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Acts of the

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it is ordained, that the moderator of each presbytery shall ELIZAreceive from the clerk of the assembly a copy of the said book, under his subscription, upon the expences of the presbytery, betwixt this and the first day of September next to come, under the pain of being openly accused in the face of the whole assembly.”

. To return to England: the steps the Puritans had taken Assembly. being now discovered by some of their own party, and their progress traced from point to point, some of the leading men were summoned before the ecclesiastical commissioners. For A. D. 1590. instance, Snape was sent for from Northamptonshire, and had Snape sum interrogatories put to him : he wrote to Barebone and Stone, the ecclesiastwo dissenting ministers, gave them an account of the pro- missioners

, ceedings of the High Commission court, and how he was impri- to unsuer

and required soned upon refusing to give satisfaction. He exhorts his certain in

terrogatofriends to resolution, and seems to be of opinion, that it was ries. more advisable that some man of courage and conduct should be dispensed with to answer questions, rather than run the hazard of a discovery by some weak or wicked brother.

These letters being intercepted, gave more light into the mystery, and suggested measures to the government.

And thus some things, which were but jealousy and suspicion before, were now opened to evidence as matter of fact.

The government thus awakened, found it necessary to let the law loose, and not connive any longer. The first that was called to account by the temporal courts was Udall, a noncon- Udall, u dis forming minister. He was one of the four who furnished those senting mi

nister, inscandalous libels which were lately dispersed through the kingdom. But that which gave the highest provocation was his cap. 3. writing a book intituled, “ The Demonstration of Discipline which Christ hath prescribed in his Word for the Government of his Church, in all Times and Places, until the World's End.” He addresses his preface to the supposed governors of the Church of England : and after this, renouncing their authority, outrages them in the following expressions : " Who can deny you,” says he, “without blushing, to be the cause of all ungodliness, seeing your government is that which giveth leave to a man to be any thing, saving a sound Christian? For certainly it is more free in these days to be a Papist, Anabaptist, of the Family of Love, yea, as any most wicked whatsoever, than that which we should be. And I could live these twenty years, as well as any such in England, (yea, in a


upon the 23 Eliz.

WHIT- bishop's house it may be,) and never be molested for it: so Abp. Cant. true is that which you are charged with in a Dialogue lately

come forth against you, and since burnt by you, that you care for nothing but the maintenance of your dignities, be it to the damnation of your own souls, and infinite millions more.”

For this whole book, and more especially for this lewd pas

sage in the preface, he was indicted at an assizes held at July 23, Croydon, for the county of Surrey, and by sufficient evidence 1590.

brought in guilty. The prisoner pleaded his indictment was grounded upon the statute 23 Eliz. cap. 2. enacted for punishing seditious words against the queen : but that the book for which he was prosecuted contained no offensive passages against the queen; that whatever satire there might be in this tract, it pointed only upon the bishops, and therefore could not fall within the compass of that statute. Against this. plea it was resolved by the judges, “ That those who speak against her majesty's government in cases ecclesiastical, her laws, proceedings, or ecclesiastical officers, which ruled under her, did defame the queen.'

Upon this resolution, and the evidence heard, the court allowed him the favour of having this question put, that is, Whether he would declare upon his credit and conscience that he was not the author of the book for which he stood indicted? If he had answered this question affirmatively, it is thought the judges and jury would have overlooked the evidence, and taken his word: but not having assurance enough to purge

himself, (which, by the way, is an argument his conscience was He is brought none of the worst,) the jury could do no less than find him in guilty.

guilty. However, the archbishop prevailed with the court to respite judgment; but the Puritans giving farther suspicion of mutiny against the State, he was brought to the bar in Southwark, in March following, and there sentence of death was given against him. And here the archbishop, who valued

U dall for his parts and learning, interposed again in his beArchbishop Whitgift half, and addressed the queen for a pardon ; and though this procures him ( reprieve. was denied, he succeeded so far as to procure a reprieve.

Notwithstanding this forgiving temper in the archbishop, and the friendly office done by him, he was aspersed by some people for bringing on the prosecution of the prisoner. To take off this imputation, it was argued in his defence, that

| This John Udall was a good orientalist, and wrote the first Hebrew Grammar printed in England, entitled a Key to the Holy Tongue.


His son He died of


Hist. book 9.

several seditious sermons might have been charged upon

U dall ELIZAas well as the writing that book, which would have made him still more criminal in the eye of the court: and that whereas one Catfield could have pressed him harder than the rest of the witnesses, he was never called to the bar to give his evidence, the jurors being fully satisfied with what had been laid before them already. And thus the indictment being rightly grounded, the prosecution favourable, and the evidence full, the preserving his life was an undeniable instance of the archbishop's goodness. Stow takes no notice of his being executed afterwards, from whence we may conclude he was reprieved from time to time, and left to the course of nature. Ephraim proved the reverse of his father. He was beneficed melancholy. at St. Austin's, near St. Paul's Church-yard, and suffered Church deeply for his conformity to the Church : he was sequestered p. 222. in the reign of king Charles I. for refusing some schismatical and rebellious oaths and covenants. This usage had one remarkable circumstance of barbarity in it; for his wife, then bedrid, was turned out of doors, and left in the open street.

While the government was proceeding against the Puritans, in the prosecution of Udall, and the imprisonment of Snape, Cartwright, and some others, the learned of each side were no less engaged in the defence of their respective sentiments. To mention something of this kind: Andrian Saravia, born in the Lower Germany, a person well skilled in ecclesiastical anti- writes in

defence of quity, was a strong assertor of episcopacy. This doctrine

episcopacy. being discouraged in his native country, where the parity of ministers was an article of their public confession, he cast himself upon the protection of the Church of England. He had some time before recommended himself to the episcopal communion, by his answer to Beza's book, “ De triplici Episcopatu.” Not long after his arrival in England, he published a very learned book, “ De diversis Gradibus Ministrorum Evan

623. gelii.” In this tract he proves bishops not only of a superior degree, but of a different order from priests. This book was dedicated to the ministers of the Belgic Churches, where, though not very welcome, it passed without contradiction: but Beza, Danæus, and the rest of the Genevians, gave it a different reception. They looked upon the principles as subversive of their ecclesiastical government, and therefore resolved to try their strength against it. Beza, it seems, had other business,




A.D. 1590.

WHIT- and therefore left the undertaking to Danæus. This man, whose

Abp. Cant. talent lay more in railing than reasoning, made little impression.

Beza therefore, finding it necessary to reinforce Danæus, pub-
lished an answer in the year 1593, to which Saravia replied the
next year. Beza, after this, seemed to have enough of the con-
troversy, and lay by. As for Saravia, his merit was not over-
looked by the English bishops. He was made prebendary of
Westminster, and treated in other respects to his satisfaction.

proceed. The minister of the Italian Church in London,
not contented with the privileges granted the French and

Dutch congregations, published a book in defence of the holy Suttliff discipline. Upon this, Dr. Matthew Suttliff, dean of Exeter, writes against the

printed a Latin tract concerning the form and essentials of the

Catholic Church. This Suttliff printed a learned discourse model. De Vera

against the English Puritans, entitled “The False Semblance Catholica et of Counterfeit Discipline detected ;” in which he takes the

scheme to pieces, discovers the novelty from point to point,

and disproves the arguments alleged in its defence. In his Printed at

Latin book he attacked presbytery with a great deal of force,
London, pressed a little upon the quarter of Geneva, and mentioned

Beza in the controversy. This minister thinking himself ill-
used, because mentioned without approbation, complains of
the affront in a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, and
calls Suttliff a petulant railer. For this freedom he was not
only called to an account by Saravia, in his “ Replication,”
but the archbishop sent him a reprimanding answer for inte-
resting himself in the disputes touching religion in England.
He let him know he had been much too forward and decisive,
and occasioned no small disturbance. Beza, perceiving the
archbishop and Saravia were likely to prove an overmatch,
retired from the combat, and left the English Puritans to shift
for themselves. And to do something by way of reparation for
his intermeddling, he writes to the archbishop in terms of

respect, and salutes him in the language of his character. In Bezu's con- this address he acquaints him, that, “in his writings concernarchbishop

ing Church government, he only opposed the hierarchy of Whitgift. Rome, but never had any intention to reflect upon the English

ecclesiastical polity, nor to press conformity to the Genevian
discipline. He grants that, provided there was an agreement
in the doctrine, Churches might differ defensively enough in
other matters. And here he throws in a very serviceable
limitation, that, in this latitude, nothing unwarranted by anti-




cessions to


upon several

quity should be indulged ; and that there might be a better ELIZAharmony amongst the reformed in Christendom, he hopes the sacred episcopal college would always continue, and manage their privilege with equity and moderation.” This letter is much m

re friendly to episcopacy than that written to Knox already mentioned. But Beza ought not to be blamed for selfcontradiction ; for if time and recollection had recovered him from some part of his mistakes, so much the better. Some of these things did not come up till three or four years after the time I am upon; but for the affinity of the matter, I have laid them together. To proceed. This year Thomas Cartwright, bachelor of Thomas

Cartwright divinity, was brought before the queen's commissioners for

brought ecclesiastical causes, and the oath ex officio put to him to before the answer interrogatories. The articles upon which the interroga- mission, and

charged tories were formed are as follow. “1. Imprimis, We object and articulate against him, that articles.

Sept. 1. he being a minister (at least a deacon) lawfully called, according to the godly and lawful orders of this Church of England, has renounced the same orders ecclesiastical as an antichristian and unlawful manner of calling to the ministry.

“2. Item, That he departing this realm into foreign parts without licence, as a man discontented with the form of government ecclesiastical, here by law established, the more to testify his dislike and contempt thereof, and of the manner of his former vocation and ordination, was contented in foreign parts (as at Antwerp, Middleborough, or elsewhere) to have a new vocation, election, or ordination by imposition of hands to the ministry, or unto some other order or degree ecclesiastical, and in other manner and form, than the laws ecclesiastical of this realm do prescribe. Let him declare upon oath the particular circumstances thereof.

“3. Item, That by virtue or colour of such his latter vocation, election, or ordination, becoming a pretended bishop or pastor of such congregation as made choice of him, he established, or procured to be established, at Antwerp, and at Middleborough, among merchants and others her majesty's subjects, a certain consistory, seminary, presbytery, or eldership ecclesiastical, consisting of himself, being bishop, or pastor (and so president thereof), of a doctor, of certain ancients,

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