equal severity by a giant and a beetle. The phy. have read Newton's translation, which was “ turned into siologists tell us that this is not true; and that the ner. English" in 1577. vous system of a beetle does not allow it to feel pain so acutely as that of a man. We hope this is correct; but
" – age, ache, PENURY" —The oldest copy has per. we are not sure that Shakespeare meant to refine quite jury. It was corrected in the second folio. In a preso much as the entomologists are desirous to believe.
vious line it has thought for “thoughts." " It is somewhat amusing, (says a writer in the . Ento
“What siņ you do to save a brother's life, mological Magazine,') that his words should, in this Nature dispenses with the deed so far," etc. case, be entirely wrested from their original purpose. “One of the most dramatic passages in the present His purpose was to show how little a man feels in dy. ing; that the sense of death is most in apprehension, not
play, (says Hazlitt, in his . Characters of Shakespeare's
Plays,') is the interview between Claudio and his sister, in the act; and that even a beetle, which feels so little,
when she comes to inform him of the conditions on feels as much as a giant does. The less, therefore, the beetle is supposed to feel, the more force we give to the
which Angelo will spare his life. What adds to the sentiment of Shakespeare."
dramatic beauty of the scene, and the effect of Clandio's
passionate attachment to life, is that it immediately fol. “ – follies doth EMMEW''- Angelo makes follies mer
lows the Duke's lecture to him, in the character of the "p, or hide themselves; as the falcon compels the fowl
Friar, recommending an absolute indifference to it." to conceal himself. “Emmew” was a term in falconry The attempt of Claudio to prove to his sister that the to coop up
loss of her chastity, upon such an occasion, will be a
virtue, is finely characteristic of the profound knowledge The PRECISE Angelo"— The first folio has, “ the Shakespeare possessed of the intricate complexities of prenzie Angelo;" and the second substituted princely the human heart. “Shakespeare was, in one sense, the for prenzie. The word occurs again three lines lower, | least moral of all writers, (says Hazlitt ;) for morality where Isabella talks of “prenzie guards." Warburton (commonly so called) is made up of antipathies; and would read priestly in both places, and Tieck suggests his talent consisted in sympathy with human nature, in precise; which last, strange as it may be that a critic, all its shapes, degrees, depressions, and elevations, who has learned English as a foreign language, should The object of the pedantic moralist is to find out the have hit what so many ingenious Englishmen had bad in every thing: his was to show that there is some missed, bears in itself strong presumption of being the soul of goodness in things evil.'” With reference 10 true reading. We agree with Knight, that, “ having to the representation of such scenes on the stage, Schlegel choose some word which would have the double merit observes :-“It is certainly to be wished that decency of agreeing with the sense of the passage and being should be observed on all public occasions, and conse similar in the number and form of the letters, nothing quently also on the stage; but even in this it is possible can be more unfortunate than the correction of princely. to go too far. That censorious spirit, which scents out Warburton's priestly is much nearer the meaning in. impurity in every sally of a bold and vivacious descriptended to be conveyed. Tieck’s precise has a much tion, is at best but an ambiguous criterion of purity of closer resemblance to prenzie than either of the others morals; and there is frequently concealed under this (Prenzie; precise; princelie ; priestlie.)
hypocrisy the consciousness of an impure imagination.
The determination to tolerate nothing which has the Angelo has already been called precise ; and the term,
least reference to the sensual relation between the two to familiar to Shakespeare's contemporaries, of precisian,
sexes may be carried to a pitch extremely oppressive for purilan, and precise in reference to strictness of
to a dramatic poet, and injurious to the boldness and morals and manners, would make Claudio's epithet ap
freedom of his composition. If considerations of such propriate and intelligible. Princely guards (under
a nature were to be attended to, many of the happiest standing by guards the trimmings of a robe) certainly
parts of the plays of Shakespeare, for example, in does not give us the meaning of the Poet: it only says,
MEASURE FOR MEASURE, and All's WELL THAT Ends the worst man may wear a rich robe. Priestly is here
Well, which are handled with a due regard to decency, again much better. But precise guards distinctly gives
must be set aside for their impropriety." us the formal trimmings of the scholastic robe, to which Milton alludes in Comus:'
- A WARPED slip of WILDERNESS"-i. e. Wild.
ness—a wild "slip," not proceeding from the grafted O foolishness of men ! that lend their ears To those budge doctors of the Stoic fur,
stock. Beaumont and Fletcher, Decker, and Milton, And fetch their precepts from the Cnyic tub.”
use “ wilderness" in the same sense.
- the goodness that is cheap in beauty"- The “If it were damnable"-"Shakespeare shows his
quaint brevity of the sentence makes it obscure. He knowledge of human nature, in the conduct of Claudio. When Isabella first tells him of Angelo's proposal, he
says—" The goodness which, when associated with answers, with honest indignation, agreeably to his set
beauty, is held cheap, does not remain long so associated : iled principles
but grace, being the very life of your features, must
continue to preserve their beauty." Thou shalt not do't. But the love of life, being permitted to operate, soon
"– he made trial of you only”-i. e. He will avoil furnishes him with sophistical arguments: he believes
your accusation by alleging that he made trial of you it cannot be very dangerous to the soul, since Angelo,
only." who is so wise, will venture it.”—Johnson.
- COMBINATE husband''-i. e. Contracted husband
“ — the corrupt de puly SCALED"-i. e. Exposed, by " — the dissolution of it must cure it-i. e. Virtue removing the scales which cover him. This is the or. has become so extreme, that it must have a speedy end. dinary explanation of the word, which, however, Nares The reference is to the overstrained sanctity and zeal ("Glossary”) rejects, and interprets it as “ weighed in of Angelo. the scales."
“ – to make fellowships accurs’d”—“The sense is, “ – the MOATED GRANGE"-A lonely house or farm, (says Holt White,) there scarcely exists sufficient honwith a moat around it. A “grange” formerly meant esty in the world to make social life secure ; but there the farm-house belonging to a monastery, and situated are occasions enough when a man may be drawn in to at some distance. On this suggestion of the utter deso
become surety, which will make him pay dearly for lation of Mariana, whose loving and deserted heart was his friendships." left to prey upon itself, and to torment her imagination with one constant, unchangeable, and unavailing idea, “Grace to stand, and virtue go"-Coleridge, in his a beautiful poem has been founded, by Tennyson.
Literary Remains,” observes, upon this passage,
“Worse metre, indeed, but better English would be SCENE II.
Grace to stand, virtue to go." " — drink broion and white BASTARD"mi. e. A kind
M. Mason proposed to read of sweet wine, made of raisins, then much used-from
In grace to stand, and virtue go. the Italian bastardo. It is used here with a double
The text, as it stands, accords with the pervading commeaning.
pressed and broken style of the whole drama. " — good BROTHER FATHER" -“ In return to Elbow's " — weed my vice, and let his grow"-Some comblundering address of good father friar-(i. e. “good mentators make this refer to the Duke's personal fault, father brother')-the Duke humorously calls him, in which he confesses—"'twas my fault to give this people his own style, “ good brother father.' This would appear scope." I rather think most readers will agree with still clearer in French-Dieu vous benisse, mon père Malone, that “My does not relate to the Duke in par. frère. Et vous aussi, mon frère père.' There is no ticnlar, but to any indefinite person. The meaning doubt that our friar is a corruption of the French seems to be, to destroy by extirpation (as it is expressed frère."— TYRWHITT.
in another place) a fault that I have committed, and to A. De Vigny, in the preface to his spirited translation suffer his own vices to grow to a rank and luxuriant of OTHELLO, etc., into French verse, expresses his sur height. The speaker puts himself in the case of an un. prise at finding so much of the antiquated English of offending person.' Shakespeare to be good old French.
“ Most pond'rous and substantial things"-I believe, “ From our faults, as faults from sceming, free" with several of the best critics, that this passage, probaThe meaning is obscure from brevity. The Duke bly originally obscure from brevity of expression, has wishes that we were all as free from faults as faults are become more so from some misprint, the correction of from seeming to be so. Many editors print, with the which has not been discovered. “Likeness (says Col. second folio, “ Free from our faults," etc.
lier) has been construed comeliness; but likeness made your waist, a cord, sir"-Alluding to the “cord"
in crimes may refer to the resemblance, in vicious inround a friar's “ waist."
clination, between Angelo and Claudio." Stevens gave
up the lines as unintelligible, and the other commenta. - it is not the wear"-i. e. It is not the fashion. tors have not extracted much meaning out of them. “ – he is a motion"-i. e. He is a puppet-made of
We have printed the old text, as at least as good as any wood.
of the proposed emendations. The sense seems to be
* How may persons, of similar criminality, by making - DETECTED for women”—The use of this word, practice on the times, draw to themselves, as it were in the various extracts from old authors, collected by with spiders' webs, the ponderous and substantial bene. the commentators, show that its old meaning was (not fits of the world." suspected, as some of them say, but) charged, arraigned, accused. Thus, in Greenway's “Tacitus,” (1622,) the
ACT IV.-SCENE 1. Roman senators, who informed against their kindred, are said “ to have detected the dearest of their kindred."
“ Take, O! take those lips away"-The earliest in her cLACK-DISH"-"A wooden dish, with a authority for assigning this song to Shakespeare, (ex. moveable cover, formerly carried by beggars, which
cepting that one stanza of it is found here,) is the sputhey clacked and clattered to show that they were
rious edition of his “ Poems,” printed in 1640. It is empty. In this they received the alms. It was one
inserted in Beaumont and Fletcher's “ Bloody Brother," mode of attracting attention. Lepers, and other pau
(act v. scene 2,) with a second stanza, as follows:pers deemed infectious, originally used it, that the sound
Hide. O! hide those hills of snow, might give warning not to approach too near, and alms
Which thy frozen bosom bears,
On whose tops the pinks that grow be given without touching the object. The custom of
Are of those that April wears; clacking at Easter is not yet quite disused, in some of
But first set my poor
heart free, the counties in England. Lucio's meaning is too evident
Bound in those icy chains by thee. to want explanation."-SINGER.
Critics differ as to the authorship. Coupling the two cirINWARD of his"_“Inward" is intimate,
cumstances that one stanza of the song is found here, Here it is used substantively.
and that the whole was imputed to Shakespeare in 1640,
his claim may be admitted, until better evidence is ad. " — the business he hath HELMED”—The business, duced to deprive him of it; unless, indeed, we admit vessel of the state, of which he hath taken the helm. Weber's very probable conjecture, that this stanza is “ – an oppoSITE"-i. e. Adversary, or opponent.
Shakespeare's, and that Fletcher, having occasion for a
similar song, borrowed the first, and added the second " -- eat Mutton on Fridays"— This figure is taken from the fasting required on Fridays, and from the word “ mutton" being applied to flesh, both human and bes.
" — a PLANCHED gate"-i. e. A gate made of boards : tial. “Mutton” and “laced mutton" were the com
(from the French planche.) monest terms applied to prostitutes, in Shakespeare's “ There, have I made my promise, upon the time.
Heavy middle of the night to call upon him." - come Philip and Jacob''- A quaint allusion to I have here, like Knight, preferred retaining the origithe saints' days, Philip and James, or Jacobus.
nal metrical regulation, harsh as it may be, to an arbi