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WHIT- years, which grant, according to custom, was confirmed in Abp. Cant. parliament. 668.

The next year, one Watson, a secular priest, published a Extract of book against the Jesuits : it is written in a scholastic way.

It is made up of ten quodlibets, as he calls them, with the

same number of articles in each subdivision. He draws up a priests write against the severe charge against the Jesuits for their latitude in equivo

cation and mental reservation, flies out into strong reproaches, and treats the society with the last extremity of language. The paper war between the seculars and Jesuits ran now as high as ever. The secular priests were much disgusted that Blackwell was put over them for their arch-priest. For this

Blackwell, it seems, they looked on as a person at the disposal A.D. 1602. of Garnet, the Jesuit's provincial. Blackwell's commission

being thus contested, he first disabled them in their character, and afterwards got them censured for schismatics and heretics, in a brief from Rome. But the university of Paris declaring for them, this blemish would not stick. In their prints against their adversaries, they spoke very honourably of the queen's clemency, and that, every thing considered, she had all along dealt gently with the Papists. For instance: they proved that in the first eleven years of her reign, not one Roman Catholic was capitally prosecuted for his religion. And that ten years after Pius Quintus's excommunicating bull, and the rebellion under the earls of Westmorland and Northumberland, there were not above twelve priests executed, and even some of these were convicted of practices against the state. And

thus matters stood till the year 1580, when the Jesuits made And charge their first mission into England. That these religious, by disloyalty. their disloyalty and treason, embroiled business to the last

degree, disserved the Catholic religion, and provoked the legislature to severities against that communion. . That notwithstanding this misbehaviour, there were not in the next ten years above fifty priests executed, and fifty-five banished, who had forfeited their lives by law. That afterwards, at the instance of the Jesuit Parsons, there were English seminaries founded in Spain: and from hence, every year, several turbulent.priests were dispatched into England. That this Parsons prompted the Spaniard to a second invasion of England and Ireland : that in a printed tract he maintained the Infanta's title to the crown of England: and required an oath of the students of the seminaries, to declare for her. That Holt of


the same society did his utmost to push Hesket to a rebellion, ELIZAand tampered with Cullin, York, and Williams, to kill the queen. And that Walpole, a Jesuit, persuaded Squire to the same villany. And thus the queen, whose opinion it was that conscience ought not to be overborne with rigour and compulsion, was forced in her own defence upon methods of severity: for that without such rugged expedients, the preserving herself and her kingdoms was thought impracticable. As for Parsons, they describe him as a rank incendiary, and one remarkably defective in common honesty. The libels published by the Jesuits against the queen, these seculars charged with downright falsehood, and that the authors are no better than traitors against God and her majesty. And here they argue very commendably : that religion is not to be propagated by insurrections, by fire and sword; but that proselytes are to be gained by persuasion, meekness, and inoffensive behaviour. And lastly, they cautioned the English Papists against sending their children for education to the Jesuits' seminaries : for that these men would make a dangerous impression upon their youth, form them to treason and rebellion, and poison them in their principles.

Cambden, Notwithstanding these professions of loyalty, the queen and council suspected some latent reserves. A proclamation therefore was published, commanding the Jesuits, and those secular priests who joined them, to quit the kingdom immediately : and that the rest, who appeared more moderate and better disposed, should be gone within two months, unless they would give a satisfactory declaration of their allegiance: and that Idem. neither Jesuits nor seculars should return under the penalty of suffering the law?.

This year Alexander Nowel, doctor of divinity, and dean of Feb. A. d. St. Paul's, London, departed this life. He was educated in the death of Brasennose-college in Oxford; which house he endowed with Dr. Nowel, two hundred pounds per annum, for the maintenance of thir- Paul's, and teen students. He was a person of learning and exemplary ling, bishop life. Dr. John Overal, divinity professor in Cambridge, suc- of Hereford. ceeded him in his deanery.

Herbert Westphaling, bishop of Hereford, a very religious prelate, died about this time, and left twenty pounds per annum to Jesus-college in Oxford.

" It is clear, by their own showing, that the papalists deserved most of the penalties Angl. that Elizabeth inflicted on them; but, as usual, the innocent suffered with the guilty.


Godwin de



Το go back a little to Scotland : in November last a general Abp. Cant. assembly met at Holyrood-house, where, amongst other things, A general

it was agreed, that in memory of his majesty's deliverance assemlily at there should be sermons in all the boroughs every Tuesday, Holyrood

and the fifth of August solemnly kept, pursuant to the late act
of parliament. By the way, the parliament not only provided
for this anniversary; but enacted the name of Ruthven should
be extinguished, the bodies of the earl and his brother brought
to Edinburgh, there hanged and quartered, and their heads

the top of the common prison ; this was all executed accordingly, excepting the clause relating to the name of Ruthven, which the king dispensed with in favour of those unconcerned in the plot.

The king having a near prospect of being monarch of the whole island, and resolving to bring the churches of England and Scotland towards an uniformity, prevailed with the assembly to pass an order that marriages might be solemnized without distinction of days; whereas by the rules of the discipline it stood prohibited on Sundays. Farther, before this time the initiating sacrament was not administered, unless at the times of preaching. Some are of opinion this practice proceeded from an opinion of the indifferency, or at least the nonnecessity of baptism. But now the assembly ordained, “ that in case this sacrament was required by the parents, or others

in their names, it should neither be refused to infants, or Spotswood's

delayed upon any pretence whatsoever :" and thus the Scotch MS, penes ministers made somewhat of an advance towards the Church Archibald Campbell of England. Armig. Pope Cle

About this time pope Clement VIII., perceiving the disputes ment's letter, between the English seculars and Jesuits was like to disserve to Blackwell,

his interest, wrote to the archpriest Blackwell to stop the priest. October, progress of the contest: to call in all defamatory books, and

not to suffer either party to maltreat the other; and that 669.

they should print nothing upon the controversy without a licence from the cardinal protector. The pope takes notice that some English priests had appealed, and preferred a complaint against Blackwell : he therefore cautions him to manage

his commission with temper: as for his instructions at length, See Records, I shall refer the reader to the records. num. 98. Queen Eli

The queen, who had hitherto been all along happy in her health, began now to decline very sensibly. On the last of January, she removed from Westminster to Richmond

Ch. Hist.

the arch


zabeth's death and character.

for retirement and the benefit of the air. She was seized ELIZA

BETH. some time before her death with a deep melancholy. Whether this distemper proceeded from conscience or constitution, whether her mind affected her health, or ill habit of body clouded her imagination,-is somewhat uncertain. It is possible her extraordinary usage of the queen of Scots, embroiling the neighbouring kingdoms and harassing the patrimony of the Church, might not altogether please in the retrospection. The earl of Essex's friends pretended her giving way to the execution of that nobleman sat hard upon her spirits. Some thought she suspected the inclinations of her subjects began to remove, that they grew weary of her government, and looked towards the king of Scots. But, without pro- Cambden, nouncing upon the cause, it is certain the last scene was dark and disconsolate. However, her silence and solitary appearance, her refusing conversation, unless with archbishop Whitgift, might proceed from a religious disposition. She was willing, we may charitably suppose, to keep herself in a posture of recollection, and reserve her time for eternity. When the symptoms grew mortal, the lord keeper and secretary Cecil waited on her by the direction of the privy council. Their business was to ask her pleasure concerning her suc

She told them “her throne was a throne of kings, and that she would not have any mean person succeed her.” And the secretary desiring her majesty to explain herself farther, she answered, “that the king of Scots, her nearest relation, should succeed her.” After this, the archbishop put her in Idem. mind to turn her thoughts to the other world, and think upon God. “ That I do,” says she ; “nor does my mind at all wander from him." And when her speech failed her, her gestures were devout and significant. She died on the 24th of March, in the seventieth year of her age, and the forty-fifth of her reign.

To say something of this princess by way of description : she seems to have been formed by nature and education for the greatness she was born to. It must be said her qualities were many of them correspondent to her station. To be somewhat particular : she was furnished with learning, sense, and courage, to an unusual degree; she spoke Latin, French, and Italian, with ease and propriety, and understood Greek and Spanish; she translated “Sallust de Bello Jugurthino," the greatest part


WHIT- of “Horace de Arte Poetica,” and “ Plutarch de Curiositate;"

Abp. Cant. she had a good ear for music, and played upon several instru-

ments. Her mien and behaviour were graceful and majestic;
and being prepared to answer ambassadors' speeches in the
language they were delivered, and discourse upon government
and the state of foreign kingdoms, she appeared with great
advantage at her giving audience, and upon other public occa-
sions. Thus, the duke of Anjou and other strangers of quality
are said to have admired her extremely. She was generally
awake for the functions of government. Her measures for
precaution were well taken: her conduct rested upon art, and
her politics were carried to the farthest improvement; and,
when the prospect was black and the crisis grew dangerous,
nothing was more brave than this princess. For instance,
when the Spanish Armada was ready to descend upon the
kingdom, she appeared at Tilbury with an air of resolution,
rode about the army, harangued her troops, and encouraged
them like an heroine.

Neither was she less remarkable in her administration at home. She knew how to govern her dominions, as well as guard them. She always took care to keep a due distance between the subject and sovereign, and never suffered her people, “ either without doors or within,” to grow upon the prerogative ; and, notwithstanding these reserves of majesty, this holding the reins tight, and keeping the spirit of government always stirring, she avoided the imputation of a rigid prince, and gained the affections of the generality. She had the secret of engaging the people, without lessening her authority ; was condescensive and popular in her gestures and discourse ; and knew how to stoop, without shrinking her stature. And, to make her management more acceptable, she never burthened the country with unnecessary taxes ; and that which was given was constantly applied to the public benefit. To which I may add, the recovery of the mint to a just standard of fineness. In short, had the interest of her subjects lain wholly in this world, few princes would have left their memory better recommended'.

But, as to the service of religion, I am sorry I cannot say

1 Such were some of the great benefits which will ever endear the memory of Elizabeth to the British, notwithstanding her numerous defects, which Dodd, Lingard, Hume, and Smythe, have so graphically delineated.

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