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subject to the future action of the Congress nt' the United States, and in the mean time to be used solely to maintain peace and order within the borders of the States respectively.
"3d. The recognition, by the Executive of the United States, of the several State Governments, on their officers and Legislatures taking the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States; and, when conflicting State Governments have resulted from the war, the legitimacy of all shall be submitted to the Supreme Court of the United States.
"4th. The reestablishment of all Federal courts in the several States, with powers as defined by the Constitution and the laws of Congress.
"5th. The people and inhabitants of all States to be guaranteed, so far as the Executive can, their political rights and franchises, as well as their rights of person and property, as defined by the Constitution of the United States and of the States respectively.
"6th. The executive authority or Government of the United States not to disturb any of the people, by reason of the late war, so long as they live in peace and quiet, and abstain from acts of armed hostility, and obey the laws in existence at the place of their residence.
''7th. In general terms, it is announced that the war is to cease; a general amnesty, so far as the Executive of the United States can command, on condition of the disbandment of the Confederate armies, the distribution of arms and the resumption of peaceful pursuits by officers and men. hitherto composing said armies. Not being fully empowered by onr respective principals to fulfill these terms, we individually and officially pledge ourselves to promptly obtain authority, and will endeavor to carry out the above programme.
"W. T. Shehman, Maj.-General,
"Commanding Annjof the V. B. In North Carolina.
"J. E. JonjiSTON, General,
•■ Commanding Confederate States Army In North
Gen. Sherman had already received" with horror the tidings of President Lincoln's assassination; hut he had not adequately realized the effect of that atrocious deed on the temper and spirit of the loyal millions and their rulers. This statement is made in explanation simply. He had seen Gen. Weitzel's permission to the Rebel Legislature of Vir
ginia to reassemble at Richmond; he was not aware that President Lincoln's authorization of it had been recalled and the pennission annulled. And he—neither cherishing nor affecting decided anti-Slavery convictions— unquestionably believed and felt that his arrangement with Johnston was one that ought to be, and probably would be, accepted at Washington; whither he immediately dispatched it by Maj. Hitchcock, of his staff.
He had very gravely miscalculated. There were many in the North who had deemed Grant quite too generous in fixing the terms of Lee's capitulation; but their hesitating utterances had been drowned in the general burst of gladness and thanksgiving over the virtual collapse of the Rebellion. That other Rebel chiefs —now that their ablest commander and most formidable army had surrendered—should exact and secure better terms than were accorded to Lee, was not imagined, even prior to Lincoln's assassination: after that hideous crime, the bare suggestion of such concession seemed intolerable. Hence, when his agreement reached" Washington, it wa6—in strict accordance with the views and feelings of the great body of those who had heartily sustained the Government through the War—rejected by the new President and his Cabinet, with the hearty concurrence of Gen. Grant, for reasons unofficially, but by authority, set forth as follows:
"1st. It was an exercise of authority not vested in Gen. Sherman, and, on its face, shows that both he and Johnston knew that Gen. Sherman had no authority to enter into any such arrangements.
"2d. It was a practical acknowledgment of the Rebel Government.
"8d. It undertook to reestablish Rebel State governments that had been overthrown at the sacrifice of many thousand loyal lives and immense treasure, and placed arms and munitions of war in the hands of Rebels at their respective capitals, which might be nsed, so soon as the armies of the United States were disbanded, and used to conquer and subdue loyal States.
"4th. By the restoration of Rebel authority in their respective States, they would be enabled to reestablish Slavery.
"5th. It might furnish a ground of responsibility on the part of the Federal Government to pay tho Rebel debt, and certainly subjects loyal citizens of Rebel States to debts contracted by Rebels in the name of the State.
"6th. It puts in dispute the existence of loyal State governments, and the new State of West Virginia, which had been recognized by every department of the United States Government.
"7th. It practically abolished confiscation laws, and relieved Rebels of every degree, who had slaughtered our people, from all pains and penalties for their crimes.
"8th. It gave terms that had been deliberately, repeatedly, and solemnly, rejected by President Lincoln, and better terms than the Rebels had ever asked in their most prosperous condition.
"9th. It formed no basis of true and lasting peace, but relieved Rebels from the presence of our victorious armies, and left them in a condition to renew their efforts to overthrow tho United States Government and snbdue the loyal States whenever their strength was recruited and any opportunity should offer."
Gen. Grant was sent post-haste to Raleigh to announce the rejection of the Sherman-Johnston programme, and to direct an immediate and general resumption of hostilities. On reaching Morehead City," he dispatched the decision of the Government to Sherman at Raleigh, who instantly transmitted its purport to Johnston, adding a notification that the truce would close 48 hours after the receipt hereof at the Rebel lines, with a demand that Johnston's army be forthwith surrendered on the identical terms accorded by Grant to Lee. He at once directed his subordinate
commanders to be ready to resume the offensive at noon on the 26th.
Grant reached Raleigh on the 25th; when another invitation to a conference was received from Johnston by Sherman, who referred it to his superior. Grant declined to relieve Sherman from command, as he was authorized to do, and urged him to meet Johnston as requested; so the 26th was appointed for their third and final interview; at which Johnston's army was surrendered on the terms already accorded to Lee's. The agreement was signed by Sherman and Johnston, but indorsed, "Approved: U. S. Grant, Lieut.-General:" and thus passed out of existence the second army of the Confederacy.
The surrender to Gen. Canby of Gen. Taylor's Rebel forces in Alabama was effected at Citronelle, May 4, as the result of negotiations commenced April 19. More words were used; but the terms were essentially the same as had been accorded to Lee and Johnston, with this addition:
"Transportation and subsistence to be furnished at public cost for the officers and men, after surrender, to the nearest practicable point to their homes."
Com. Farrand, at the same time
and on the same terms, surrendered
to Rear-Admiral Thatcher the twelve
Rebel gunboats blockaded in the
Tombigbee river, with 20 officers
and 110 others.
Mr. Jefferson Davis, with his staff and civilian associates, having journeyed by rail from Richmond to Danville," he there halted, and set up his Government; issuing " thence a stirring proclamation, designed to in
17 April 3.
■ April 5.