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SOUTHWARD FLIGHT OF JEFFERSON DAVIS. 755 spirit the Confederates to a deter- , citizens saw fit to throw open their mined prosecution of the contest; houses — when the imminence of saying:

Johnston's surrender compelled an“We have now entered upon a new phase other flitting"—this time in wagons of the struggle. Relieved from the neces- and on horseback: the railroad hav. sity of guarding particular points, our army will be free to inove from point to point to

ing been disabled by Stoneman-via strike the eneiny in detail far from his base. Salisbury to Charlotte, N. C., where Let us but will it, and we are free.

its foundering ark again rested for a “ Animated by that confidence in your spirit and fortitude which never yet făiled few days; and where, unlike their ine, I announce to you, fellow-countrymen, fare at Greensboro', the falling Prethat it is my purpose to maintain your cause

sident and his Cabinet were received

dont ond his Cohin, with my whole heart and soul; that I will never consent to abandon to the enemy one with consideration and hospitality-foot of the soil of any one of the States of until, alarmed by the reported apthe Confederacy. That Virginia–noble

proach of Stoneman's cavalry, it reeclipsed by her still more glorious recent sumed its flittings southward, via history-whose bosom has been bared to

Yorkville and Abbeville, S. C.; being receive the main shock of this war---whose sons and daughters have exhibited heroism now compelled to take entirely to 80 sublime as to render her illustrions in all

| horse, and escorted by 2,000 cavalry, time to come—that Virginia, with the help of the people and by the blessing of Provi

who, as well as the Presidential cordence, shall be held and defende:1, and no tege, gradually dwindled by the way: peace ever be made with the infamous in- thus reaching " Washington, Ga.. vaders of her territory.

"If, by the stress of numbers, we should where the rapidly dissolving view of ever be compelled to a temporary with a Government was dispensed withdrawal from her limits, or those of any

ny most of the Cabinet itself having by other Border State, again and again will we | return, until the battled and exhaustod | this time abandoned the sinking craft, enemy shall abandon in despair his endless leaving Davis attended by Reagan and impossible task of making slaves of a people reslved to be free.

|(late Postmaster-General, now acting "Let us, then, not despond, my country Secretary of the Treasury) and his men; but, relying on God, meet the foe

military staff; and the remaining with fresh defiance and with unconquered and unconquerable hearts.

fugitives, with a small but select es“Jefferson Davis."

cort of mounted men, took their way He waited there several days, in southward : perbaps intent on joining anxious expectation of the approach Dick Taylor or Kirby Smith, should of Lee, or at least of tidings that he either or both be still belligerent, or, was still confronting and baffling the at the worst, hoping to make their Union forces; until astounded” by way to some petty port on the coast, advices of his surrender at Appo- and thence out of the country. Mr. mattox. The Confederacy thereupon Davis had even separated, for greater took to wheels again—there being no safety, from his family; but, on an acceptable alternative and retreated alarm of peril to which they were by rail to Greensboro', N. C., where said to be exposed from a conspiracy another considerable halt was made to rob them of the gold they were —the days and nights spent mainly supposed to be carrying off, had rein the cars by President, Cabinet, joined them over night; when his and followers; since very few of the sylvan encampment near Irwinsville, 10 April 10. 30 April 15.

a May 4.

Ga., was struck" by Lt. Col. Pritch- / Macon," whence Davis was taken, ard, 4th Michigan cavalry, who, upon via Savannah and the ocean, to Fortadvices that what remained of the ress Monroe, where he was long Rebellion was making its way fur- closely and rigorously imprisoned, tively southward through Georgia, while his family were returned by had been dispatched" by Gen. Wil- water to Savannah and there set at son from Macon in quest of him; as liberty. Secretary Reagan—the only had also the 1st Wisconsin cavalry, person of consequence captured with Lt. Col. Harden. These two com- Davis—was taken to Boston, and mands, inoving by different roads confined, with Vice-President Stedown the Ocmulgee, Pritchard at phens (captured about this time also length struck the trail he was seeking, in Georgia), in Fort Warren ; but and followed it to the encampment each was liberated on parole a few aforesaid ; which he surprised at early months thereafter. dawn; easily taking captive" Mr. Davis, his wife, her sister, and his

The following general order seemchildren; but being, directly there

| ed for a time to menace a protracted, after, involved in a fight with the 1st

though not doubtful, struggle in Wisconsin, which was closing in on

Texas: the quarry from another quarter, and - each taking the other for enemies “HEADQ'RS Trans-MISSISSIPPI DEP'T., )

SHREVEPORT, La., April 21, '65. i -the two commands opened a re

Soldiers of the trans-Mississippi Army: ciprocal fire, whereby two men were | “The crisis of our revolution is at hand. killed and several wounded before

Great disasters have overtaken us. The

Army of Northern Virginia and our comthe mutual mistake was discovered. mander-in-Chief' are prisoners of war. With The dead were borne sadly to Abbe you rest the hopes of our nation, and upon ville, and there buried; the wounded,

your action depends the fate of our people.

I appeal to you in the name of the cause you with the prisoners, were conveyed to have so heroically maintained in the name 22 May 11.

- May 7. a wrapper-a loose one. It was yet around

him. This she fastened, ere he was aware of 24 With regard to Davis's alleged attempt to

it, and then, bidding him adieu, urged him to go elude his captors in female guise, the following

to the spring, a short distance off, where his étatement by Lt. C. E. L. Stuart, of his staff, horses and arms were. Strange as it may seem, probably embodies the literal truth :

there was not even a pistol in the tent. Davis “When the musketry-firing was heard in the

felt that his only course was to reach his horse morning, at 'dim, gray dawn,' it was supposed

and arms, and complied. As he was leaving to be between the apprehended [Rebel] marauders

the door, followed by a servant with a waterand Mrs. Davis's few camp-defenders. Under

bucket, Miss Howell flung a shawl over his head. this impression, Mr. Davis hurriedly put on his

There was no time to remove it without exposure boots, and prepared to go out for the purpose

and embarrassment; and, as he had not far to

go, he ran the chance exactly as it was devised of interposing, saying: " They will at least as yet respect me.'

for him. In these two articles, consisted the "As he got to the tent door thus hastily

woman's attire of which so much nonsense has equipped, and with this good intention of pre

been spoken and written; and, under these cirventing an effusion of blood by an appeal in the

cumstances and in this way was Jefferson Davis name of a fading but not wholly faded authority,

going forth to perfect his escape. No bonnet, he saw a few cavalry ride up the road and de

no gown, no petiicoats, no crinoline-nothing ploy in front.

of all these. And what there was, happened "Ha, Federals !' was his exclamation.

to be excusable under ordinary circumstances, ". Then you are captured!' cried Mrs. Davis,

and perfectly natural as things were. with emotion.

“But it was too late for any effort to reach “ In a moment, she caught an ideaa woman's

his horses; and the Confederate President was idea-and, as quickly as women in an emergency

at last a prisoner in the hands of the United

May 13. execute their designs, it was done. He slept in states.

THE RAVAGES OF THE SHENANDOAH.

757

of yonr firesides and families, so dear to you there were military men found base -in the name of your bleeding country, whose future is in your hands. Show that you are worthy of your position in history. atrocity. Their countrymen of all iProve to the world that your hearts have parties will gladly forget their names. not failed in the hour of disaster, and that, to the last moment, you will sustain the holy cause which has been so gloriously | The last actual collision” of forces battled for by your brethren east of the lin our struggle occurred or on the Rio Mississippi.

“ You possess the means of long resisting Grande. Col. Barrett had set forth ** invasion; you have hopes of succor from from Brazos Santiago to surprise a abroad. Protract the struggle, and you

Rebel camp at Palmetto Ranche, will surely receive the aid of nations who already deeply sympathize with you. some 15 miles above, and had suc“Stand by your colors—maintain your

ceeded in taking and burning the discipline! The great resources of this department, its vast extent; the numbers, the camp; but, lingering to secure discipline, and the efficiency of the army, horses, he was overtaken on his rewill secure to our country terms that a

turn by Gen. J. E. Slaughter, with 3 proud people can with honor accept, and may, under the providence of God, be the guns and a considerable force, and means of checking the triumph of our ene- hunted back to Brazos with a loss of my and securing the final success of our

80, mainly captured. Slaughter's loss E. KIRBY Smitu, General.” cause.

was trifling. At a public meeting held at Gen. Sheridan had been sent to Shreveport on the receipt of news New Orleans, and was there fitting of President Lincoln's assassination, out a formidable expedition for the re

35 Though the war on land ceased, and the the capture, plunder, and destruction of our merConfederate flag utterly disappeared from this chantmen; in due time, turning up at Melbourne, continent with the collapse and dispersion of | Australia, where she received a hearty and muKirby Smith's command; it was yet displayed at nificent welcome. Having left that port, Feb. 8, sea by two of the British-built, British-armed, 1865, she was next heard of in the North Pa. and (mainly) British manned cruisers engaged cific, the Sea of Ochotsk, and northward nearly in the spoliation of our commerce; whereof the to Behring's straits, where she raided at will powerful iron-clad Stonewall, after having been among our defenseless whalers, of which she for some time watched by the Niagara and the burned 25 and bonded 4-many of them after Sacramento in the Spanish port of Ferrol, finally she had received the news of Lee's and Johnran across to Havana, where she arrived after ston's surrender and Davis's capture. Finally, the fall of the Confederacy, and was taken in having been assured by a British sea-captain charge by the Spanish authorities, who promptly that the Confederacy was no more, she desisted, handed her over, May 28, 1865, to Rear-Admi- four months after the collapse, from her work ral Godon, who, with a formidable fleet, had of destruction, and made her way directly to been sent, May 16, to cruise among the West her native country; anchoring Nov. 6, 1865, Indies in quest of her. Admiral Godon brought in the Mersey; whence Waddell addressed a lether into Hampton Roads June 12, and turned ter to the British Minister, surrendering her her over to the Navy Department.

in due form to the British Government; by There still remained afloat the swift steamer which she was in turn tendered to ours, and Shenandoah, Capt. Waddell, built at Glasgow in most unwisely accepted. As she had never at1863, and which, as “the Sea King,' put to sea tempted to enter a Confederate port, nor (so far from London, Oct. 8, 1864, in spite of the pro as is known) any other than British, and as she tests of our functionaries; having cleared for had never been manned by any other than a Bombay: but which was met at a barren islet off (substantially) British crew, and as she still Madeira, Oct. 17, by the British steamer Laurel, stood, up to a very late day, on the official from Liverpool, with officers and men, nearly all registry of British shipping as the British steamBritish, who, with guns and munitions, were ship Sea King, she ought to have been left on promptly transferred to the henceforth Rebel the hands of her legitimate owners. corsair Shenandoah, which at once engaged in * May 13.

20 May 11.

covery of Texas, when the good sense | low the rank of Colonel who would of the Rebel rank and file in that take the oath of allegiance, and the State saved her from a hopeless and mustering for review at Washingdamaging experience of the hor- ton ” of the two main armies of the rors of war. While the chiefs were Republic, gave earnest of the virtual still making preparations for a des- termination of hostilities; which was perate resistance, their hitherto sub- soon afterward formally announced missive followers bluntly refused to in the following General Order: be thus foolishly sacrificed, and, dis

| “WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJ.-Gen's. OFFICE, / solving their organizations, they

WASHington, D. O., June 2, 1865. } helped themselves to whatever they «Soldiers of the Armies of the United States: could seize of the effects of the death- “ By your patriotic devotion to your stricken Confederacy, and dispersed

country in the hour of danger and alarm,

your magnificent fighting, bravery, and ento their several homes; leaving their durance, you have maintained the supreofficers no choice but to make the

macy of the Union and the Constitution, best, attainable terms. Before Sheri- l forcement of the laws and of the proclama

overthrown all armed opposition to the endan had started, therefore, certain of tions forever abolishing Slavery—the cause Smith's stof Smith's staff officers, headed by Lt.- | ons hooded hy and pretext of the Rebellion-and opened

the way to the rightful authorities to restore Gen. S. B. Buckner, made their way | order and inaugurate peace on a permanent down to Baton Rouge, and there and enduring basis on every foot of Ameri

can soil. Your marches, sieges, and battles, concluded” with Gen. Osterhaus, acting for Gen. Canby, a capitulation liancy of results, dim the luster of the substantially identical with that ac

world's past military achievements, and will

| be the patriot's precedent in defense of libcorded by Canby to Dick Taylor; erty and right in all time to come. In obethe stipulation for “transportation dience to your country's call, you left your

homes and families, and volunteered in her and subsistence” inclusive. This re

defense. Victory has crowned your valor, quirement involved the Government and secured the purpose of your patriotic in very moderate expense. The great

hearts; and, with the gratitude of your

countrymen and the highest honors a great body of the soldiers of the trans

and free nation can accord, you will soon be Mississippi Army' had already ap permitted to return to your homes and fami

lies, conscious of having discharged the propriated all the “subsistence and

highest duty of American citizens. To transportation' they could lay their achieve these glorious triumphs and secure hands on, and gone their several

to yourselves, your fellow-countrymen, and

posterity, the blessings of free institutions, ways—profoundly convinced that

tens of thousands of your gallant comrades rebellion, with overt war against the have fallen and sealed the priceless legacy authority and integrity of the Union,

with their blood. The graves of these a

| grateful nation bedews with tears, honors was not a paying business, and de- | their memories, and will ever cherish and termined to devote their time and support their stricken families. talents henceforth to something more

“U. S. GRANT, Lt.-General." profitable.

The wholesale discharge of Rebel Ere this surrender, the removal " prisoners of war—to whom was acby Presidential proclamation of recorded transportation to their respecstrictions on commercial intercourse tive homes—was directed by an order with the revolted States, the release" from the Adjutant-General's office, on parole of all prisoners of war be- dated May 6th. The number actu» May 26. 30 April 29.

31 May 7.

5 May 22–3.

CONCLUSION-APPENDED NOTES

759 ally released, after the close of hos- subtraction from the efficiency of artilities, was 63,442; while the num- mies. Of the residue, no less than ber surrendered and paroled in the 179,047 were either in hospitals or several Rebel armies was 174,223. absent on sick leave; 31,695 were Among these were many regiments either on furlough or prisoners of inustering from 11 up to 65 men; 10 war, and 19,683 absent “ without regiments consolidated that mustered leave." By August 7, no less than but 238; 8 regiments of Texans re-640,806 had been mustered out of duced from 10,000 to 456 in all; one service: and this aggregate was inregiment having 40 left, out of its creased by Oct. 15 to 785,205. Thus original 1,200. It is doubtful that rapidly, as well as peacefully and all the effective Rebels in arms on joyously, were the mightiest hosts the morning of Lee's surrender were ever called to the field by a republic equal to 100 full veteran regiments restored to the tranquil paths of inof 1,000 men each ; while the Union dustry and thrift, melting back by muster-rolls had shown, on the 1st regiments into quiet citizenship, with of March, an aggregate force of nothing to distinguish them from 965,591 men; whereof 602,593 were others but the proud consciousness of “present for duty," beside 132,538 having served and saved their coun“on detached service”—that fatal | try.

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THE whole number of men from time to time of diseases or infirmities contracted in the sercalled into the National service during the War | vice, to swell our aggregate loss by the War was 2,688,523 ; enlisted as follows:

from 280,420 to 300,000. Of our Whites enFor three months...

191,985 listed, one-tenth died in the service; of the For six months.....

19,076 For nine months...

180,000 Blacks, 29,298 died, or nearly one in

87,558 For one year....

· 894,959 six. Of these, eight in every nine died in hos. For two years.......

43.118 For three yenrs....

.1,950,792

pital; proving the Blacks either less hardy than For four years..............

1,040 "..................

Whites, or their exposure far greater. ProbaAs many of these were mustered in twice, bly, their employment to garrison posts in the and some thrice, while hundreds of thousands South-West, specially subject to miasmatic influ. deserted who were never under fire, it is proba- ences, may have enlarged their bills of mortality; ble that not more than 1,500,000 effectively par- | but the comparative idleness of garrison life often ticipated in suppressing the Rebellion. The to- | proves more fatal than the exposures and hardtal population whence these were drawn, includ- ships of active campaigning. ing the available portion of the Southern Blacks, If we may presume the losses of the Rebels can not be computed higher than 25,000,000: | equal to those of the Unionists (and the perso, more than one-tenth of the entire male popu centage of mortality among their wounded was lation of the United States who were not Rebels probably greater, because of their inferior hosmust have actively participated in the suppres. pital service and sanitary arrangements), the acsion of the Rebellion.

tual aggregate loss of life because of the War is Of the 1,500,000 who fought on our side, swelled to 600,000. Add 400,000 crippled or 56,000 fell dead on the field, and 35,000 more are | permanently disabled by disease, and the total recorded as dying in hospital of wounds; while subtraction from the productive forco of our 184,000 perished there by disease. It is proba- | country because of the Rebellion reaches the ble that enough more died after their discharge, I stupendous aggregate of 1,000,000 men.

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