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WHIT- what spirit Penry was. He had lain at Edinburgh for some Abp. Cant. time, as the indictment sets forth. His business, without Penry's cha- question, was to solicit for the cause, and make an interest racter and with the Kirk. From hence he played his libels into England
upon the Church and State. He is very intemperate in his 640.
remonstrance; takes the utmost liberties of satire; arraigns the administration; and endeavours to bring an odium upon the queen and bishops. He stayed at Edinburgh till Hacket's plot was concerted, and began to come forward. And when the juncture appeared somewhat promising, he told Arthington
in a letter, that “Reformation must shortly be erected in Bancroft's England.” Upon this prospect he came for England ; and Dangerous Positions,
upon the miscarriage of Hacket's business retired into Scotland, as has been already observed. About the beginning of the last sessions he ventured to make another journey to Lon
don; and notwithstanding his endeavour to pass incognito, he In Crastino was discovered by the vicar of Stepney, committed, and tried Ascensionis. at the King's-bench bar. The indictment was grounded upon
the 23rd Eliz, cap. 1.
He was found guilty, and, not long after, executed at St. Thomas Watrings. Care was taken that the mob might not have notice of the time when he suffered, for fear some tumult might have happened. This Penry had a bold and buffooning manner of writing. He had a principal share in those scurrilous pamphlets which went under the title of “ Martin Mar-Pre
late," as has been already related. Soon after his execution, A posthu- another seditious pamphlet of his writing was published; it is mous pam- entitled, “ The History of Corah, Dathan, and Abiram, applied Penry's to the Prelacy and Ministry of the Church of England: by published.
Mr. John Penry, a Martyr of Jesus Christ.” The publisher, to raise the author's character, and give force to the performance, informs the reader, in his preface, that “ Mr. John Penry was a godly man : learned, zealous, and of a most Christian carriage and courage ; that he was born and bred in the mountains of Wales, and with all godly care and labour endeavoured to have the Gospel preached among his countrymen, whose case he greatly seemed to pity, wanting all the ordinary means for their salvation. That being used by God for a special instrument in the manifestation of his truth, he was hardly intreated, imprisoned, condemned, and executed, and so suffered martyrdom for the name of Christ; and more particularly, that he
was adjudged at the King's-bench by Sir John Popham, lord ELIZAchief justice, and the rest of the judges then assembled, on the 25th of the fifth month, and executed on the 29th of the same. That he was not brought to execution the next, second, or third day, as most men expected; but that when men did least look for it, he was taken while he was at dinner, and hastily bereaved of his life, without being suffered (though he much desired) to make a declaration of his faith towards God, or his allegiance to the queen.”
And in his postscript to the preface, he concludes thus : “That Penry was apprehended, adjudged, and executed for the truth of Christ, whatsoever other things were pretended
against him ?."
The pressing the law thus close struck a terror into the Carturight party, and made the Dissenters of all sorts less enterprising is enlarged against the government. And now Cartwright, either out of by the arch
bishop's caution or conviction, began to relax a little, and give way to interest. prudential considerations.
Archbishop Whitgift being informed this Nonconformist was coming about, resolved to encourage his disposition. To this purpose he solicited the queen in his behalf, procured him his liberty, and her majesty's pardon. The archbishop likewise gave him leave to settle at Warwick, where he was master of the hospital founded by the earl of Leicester. Here he had the liberty of preaching, upon condition that he should neither write, preach, nor act, against the constitution of the Church of England. Cartwright answered the terms, and kept within the bounds prescribed. However, the queen was not pleased with his being so much considered, and thought the archbishop had gone too far in his good nature. But Whitgift conceived Cartwright might deserve more indulgence than Travers, though both of them were ordained in a foreign communion. For Travers had never any other orders but those received from the presbyters at Antwerp; but Cartwright had a much better conveyance of his character, and was canonically ordained in the Church of England. To give him his due, he was not ungrateful for the favours received; for, from this time onwards, he treated the archbishop with a suitable regard, and continued quiet and inoffensive to his death, which happened about ten years after. Fuller's
Ch. Hist. " If Penry and the Puritans had proceeded by constitutional petitions, they would have
book 9. succeeded better. By attempting to take the law into their own hands, they stirred up tremendous re-actions, which at length overturned the whole system of society.
WHIT- In the latter end of April, this year, there was an assembly
GIFT, Abp. Cant. held at Dundee in Scotland. To prevent the encroachment A general
of the Kirk upon the prerogative, sir James Melvil was sent to assembly at signify the king's pleasure. His instructions were digested
under several articles.
First. The king let them know he would not suffer the required of the diminution of his honour; and expected they should be less Kirk by the arbitrary in appointing the place and time for their assemblies.
Before they broke up, therefore, he commanded them to send two or three of their members to court, to receive his orders when and where they were to meet next.
Secondly. They were required to make a decree to check the confidence and indiscretion of the ministers, and forbid them declaiming in the pulpit against the proceedings of his majesty and council; and that deprivation might be the penalty of such misbehaviour.
Thirdly. That since Mr. Craig was worn out with age, his majesty desired the assembly to nominate five or six ministers, that he might choose two of them to officiate in his family.
Fourthly. That every presbytery should be ordered to advertise his majesty of the practices of the Papists, and those who abetted or entertained Bothwell.
And fifthly. That they should appoint some of their number to cause the magistrates in seaport towns to examine those who embarked or came ashore, and send up their names to
court ; that by such strict inquiries the attempts upon the Spotswood, established religion might be the better discovered.
To the two first complaining articles, the assembly returned a general, not to say an evasive answer. As to their meetings, they sent the king word they should govern themselves by the act of parliament made last year. And for satisfaction to the second article, they made an act couched in these loose and ambiguous terms: that is, they “prohibited all ministers to utter in pulpit any rash or irreverent speeches against his majesty, or council, or their proceedings; but to give their admonitions upon just and necessary causes, with all fear, love, and reverence.' The king looked upon this as a trifling
restraint, as a reserve for intemperate liberty, and no better 61. than downright collusion. And being thus disappointed, he
took little notice of the Kirk's address against conveying the tithes to the laity, and erecting them, as they speak, into temporalties.
At this assembly an ordinance was made, that none of the ELIZAKirk of Scotland should travel into any part of the king of Spain's dominions for the business of commerce. The The assem
bly prohibits reason was, because the merchants might be called in question commerce
with Spain. by the Inquisition, and menaced out of their religion. Therefore, unless the king of Spain could be prevailed with not to molest the reformed, in their persons or effects, upon the score of their belief, they forbade going into his territories, under pain of excommunication.
The merchants, shocked at this decree, petitioned the king and council for liberty of trade, and succeeded. But the government, it seems, was no sufficient shelter : for the ministers went on with their censures with so much vigour, that the merchants were glad to resign and compound the matter. In short, they promised to break off their commerce with Spain, as soon as their accounts could be settled, and their effects withdrawn.
The next advance in discipline was to put down the Monday- They endeamarket in Edinburgh. They prevailed so far as to get their the marketact seconded by the magistracy and common council. But day of Edinthis reformation was strongly disliked by the shoemakers, without sucThese tradesmen, coming in a body to the ministers' houses, threatened to drive them out of town, if they pressed that matter any farther. This ruffle made an impression; and the Kirk, flagging in their resolution, let the market continue as before. Their acquiescence made a jest at court, where it was said, " that rascals and souters could obtain at the ministers' hands what the king could not, in matters more reasonable.”
Idem. Some Roman Catholic lords having taken arms upon pretence of getting grievances redressed, they were summoned to appear before the last parliament. But the summons not being drawn in form of law, the estates referred the prosecution to the king and council. This was resented by the Kirk, and interpreted to favour and partiality. The ministers of the synod of Fife, therefore, meeting at St. Andrew's, excommunicated the earls Oct. 1593. of Angus, Huntley, and Errol, the lord Home, and sir James The Kirk Chisholm. They likewise sent letters to all the presbyteries, cates the to publish their censure in the churches; and, for a supple- Catholic mental provision, they required the ministers of Edinburgh to meet some of the well-affected barons, to consult and take
proper measures for the defence of religion, and putting a stop Abp. Cant. to counter designs. The king sent for Mr. Robert Bruce, a
minister of character, and ordered him to stop the publication of the synod's censure. His majesty told him the sentence was neither just in the ground nor legal in the form: that none of these persons were within the jurisdiction of the synod of Fife, nor so much as cited to answer the articles objected ;
and that, if the Kirk was thus arbitrary in their discipline, it They refuse might prove of ill consequence to the subject. Bruce replied, to stop the
“it was not in his power to stop the publication or supersede the king's
the resolution of the brethren ; that the ministers of Fife had particular reasons for their proceedings, and were to account for what they did to the general assembly." The king told him, with somewhat of resentment, “ that, since he found the discipline abused, and that no redress was to be expected from the Kirk, he would provide a remedy himself.”
The publication of the censure went on, notwithstanding, and a considerable number of ministers and barons met at Edinburgh. The king was then upon his progress to Jedburgh, for quieting some disturbances in the borders. The earls of Angus, Huntley, and Errol, met his majesty on the way at Falaw, begged they might be brought to their trial, and referred the time and place to his majesty's pleasure. Upon this, by the advice of the council, they were ordered to go to Perth, and stay there till the prosecution was ready.
When this was known, the assembly sent commissioners to petitions the king touching the king, to desire the trial of these popish lords might be put this matter. off to a longer time; that, by this means, the professors
of religion, who intend to bring in a charge of treason against them, may have time to examine the business, and resolve upon a proper expedient.
Secondly. That, according to the customary proceedings in such cases, those excommunicated and treasonable apostates, as the Kirk expresses themselves, may be committed to safe custody, in Edinburgh, Dundee, and Stirling, till the estates shall have settled the circumstances of the trial.
Thirdly. That the jury may not be nominated at the suggestion of the prisoners, but by the prosecutors, professors of the Gospel.
Fourthly. That the criminals above-mentioned, being excommunicated by the Church and cut off from the society