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Leicester's letter to

WHIT- The Dissenters failing of success in the parliament-house,

GIFT, Abp. Cant. were somewhat discouraged; Cartwright himself was willing Journal of

to come towards an accommodation, and made his court by the earl of Leicester. This nobleman wrote to the archbishop in his behalf; and because this letter and the answer shows the earl's affection to the Puritans, and the archbishop's caution, the reader shall have them in their own words :

" My Good LORD, The earl of “ I most heartily thank you for your favourable and cour

teous usage of Mr. Cartwright, who hath so exceeding kindly archbishop taken it also, as I assure your grace he cannot speak enough Whitgift in behalf of of it, I trust it shall do a great deal of good ; and he protesteth Cartwright.

and professeth to me to take no other course, but to the drawing of all men to the unity of the Church ; and that your grace hath so dealt with him, as no man shall so command him, and dispose of him as you shall ; and doth mean to let his opinion publicly be known, even in the pulpit, if your grace so permit him, what he himself will, and would all others should do for obedience to the laws established. And if any little scruple be, it is not great, and easy to be reformed by your grace, whom I do most heartily entreat to continue your favour and countenance towards him, with such access sometimes, as your

leisure may permit; for I perceive he doth much desire and 596. crave it. I am to thank your grace also very heartily for Mr.

Fenne; albeit I understand he is something more opinionated than I wish him, but I trust he will also yield to all reasons ; and I mean to deal with the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield to make some trial of him, for surely he is an honest man. Thus, my good lord, praying to God to bless his Church, and to make his servants constant and faithful, I bid your grace farewell. “ Your grace's very assured friend,

Fuller, from
Sir Peter

At the Court, this 14th of July.”

“ Master Cartwright shall be welcome to me at all times,
and using himself quietly, as becometh him, and as I hope he
will, he shall find me willing to do him any good; but to grant
unto him as yet my licence to preach, without longer trial, I

The archbishop's answer.


cannot, especially seeing he protesteth himself to be of the ELIZAsame mind he was at the writing of his book, for the matter thereof, though not for the manner. I am, I thank God, not altered in any point by me set down, to the contrary: and knowing many things to be very dangerous : wherefore, notwithstanding I am content, and ready to be at peace with him, so long as he liveth peaceably, yet doth my conscience and

, duty forbid me to give unto him any farther public approbation, until I be better persuaded of his conformity. And so, being Idem. bold to use my accustomed plainness with your Jordship, I commit you to the tuition of Almighty God, this 17th of July, 1585.


This year a presbytery was set up at Hatfield Peveril, in Carew, the

Pantheist. Essex, by one Carew, a Puritan preacher. Ailmer, bishop of London, being informed of this opposite communion, summoned the preacher and several of his congregation before himself and other ecclesiastical commissioners. These men, after examination, were committed. As for Carew, his ignorance, heterodoxies, and assurance were very remarkable. He had his mission only from the people's election, despised all censures of the Church, declaimed against the Common Prayer, and denied Christ's descent into hell'. He maintained divisions ought to be kept on, because our Saviour said, “I came not to send peace, but a sword.” He held, “ the soul of man was part of the substance of God;" by consequence, that the soul was infinite; and that the Deity must suffer in the fate of those that were lost. He had misled his people to an indifference for the sacrament of baptism: they said, “it made no matter for the water, so we have the word.”

Strype's This year a conference was held at Holyrood-house, between Life of

Bishop the king and the ministers, touching Church discipline; it is Ailmer. not registered in the manuscript acts of the assembly, but I found a copy of it in the Paper-office, at Whitehall, which I shall transcribe into the records.

See Records, This year John Fecknam, late abbot of Westminster, died: Fecknam's the greatest part of his history having been given already, I Somewhat of shall only observe farther, that in the reign of queen Mary this his cha

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racter. 1 About this time, the profoundly learned Hugh Broughton wrote his book on Christ's descent into Hades, to prove that Hades was a general term for the world of souls, and not to be confounded with Gehenna, or Hell, the place of punishment. Our vulgate translations require correction in this respect.

num. 93.


Ch. Hist.
Pitts de


take arms, and are

WHIT- abbot did a great many good offices to the Protestants. For

Abp. Cant. instance, the earl of Bedford and the present earl of Leicester

were screened in some measure by him. He disengaged sir
John Cheek from some difficulties, and interposed so far with
queen Mary for the enlargement of her sister Elizabeth,
that he suffered in his interest at court. Those of his own
persuasion complained his kindness was unreturned; for upon

the refusal of the oath of supremacy, he was confined, and died Fuller's a prisoner in Wisbeach castle.

The malcontent lords, who fled into England for shelter, Illust. Angl. rallied their interest, and ventured to return into their country. Scrip. The mal- At their first appearing, they raised forces, sat down before Scotch lords Stirling, and took it. The king, to prevent a civil war, parreturn home, doned them, and discarded Arran : and, over and above,

restored them their former posts in the government. And pardoned.

now, a parliament being held at Edinburgh, the ministers who returned with the lords not being contented with their pardon, insisted strongly upon a repeal of the acts passed the last year against their discipline. The lords, either disliking the motion, or conceiving the thing impracticable, were willing to acquiesce under the present establishment. This passiveness was highly resented by the ministers, who charged the lords

with breach of promise ; and, which was more extraordinary, Some of the one William Watson, preaching before the king at Edinburgh, misbehave reproached him with mal-administration ; for which misbethemselves in the pulpit.

haviour he was committed to the castle of Blackness. But. this correction was not sufficient to govern the ill manners of the rest; for one James Gibson getting into the pulpit at

Edinburgh, fell into a very intemperate fit of railing. He Captain said, “that captain James, with his lady Jezabel and William James lately carried the Steward (meaning the colonel), were taken to be persecutors title of lord Arran.

of the Church, but that now it was seen to be the king himself, against whom he denounced the curse that fell on Jero

boam, that he should die childless, and be the last of his race." Spotswood's

Gibson being called before the council, maintained his insoCh. Hist. lence, and was committed.

In England, archbishop Whitgift found himself embarrassed at the council-board. The earl of Leicester, and some other great men, though seemingly satisfied with the late conference at Lambeth, endeavoured to break the archbishop's measures, and support the Puritans. He complains of this ill-usage,

et Refutat. Libell.


that he was misreported in his management, opposed from ELIZAunexpected quarters, and that some of those who professed friendship did not deal clearly with him. I shall give the reader part of his letter to this purpose :

“God knows,” says he, “how desirous I have been to have The archmy doings approved by my ancient and honourable friends. I bishop's ex

postulatory have done nothing of importance against the sectaries without letter to the good advice. I have answered their contentious and seditious surer. objections, and shall I now say I have lost my labour? Or shall my just dealing with disobedient and irregular persons cause my former professed and ancient friends to hinder my just proceedings, and make them speak of my doings, yea, and of myself, what they list? In these public actions I see no cause why I should seek friends, seeing they to whom the care of the commonwealth is committed ought of duty therein to join with me. It is objected, by some, that my desire of uniformity, by way of subscription, is for the better maintenance of

my book. They are my enemies that say so; but I trust my friends have a better opinion of me.

Why should I seek for any confirmation of my book after twelve years' appro- A. d. 1586. bation? Or what shall I get thereby more than already I have? And yet, if subscription may confirm it, it is confirmed long ago by the subscription of almost all the clergy of England before my time. I am charged with wilfulness; I hope my friends are better persuaded of me,—to whose consciences I appeal. It is strange, a man of my place, dealing by so good warrant as I do, should be so encountered; and, for not yielding, be accounted wilful. But I must be content: “ Vincit qui 597. patitur1.' There is a difference betwixt wilfulness and con- « Vincit qui stancy. I have taken upon me, by the place which I hold

patitur " under her majesty, the defence of the religion and the rites of archbishop's the Church of England, to appease the schisms and sects therein; to reduce all the ministers to uniformity and due obedience, and not to waver with every wind. This also my place, my person, my duty, the laws, her majesty, and the goodness of the cause, require of me. And herein the lords of her highness's most honourable privy-council (all things considered) ought in duty to assist and countenance me. But how is it

was the

1 “Vincit qui patitur” is happily rendered by a modern poet thus:

“ 'Tis suffering leaves the knowledge and the pow'r

Which says, “Let scorn be not repaid with scorn.'

7 99

WHIT- possible, after so long liberty and lack of discipline, I should Abp. Cant. perform the charge I have undertaken, if a few persons, 80

meanly qualified (as most of the factious sectaries are), should be countenanced against the whole state of the clergy, of greatest account both for learning, years, staidness, wisdom, religion, and honesty; and if open breakers and impugners of the law, young in years, proud in conceit, contentious in dispo

sition, should be maintained against their governors, seeking to Cyprian. reduce them to order and obedience ? Hæc sunt initia hære

ticorum, et ortus atque conatus schismaticorum male cogitantium, ut sibi placeant, ut præpositum superbo tumore contemnant. Sic de ecclesia receditur, sic altare profanum foris collocatur, sic contra pacem Christi, et ordinationem atque unitatem Dei rebellatur.' (That is, pride and contempt of superiors is the principle of mutiny, and the leading motive to heresy and schism. Thus they revolt from the Church; thus unhallowed altars are set up in foreign societies; thus the peace and unity recommended, thus the government instituted by Christ, is broken and opposed.) I must not endure,” continues the archbishop, “their notorious contempt, unless I will become Æsop's block, and undo all that has been hitherto done. It is certain, if way be given to them upon their unjust surmises and clamours, it will be the cause of that confusion which hereafter the State will be sorry for. I neither fear the displeasure of man, nor the evil tongue of the uncharitable, who call me tyrant, pope, knave, and lay things to my charge I never did, nor thought. "Scio enim hoc esse opus diaboli, ut servos Dei mendaciis laceret, et opinionibus falsis gloriosum nomen infamet, ut qui conscientiæ suæ luce clarescunt, alienis rumoribus sordidentur.' (That is, it is the devil's business to bring misreports upon God's servants, to sully their reputation and asperse their innocence.) Thus,” says the archbishop,

were St. Cyprian himself, and other godly bishops, used, to whom I am not comparable. But that which grieves me most, -that which is to be wondered at, and lamented, -is, that some of those who countenance these men, and


out for a learned ministry, should watch their opportunity, and be instruments and means to place most unlearned men in the chiefest places and livings of the ministry, thereby to make the state of the bishops and clergy contemptible, and I fear saleable. This hypocrisy and dissembling with God and man (in

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