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of Christ's body, may not be admitted to their trial, or have ELIZAthe benefit of law, till they are reconciled to the Church.

Fifthly. If his majesty is unalterably resolved not to change the time or place of their trial, they then desire that such as profess religion may be admitted for a guard to his majesty, to defend his person from violence, and to prosecute the criminals to the utmost : which they are fully determined to do, though at the hazard of all their lives.

The king, at the reading the title of the address, was somewhat displeased. He told them, that, since the assembly had met without his consent, he would not own them in the quality of commissioners. But, notwithstanding he refused to treat them under that character, he condescended to hear them as subjects. And, to give satisfaction, he acquainted them, that the time and place for the trial of these lords was assigned by the advice of the council ; that, upon farther considering the matter, he found the time too short, and the town of Perth not so convenient, and therefore had appointed a meeting of the states at Linlithgow, by whose advice he should govern this affair ; that, since these noblemen were brought to their trial at the request of the ministers, he was somewhat surprised they should now address him for delaying it; and, lastly, he assured them care would be taken that the judges and jury should be persons unbiassed, and well affected to religion. The commissioners reported the king's answer to their prin- They order

subjects cipals. The assembly, being unpleased, made a resolve to to meet, and prosecute the lords, and to appear in arms at the place assigned appear in for the trial. To this purpose, some of the members stayed at Edinburgh to give notice to the rest. The king, being informed of this resolution, sent for the ministers that were in town, and put them in mind how grossly they had failed in 642. their duty, by presuming to draw the subjects together in arms without his authority, and charged them not to execute anything of that kind. To this they returned a canting, rebellious answer, in these words: “ That it was the cause of God, and in defence thereof they could not be deficient.” Upon this the king issued out a proclamation, to forbid all persons meeting in arms".


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King James had taken a leaf out of Elizabeth's book, and endeavoured with much skill and courage to check the disloyal turbulence of the Presbyterians; but they were too desperate to listen to reason, and nothing but bloody revolutions would satisfy them, VOL, VII.






estates at


Notwithstanding this proclamation, great numbers came to Abp. Cant. Edinburgh, where the estates were convened, and the people And refuse began to rise in all other parts of the country. The trial of to obey the the popish lords was referred to a committee of the estates, who clamation. had likewise an authority to conclude upon an expedient for

the preservation of religion, and quieting the disorders in the kingdom ; and their decision was to have the same force as if it had been made by the parliament. Several of the ministers likewise had the liberty to sit with the committee if they pleased : but then their business was only, as far as it appears, to suggest and argue, but not to vote with the rest. The committee, after a long debate, agreed upon several heads. I shall mention only some of them :

First. That such as have not yet professed the reformed by the com- religion, or deserted it, should conform before the 1st of Febmittee of the

ruary next, give satisfaction, and submit to the orders appointed Edinburgh, them by the king and the Church. And, in case they pre

respect to the Roman tended scruple of conscience, they should quit the realm, and

transport themselves to such countries as his majesty should appoint, and not return home till they resolved to turn Protestants, and satisfy the Church; and that, during their banishment, themselves and their heirs should enjoy their estates, and have the liberty of constituting proxies or attorneys, to defend their right, and appear for them in courts of justice.

That the earls above-mentioned, and others of that persuasion, should neither dispute, nor allow any disputing, at their tables against the reformed religion; that they should entertain a minister in their houses, admit of conferences for disentangling them from their errors, and that they may be the better prepared to subscribe the confession of faith.

That such of them as make it their choice to depart the country, rather than conform to the religion established, shall give security to forbear entering into any concert with Jesuits

and others against religion and the state ; and that they should Id. p. 400. keep no such correspondence before they embark.

And, lastly, that in the mean time the Church shall convent all suspected persons before them, and demand satisfaction ; and, in case they prove obstinate, delate their names to the king and council ; and that masters and landlords shall be obliged to answer for persons under their charge and jurisdiction.




To return to England, where the next thing that occurs is, ELIZAthe death of John Ailmer, bishop of London. He died in the seventy-third year of his age, and was buried at St. Paul's. He June 3, was descended from an ancient and considerable family of the Bishop Ailmers, of Ailmer-hall, in Norfolk. They pretend to a Saxon death, original, and claim a relation to the Ailmers, earls of Devonshire and Cornwall, before the Conquest. A younger branch Life of of the family transported themselves into Ireland, where they Ailmer.

Bishop intermarried with the Fitzgeralds; and one of them was lord chief justice of the King's Bench in the reign of king Henry VIII. As to the bishop, he was a person of learning and resolution, governed with vigour, and was strict in requiring conformity. Part of his character, which has been touched already, is comprehended in these two verses upon his monument:

Ter senos annos præsul ; semel exul, et idem

Bis pugil in causa religionis erat."
He was succeeded by Richard Fletcher, bishop of Worcester.

The latter end of August, this year, prince Henry, the king of Scots' eldest son, was baptized with great solemnity. The sacrament was administered by Cunningham, bishop of Aberdeen.

This summer, William Reynolds, an eminent Roman Catho- William lic divine, departed this life. He was extracted from a wealthy his death

Reynolds, family at Pinhoe, in Devonshire. His uncle, Jerome Reynolds, and chadoctor in divinity, took some care of his education at first. He was afterwards sent to Winchester-school, from thence to Newcollege, in Oxford, where he appeared a promising genius, and made a considerable proficiency in most parts of learning. He went in with the Reformation at first, and continued in our communion several years; but, it seems, bishop Jewel's works, which fixed a great many other people, unsettled Reynolds. He fancied this prelate did not manage the argument fairly, and that his reasonings were loose and inconclusive. He went to Rome upon this dissatisfaction, and reconciled himself to that Church ; and, having travelled through the greatest parts of Italy and France, he settled at Rheims, where cardinal Allen gave him a friendly entertainment, and made him divinity and Hebrew professor in the English college. He over-fatigued himself with study, which occasioned the break


WHIT- ing a vein, and hastened his end. Pitts reports him a poet, an Abp. Cant. orator, an historian; that he had skill in music and mathematics; that he was a philosopher, a linguist, and an eminent divine. To mention some of his works: he addressed a tract upon the holy eucharist to the king of Scots, against one Bruce, a Scotch minister. He wrote another discourse in defence of the Rhemish translation of the New Testament, against Dr. Whittaker, divinity professor at Cambridge; and, at the instance of the heads of the Holy League in France, he published an ill discourse to justify the arms of the Leaguers against the government. And, to mention only one more, he wrote a book by way of dialogue, entitled "Calvino Turcismus." This book, though left imperfect at his death, was afterwards finished and printed by his friend, William Gifford, who dedicated it to Albert, archduke of Austria.


Pitts de

Illust. Angl.


Allen, his

His patron, cardinal Allen, died about two months after. death, &c. He was descended from a gentleman's family in Lancashire, bred in Oxford, and was principal of St. Mary's-hall. When the Reformation came on, he retired to Douay, in Flanders, where he studied divinity, and was made professor in that faculty. This Allen was the first who drew the English refugees together, and formed them into an academical society at Douay and Rheims. Here their capacities were examined, their business prescribed, and their posts assigned them. Some of them engaged the Protestants in print, and spent their time in controversial divinity; others collected memoirs upon the persecution of their friends in England, and digested the accounts they received into a kind of martyrology. Allen had a considerable share in maintaining the doctrine of his Church. He wrote several tracts, too long to mention. It must be granted, his merits, with respect to his own communion, ran high, for which he was created a cardinal by Sextus Quintus. His death was much regretted by the Roman Catholics: for, besides the services of his pen, he kept the English Papists from breaking out into misunderstandings, and made up the differences between the secular priests and Jesuits.



A misunderstanding between the

But this accommodation was of but short continuance; for after Allen's death, the priests and religious confined in Wisseculars and beach-castle came to an open rupture. The occasion was this:

Jesuits in


one father Weston, alias Edmunds, a Jesuit, pretended to make orders, and set up for governor over all the rest, and to



Octav, exhibita.



conceal his ambition, he gave out this authority was forced ELIZAupon him by Henry Garnett, the English provincial. But those of his own society who resigned to his pretensions were misled, as some say, by the counterfeit sanctity of the Jesuits, by large shares in the division of the contributions, and by promise of preferment in case of success.

Declaratio The majority of the seculars refused to come under Wes- et Perturba

tionum, &c. ton's command; they alleged this post had been offered to ad Clem. Watson, bishop of Lincoln, who died prisoner in the castle ; that this prelate refused this governing distinction, as unsuitable to their present circumstances; that affliction and confinement were great levellers, and ought to put a stop to projects of dominion ; and that, if any order could pretend to preference and jurisdiction, the Benedictines had the best claim: for these religious had been settled in England near a thousand years.

Weston, to cover his encroachment, took a modest title, and only styled himself agent for the prisoners. It was thought his forwardness was underhand encouraged by the Jesuits, both in England and elsewhere. The bottom of the business was probably to try the temper of the secular priests; and if they had proved tame and passive under Weston's pretensions, they might have made a precedent of it; and Garnett, the provincial, it is likely, would have stretched his authority over all the English seculars.

About this time, a Roman Catholic priest of character came to Wisbeach; he had been very serviceable to the prisoners in collecting and conveying contributions. And thus being a friend to both parties, they agreed to refer the difference to his arbitration. He gives the cause against the Jesuits, and orders Weston to desist from his claim of superiority. The Jesuits, notwithstanding they had referred the controversy to him, ridiculed his award, and refused to stand by it.

Soon after they came to another compromise, and two priests, by the consent of both parties, were sent for to put an end to this dispute. These referees declared Weston's agency would create misunderstandings too mischievous in the consequence, and therefore ought to be given up; and Weston once more obliged by refusing to abide by the reference, an order was with some his pro-, difficulty procured from the provincial Garnett to command him lay down his to lay down his claim. But this accommodation amounted to ld. p. 20.

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