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PETERSBURG EVACUATED-GRANT'S STRATEGY. 739
promptu gathering of many thou- here marked the flight of the Rebels; sands immediately filled Wall-street, who were miles away when our and listened, with cheers and thanks troops, at daybreak, proudly marched giving, to dispatches, addresses, &c.; unopposed into the city for which while the bells of Trinity and St. they had so long struggled, and Paul's chimed melodiously with the which, although surrendered by its general joy and praise. So in Wash- civil authorities, gave but a sullen ington and other great cities, the welcome to its new masters. The popular feeling of relief and grati- hearty responses to the enthusiastic tude found many modes of expres- cheers of the victors issued from sion, wherein the readers of next | Black throats alone. day's journals will detect no un- Hours ere this, the Rebel governmanly exultation over the fallen, and ment, with its belongings, had passed scarcely a word bespeaking wrath or down the railroad several miles north bitterness, or demanding vengeful in- of Petersburg to Danville, where it flictions on those whose unhallowed halted, and whither Lee hoped to ambition had so long divided, so follow it with the remnant of his widely devastated, and so nearly de- army; thence forming a junction stroyed, the Republic. aved the Repnblic.
with Johnston, and thus collecting a That joyful Monday was the An- force which, if too weak to protract nual Election in Connecticut—a State the contest, would at least be strong so closely contested barely five months enough to command favorable terms. before—but now every county went But now the purpose and value of Republican by an aggregate majority Grant's tenacious, persistent extenof over 10,000"_the victorious host, sions of his left became palpable to for the first time in many years, choos- the most obstinate of the multitudining a Representative in Congress from ous decriers of his military capacity. each of the four districts, and making To have beaten Lee by a fair front a pretty clean sweep locally and gen- attack would have thrown him back erally. A leading Democratic jour- possibly to Lynchburg or Danville: nal accounted for its party's over. beating him by turning and crushwhelming defeat by the fact that the ing his right might prove his utter votes were cast while guns were thun. destruction. For, now that his shatdering, bands playing, and excited tered array could no longer cling to crowds shouting themselves hoarse, its formidable intrenchments around over the fall of Richmond.
Richmond and Petersburg, and must
retreat hurriedly westward or southPetersburg was of course evacua- ward, the position of the 5th (Grif. ted simultaneously with Richmond; fin's) corps at Sutherland's, 10 miles and so noiselessly that our pickets, west of Petersburg, with Sheridan's scarcely a stone's throw from the cavalry at Ford's, 10 miles farther abandoned lines, knew not that the west, barring his way up the south enemy were moving till morning bank of the Appomattox, with nearly showed that they were gone—no ex- all the residue of Grant's forces but plosions and no conflagration having Weitzel's command south or south
» Governor—Buckingham (Repub.), 42,374; 0. S. Seymour (Dem.), 31,339.
west of Petersburg, so narrowed and 5th corps. Concentrating at Jetersdistorted his possible lines of retreat ville, Sheridan had here planted himas to render the capture or dispersion self across the railroad, intrenched of his entire army at least possible. his infantry, and, supported by his And, with Grant and Sheridan as cavalry, prepared to stop Lee's entire his antagonists, it was morally cer- force, until Grant and Meade, purtain that all would be made of their suing, should be able to overtake and advantages that could be.
crush him. Meade, with the 2d and
6th corps, came up late on the 5th, The Army of Virginia—now re-while Lee was still at Amelia C. H. duced by desertions and its recent | Thus the provisions which the Conheavy losses, mainly in prisoners, to federates at Lynchburg and Danville 35,000 men—was concentrated, from had collected and prepared to send Richmond on the north to Peters- to Lee were intercepted, and all hope burg on the south, at Chesterfield of succor to his sore beset army cut off. C. II.; thence moving rapidly west- Lee left Amelia C. H. at nightfall ward to Amelia C. H., where Lee of the 5th; moving around the left of had ordered supplies to meet him by Meade and Sheridan's position at cars from Danville; but where he Jetersville, striking for Farmville, in found none—an order from Rich- order to recross there the Appomattox, mond having summoned” the train and, if possible, thus escape his purto that city to aid in bearing away suers. the fugitives; and it was taken with. But this was not to be. Already, out unloading: so that the over- Gen. Davies, making a strong reconmatched, worsted, retreating, and noissance to our left and front, had fainting Rebel soldiery, while endeav- struck, at Paine's cross-roads, Lee's oring to evade the fierce pursuit of train, moving in advance of his inSheridan's troopers, must snatch their fantry, and destroyed 180 wagons; subsistence from the impoverished, capturing 5 guns and many prisexhausted country. And, while Lee oners. Lee's soldiers, not far behind, halted here, throughout the 4th and attempted to envelop and crush our 5th, trying to gather from any and cavalry, now swelled by Gregg's and every quarter the means of feeding Smith's brigades, sent to support his famished men, Sheridan, moving Davies; and a spirited fight ensued; rapidly westward by roads consider- but Davies was extricated; falling ably south of Amelia C. H., had back on Jetersville; where nearly our struck the Danville railroad at Je- whole army was next morning" contersville, while his advance had swept centrated, and the pursuit vigorously down that road nearly to Burkesville, resumed: Sheridan returning the 5th scattering by the way such portions corps to Meade, and henceforth comof the Rebel cavalry as had fled west- manding the cavalry only. ward from their discomfiture at Five Crook, now holding Sheridan's left Forks. At Deep creek, a considera- (facing eastward), advanced to Deable force of infantry was encoun- tonsville, where Lee's whole army tered," and ultimately driven by the was seen moving rapidly westward.
** April 3.
% April 6.
23 April 2.
FIGHT AT SAILOR'S CREEK-EWELL SURRENDERS. 741 He immediately charged, as directed Brig.-Gen. Theodore Read, who at by Sheridan; well knowing the infe- once attacked, defying immense odds, riority of his force, but determined in the hope of arresting the flight of to detain the enemy, at whatever cost, the Rebels, and burning the bridges until supports on our side could before them. But this they could arrive.
not permit, and, rallying in overThe result justified the daring. whelming strength, they hurled their Crook was repulsed; but meantime assailants aside with heavy loss, clearCuster, with his division of horse, ing their way to the bridges; Read struck again, farther on; gaining the being among our killed. His attack, road at Sailor's CREEK-a petty trib- however, had arrested the enemy's utary of the Appomattox—where, march, compelling him to lose preCrook and Devin coming promptly cious time. to his support, he pierced the Rebel Lee, during the ensuing evening, line of march, destroying 400 wagons crossed the Appomattox on bridges and taking 16 guns, with many pris- at Farnıville, and, marching all night, oners.
he seemed to have left his pursuers Ewell's corps, following the train, well in the rear. But, while his men was thus cut off from Lee. Its ad- were fainting and falling by the way, vance was now gallantly charged by his animals were dying of hunger. Col. Stagg's brigade; and thus time ( Soldiers,' says a cynic, 'may live was gained for the arrival of the lead-on enthusiasm ; but horses must have ing division (Seymour's) of the 6th oats. His remaining handful of (Wright's) corps, pursuing the Con- cavalry was useless; his few residufederate rear; when Ewell recoiled, ary guns were yet too heavy for the fighting stoutly, till Wheaton's di- gaunt beasts who drew them. Though vision also came up, and, a part of his van was miles away, his rear was our infantry, advancing, were mo- barely across the river before dawn;" mentarily repelled by a deadly fire. and the bridges were only fired, not But the odds were too great: Ewell's consumned, when the van of our 2d veterans—inclosed between our cav- corps (Humphreys's)—which had now alry and the 6th corps, and sternly taken the lead-rushed up and saved charged by the latter, without a that on the wagon-road. The railchance of escape threw down their road bridge was destroyed. Barlow's arms and surrendered. Ewell him- division was soon over the river, exself and four other Generals were pecting a fight, as the enemy threatamong the prisoners, of whom over ened it; but there was only a rear6,000 were taken this day.
guard left, and they soon retired; Ere this, Ord, reaching out from blowing up a bridge-head, and abanJetersville farther west, had struck doning 18 guns. the head of Lee's marching column During the night of the 6th, many near Farmville, as it was preparing of the chief officers of the fleeing army to cross the river. Ord's advance met around a bivouac-fire to discuss consisted of two regiments of infantry their desperate situation. Upon a and a squadron of cavalry under full survey, they unanimously concluded that a capitulation was inevi- , to attack on this wing; which he table. Even if they were yet strong did, and was repulsed with a loss of enough to beat off and cut through over 600 killed and wounded. Brig.the host of pursuers so sharp upon Gen. Smyth and Maj. Mills were their trail, they could only do so by among our killed ; Maj.-Gen. Mott, the sacrifice of their remaining guns Brig.-Gens. Madill and McDougall, and munitions, and in a state of utter and Col. Starbird, 19th Maine, were inefficiency from famine. Already, severely wounded. When Barlow weakness and fatigue had compelled had got into position, it was too late half of their followers to throw away to assault again that night; and, the arms which they were no longer when darkness had shrouded his able to carry. Lee was not present; movements, Lee silently resumed his but the judgment of the council was retreat, first sending this response to conveyed to him through Gen. Pen- Grant, which reached him at Farmdleton.
26 April 7.
ville next morning: Gen. Lee was spared by Gen. Grant
“APRIL 7, 1865.
“GENERAL I have received your note the pain of first proposing a surren
| of this date. Though not entertaining the der. While directing from Farm- opinion you express on the hopelessness of ville the pursuit, the latter dispatched
further resistance on the part of the Army
of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your to the front next morning the follow
desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and ing letter:
therefore, before considering your proposi
" APRIL 7, 1865. tion, ask the terms you will offer on condi“GENERAL-The result of the last week tion of its surrender. must convince you of the hopelessness of
"R. E. LEB, General. further resistance on the part of the Army “Lt.-General U. S. Grant."" of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so; and regard it as my duty To this, Grant immediately reto shift from myself the responsibility of plied: any further effusion of blood by asking of
“APRIL 8, 1865. you the surrender of that portion of the
“GENERAL-Your note of last evening, in Confederate States army known as the Army |
reply to mine of same date, asking the conof Northern Virginia.
dition on which I will accept the surrender “U.S. GRANT, Lt.-General.
of the Army of Northern Virginia, is just “Gen. R. E. LEE."
received. In reply, I would say that, peace The letter reached Lee toward being my great desire, there is but one connight; ere which, Humphreys, fol
dition I would insist upon, namely: that
the men and officers surrendered shall be dislowing on his track, had been halted,
qualified for taking up arms again against the 4 or 5 miles north of Farmville, by Government of the United States until propall that was left of Lee's forces, in
erly exchanged. I will ineet yon, or will
designate officers to meet any officers you trenched in a strong position, cover may name for the same purpose, at any point ing both the old and plank roads to agreeable to you, for the purpose of arrang
ing definitely the terms upon which the surLynchburg, with batteries command
render of the Army of Northern Virginia ing an open, gentle southward slope of will be received. half a mile, over which an assaulting
“U. S. Grant, Lt.-General.
“General R. E. LEE." column could only advance at a heavy cost. Humphreys attempted to turn Sheridan, with all his cavalry, had the enemy's flank, but found this im- started again on the morning of the practicable with his single corps; | 7th; Merritt, with two divisions, movwhen, sending up Barlow in front, and ing by the left to Prince Edward C. extending his right, he ordered Miles | H., to head off Lee from retreating on
SHERIDAN HEADS LEE AT APPOMATTOX.
Danville. This was a miscalculation; 1 park of wagons, and many prisoners. and exposed Crook, who, with the re- Sheridan brought up the rest of his maining division, with difficulty ford- cavalry so fast as possible; planting ed the Appomattox near Farmville, to it directly across the path of the repulse from a body of Rebel infan- enemy, and preparing to hold on, try defending a train which they while securing the captured trains, charged; our Gen. Gregg being here and sending word to Griffin, Ord, captured. So our brilliant successes and Grant, that the surrender or deof the 6th were followed by none struction of Lee's entire force was whatever on the 7th.
now inevitable. In consequence of Pursuit was resumed by all hands these advices, Griffin and Ord, with on the morning of the 8th; the 2d the 5th, the 24th, and one division and 6th corps, under Meade, moving of the 25th corps, reached, by a north of the Appomattox, or directly forced march, Appomattox station on the trail of the enemy; while about daylight next morning.” Sheridan, undeceived as to Lee's But one hope remained to Lee. making for Danville, led his cavalry Ruefully aware that Sheridan had to head him off from Lynchburg, his intercepted his flight, he presumed only remaining refuge. Ord's and his way blocked by cavalry alone, Griffin's corps followed the cavalry; and at once ordered a charge of inbut of course did not keep pace with fantry. He had sent, at evening bethem.
fore, the following response to Grant's Sheridan-Crook having already, later overture: by order, rëcrossed the Appomattox
“ APRIL 8, 1865. -concentrated his troopers on Pros “GENERAL-I received at a late hour your
note of to-day. In mine of yesterday, I did pect station, and pushed on Merritt's
not intend to propose the surrender of the and Crook's divisions briskly to Ap Army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the pomattox station, on the Lynchburg
terms of your proposition. To be frank, I
do not think the emergency has arisen to call railroad, 5 miles south of APPOMAT-for the surrender of this army; but, as the tox C. H., where he had been ap- restoration of peace should be the sole obprised by scouts that four troins hoa lject of all, I desired to know whether your prised by scouts that four trains had Jocto
proposals would lead to that end. I can just arrived from Lynchburg, laden not, therefore, meet you with a view to surwith supplies for Lee's hungry fol render the Army of Northern Virginia; but,
as far as your proposal may affect the lowers. By a march of 28 miles, the
Confederate States forces under my comdépôt and trains were reached; and, mand, and tend to the restoration of peace, by the skillful dispositions of Gen.
I should be pleased to meet you at 10 A. M.
to-morrow, on the old stage-road to RichCuster, holding our advance, sur-mond, between the picket-lines of the two rounded and captured. Without a armies. d ontured Without o armies.
R. E. LEE, General. moment's hesitation, Custer, support
“Lt.-General U. S. Grant.”' ed by Devin, pushed on toward Ap-l Grant was with the column pursupomattox C. H., finding himself con- ing directly under Meade, and refronting the van of Lee's army, which ceived the above about midnight. he fought till after dark, driving it Before starting next morning to join back on the main body, capturing Sheridan and Griffin, he dispatched 25 guns, a hospital train, a large the following reply:
* Sunday, April 9.