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directed them to flank the enemy on boats. He found them, 7 in number, either side of the swamp—the abatis at Elizabeth City; where, after a proving at most places impassable; smart fight, they were set on fire by and it was resolved to charge over their crews and abandoned. One of the causeway directly in front. This them was captured, the others dewas done by the 9th New York stroyed. The city itself was likewise (Zouaves), Col. Rush C. Hawkins, set on fire, and in good part dethe 51st, Col. Edward Ferrero, the stroyed. Four of the gunboats were 23d Massachusetts, Col. John Kurtz, sent thence to Edenton, on the west and 21st, Lt.-Col. A. C. Maggi. The end of Albemarle Sound, where eight 25th and 27th Massachusetts, and cannon and a schooner were de10th Connecticut, Col. Russell, were stroyed, and two schooners, with honorably distinguished in the at- 4,000 bushels of corn, captured. tack. Col. R. was killed; as was Lt.- Com. Rowan's flotilla next moved Col. Viguier de Monteuil, 53d New five miles up the Chowan river to York, who was serving as a volun- Winton, Hereford county, upon asteer with Hawkins's Zouaves. Lying surances that its citizens wished to down to receive a fire of grape from return to and be protected by the the Rebel batteries, part of the 51st Union. Their reception was even New York, with Hawkins's Zouaves warmer than they had expected. On and the 21st Massachusetts, instantly reaching the town, they were saluted rose and rushed over the Rebel breast- by a hailstorm of bullets, which conworks, chasing out their defenders strained them to fall down the river and following them in their retreat; for the night; returning next mornsecuring, by their impetuosity, the ing, the village was shelled by them capture of the larger number, as no until abandoned, and then burnt. time was given for their escape from Gen. Burnside next concentrated the Island. Their loss in killed and his forces at Ilatteras Inlet, for an wounded was but 55; but among the attack on NEWBERN, at the junction former were Capt. 0. J. Wise, son of of the Neuse and Trent rivers, near the General, and other valuable offi- Pamlico Sound, and the most imcer3; while their loss in prisoners was portant seaport of North Carolina. not far from 2,700, including Cols. Com. Goldsborough having been reShaw and Jordan, Lt.-Cols. Fowle lieved, Commander Rowan directed and Price, Majors Hill, Yates, and the fleet. Leaving Hatteras in the Williamson. Our loss in the bom- morning, the expedition came to bardment and assault was about 50 about sunset at Slocum's creek, on killed and 250 wounded. All the the south side of the river, 18 miles cannon, sinall arms, munitions, pro- below Newbern, where a landing visions, etc., on the Island, were was effected next morning, and the among the spoils of victory.
troops pushed forward, so fast as Com. Rowan, with 14 gunboats, ready, to within a mile and a half of was dispatched next evening up the Rebel defenses; the gunboats Albemarle Sound and Pasquotank moving up the river in advance of river in pursuit of the Rebel gun- the troops, and shelling the road • Feb. 19.
• March 12.
BURNSIDE ADVANCES UPON NEWBERN.
SUNKEN SHIPS.TORPEDOES FT. THOMPSON
whereon they marched. No resist- | ble swamp which connects Newbern ance was encountered by land ; but with Morehead City, with a battery the fleet found the channel of the of 13 heavy guns next the river, Neuse obstructed, half way up, by several redoubts, all of them well 24 vessels sunk in the channel, sev- mounted, 3 batteries of field artileral torpedoes, and a number of iron- | lery, and 8 regiments of infantry, pointed spars firmly planted in the numbering about 5,000 men, combed and inclined down stream, under manded by Gen. Louis O'B. Branch. water, after the manner of the snags Our guns were few and light, beof the Mississippi. These obstruc- cause of the difficulty of landing and tions were speedily removed or sur- dragging heavier. mounted; while two or three batteries along the bank were successively silenced by a few shots from our flagship Delaware. The fleet halted for the night nearly abreast of the army;
NEWBERN. which had had a hard day's work,
BATTERIES OF COTTON BALES
VER.BR dragging its guns through the deep
HET.LANC clay of the roads, sodden with several
at ft.ER_LIS days' rain; and the men sank on the ground at night around their pitchpine fires to enjoy a drenching from the freshly pouring skies.
A dense fog covered land and water next morning,' as our fleet, having safely passed the obstructions, steamed up past Forts Thompson and Ellis; which, after firing a few shots, were hastily evacuated, a shell from one of the gunboats having exploded the magazine of the latter. Fort Lane, the last and strongest defense of Newbern on the water, was more carefully approached, in expectation of a sanguinary struggle; but it had by this time been likewise evacuated, in deference to the successes of our
NEWBERN. army; and.our fleet steamed directly Gen. Burnside was on the alert at up to the wharves, shelling the dépôt 6 A. M., and by 7 had his forces in and track whereby the Rebels were motion. Moving up to within short escaping from the city.
range of the enemy's intrenchments, The Rebel defenses consisted of a bis men were formed in order of batwell constructed breastwork, running tle, and opened fire along their ena mile and a half from the Neuse tire front; the ground being swampy across the railroad to an impenetra- on the left, and elsewhere cut up by
10 Sunday, March 14.
SLOCUMS CRV LANDING POINT
R. R. TO
pentine, drift by a scow-load
gullies and ravines which opened | Rebel battery in his front, called up toward the enemy, affording no pro- his reserve regiment, the 51st Penntection from his fire. The naval bat-sylvania, Col. Hartranft, and ordered tery was in our center, Gen. Reno's a charge, in which the 21st and 24th brigade on the right, Gen. Parke's in Massachusetts, 51st New York, and the center, and Gen. Foster's on the 9th New Jersey participated. Its left; and the regiments most effective success was complete; and the whole at Roanoke were all honorably dis- line of Rebel works was very soon in tinguished here, as were the 4th and our hands. 5th Rhode Island, the 8th and 11th The enemy were now in full flight; Connecticut, 9th New Jersey, and and Gen. Burnside ordered an ad51st Pennsylvania. There was, of vance on their track, which was led course, a great disparity of numbers by Gen. Foster; but the speed of the -probably three to one—but this fugitives was inimitable, and, when was in effect a contest wherein infan- our van reached the bank of the try were required to charge and carry Trent, opposite Newbern, they found strong intrenchments, well provided that city on fire in seven different with artillery. The loss was naturally places; the splendid railroad bridge much the greater on our side. Af over the Trent a sheet of flame, havter an hour's sharp fighting, the 21st ing been fired by a scow-load of turMassachusetts, Col. Clark, accom- pentine, drifted against it; and the panied by Gen. Reno, was ordered Rebel troops, with all the locomotives forward on a double-quick, and went and cars in and about Newbern, on over the Rebel breastworks. It was their way inland toward Goldsboro'. immediately charged by two Rebel | The wind suddenly lulling, the fires regiments, and repulsed; when Capt. were soon extinguished by sailors Fraser, being wounded, was taken from our fleet; but the railroad prisoner, but soon captured his guard bridge, market-house, and about a and escaped. The 4th Rhode Island, dozen other structures, were burned. disliking its position in front of a Our captures at the Rebel intrenchRebel battery of 5 guns, well backed ments and in the city included 69 by a fire from rifle-pits, next at- cannon, two steamboats, large quantempted a charge, and carried the tities of munitions and stores, with battery at double-quick; finding an some 500 prisoners. Our total loss entrance between a brick-yard and was about 100 killed and 500 woundthe parapet. Once inside, the Colonel ed: the former including Lt.-Col. formed his right wing in line, and Henry Merritt, 23d Massachusetts, charged down upon the guns at full Adjt. Frazer A. Stearns, of the 21st, speed, capturing the entire battery, Maj. Charles W. Le Gendre and routing its supports, and planting his Capt. D. R. Johnson, of the 51st, flag on the parapet. The 5th Rhode and Capt. Charles Tillinghast, of the Island and 8th and 11th Connecticut 4th Rhode Island. . The Rebel loss, immediately rushing up, our triumph beside prisoners, hardly exceeded at that point was secure.
200, including Maj. Carmichael, Gen. Reno, on our right, seeing killed, and Col. Avery, captured that he was losing heavily from the Gen. Burnside, having undisturbed
°: was orderea
FORT MACON TAKEN—FIGHT NEAR SOUTH MILLS. 79 possession of Newbern, sent Gen. | Rebels, was repossessed by the Re. Parke' with his brigade, 3,500 strong, public. south westward to the coast, where Meantime, Washington, Plymouth, he occupied " Morehead City with and some other towns on the coast, out resistance; as also the more im- were quietly occupied by our forces, portant village of Beaufort, across which ascended the Chowan river the inlet known as Newport river ; without serious resistance so far as and proceeded to invest Fort Macon, Wilton. a regular fortress of great cost and / Gen. Reno was dispatched by strength, seized by Gov. Ellis before Gen. Burnside from Newbern to the secession of the State.' This Roanoke Island, whence his brigade work stands on an island, or rather was conveyed up Albemarle Sound ocean sand-bank, whence it looks off to within three miles of Elizabeth on the broad Atlantic, and com- City, where it was disembarked mands the entrance to the Newport during the night" and pushed northriver. It is approached from the ward, with intent to intercept a land with much difficulty, but was Rebel force known to be about leavsoon invested, and a regular siege ing Elizabeth City for Norfolk; but commenced,” its pickets driven in, Col. Hawkins of the 9th New York and a good position for siege-guns (Zouaves), who had the advance, obtained within fair distance, while mistook his road, and marched ten the fleet menaced it on the side of miles out of the way; so that, on the ocean. All being at length in retracing his steps, and gaining the readiness, fire was opened" from a right road, his men were intensely breaching battery at 1,100 feet dis- fatigued, and he in the rear of the tance, with flanking mortars behind main column. The anticipated sursand-banks at 1,400 yards ; the fleet prise proved a failure ; and, at a also, consisting of three gunboats point nearly 20 miles inland, within and a bark, steamed around in a a mile and a half of South Mills, circle, after the fashion inaugurated our weary, overmarched men, who by Dupont at Port Royal, and fired had been nearly 24 hours on their as they severally came opposite the feet, were confronted by a less nufort, until the roughness of the sea merous Rebel force, very strongly compelled them to desist. The land posted in woods flanked by swamps, batteries were kept at work until and with a large clearing in their late in the afternoon; when, 7 of the front; upon entering which, they garrison being killed, 18 wounded, were saluted by a fire of grape, well and most of the available guns dis- supported by musketry, whereby a mounted, Col. White raised the white gallant but rashly ordered charge of flag, and next morning surrendered the Zouaves was repulsed with conhis garrison of 500 men, with the siderable loss. The position was fort and all it contained. Fort Ma- soon flanked by our superior numcon was among the first of the im- bers, and the Rebels compelled to portant fortresses of the old Union, draw off, leaving nothing on the which, having been seized by the field but a very few dead and " March 20. 12 March 23. 13 See Vol. I., p. 411. 1 April 11. 1 April 25. 10 April 19.
Rebel super lion women
wounded. We lost 15 killed, inclu- | capture three Rebel regiments who ding Adjutant Gadsden, of the had there been stationed; but by Zouaves, and 98 wounded, which this time a far superior Rebel force was probably more than the loss of had, by means of telegraphs and the Rebels. Gen. Reno gave his railroads, been concentrated at that men six hours' much needed rest point, and he wisely retreated withon the battle-field, and then returned out molestation or loss, other than to his boats, being under pereniptory that inflicted by the rain, sleet, and orders to do so. He was obliged to deep mud through which the retreat leave behind 14 of his more severely was effected. The liberation of wounded. As Camden Court House several hundred slaves was the chief was the only village traversed by result of this expedition. Gen. Reno on his advance, this en- A few weeks later, Gen. Foster, gagement has been sometimes desig- with a considerably larger force—all nated the battle of Camden. that he could collect-set out from
By this time, Burnside's division, Newbern on a march directly inwhich had at no time exceeded land, intending to reach and destroy 15,000 men, had become so widely the important railroad junction at dispersed, and had so many import- | Goldsboro'. He encountered no imant points to guard, that its offensive pediments, save from trees felled efficiency was destroyed; and very across the road, until he reached little more of moment occurred in South-west creek, where the bridge his department, until he was ordered had been destroyed, and a regiment by telegraph from Washington " to was found posted on the opposite hasten with all the force he could bank, supporting three pieces of arcollect to Fortress Monroe, where he tillery. These were driven off by a arrived three days afterward. charge of the 9th New Jersey, and
Gen. Foster was left in command 1 gun captured; when, after two or. of the department of North Caro- three more skirmishes, Foster adlina, with a force barely sufficient to vanced” to within a mile of Kinston ; hold the important positions left him where he encountered a consideraby Gen. Burnside, until late in the ble Rebel force under Gen. Evans, Autumn, when, having been consid- strongly posted between the Neuse erably rëenforced by new regiments, and a deep swamp, whence they mainly from Massachusetts, he re- were driven after a short but sharp solved to assume the offensive. He fight, and the bridge over the Neuse led one expedition from Washington,' saved, though it had been fired by through Williamston to Hamilton, the fugitives, of whom 409 were on the Roanoke, where he expected taken prisoners. Evans fled through to find and destroy some iron-clads and abandoned the town; but rein process of construction; but there formed two miles beyond it, and were none. Pushing thence inland," continued his retreat, before Foster in the direction of Tarboro', he ad- could bring his artillery over the vanced to within ten miles of that injured bridge and attack him. place, expecting to surround and Gen. Foster, having bewildered the
17 July 4, 1862. 18 Nov. 3 Nov. 6. 20 Dec. 11. 21 Sunday, 14th.