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WALLACE DEFEATED AT TIIE MONOCACY. 603 upon Ricketts, who had changed | took command ; Wallace soon arfront to the left, to meet their ad- riving to rëiterate the order that it vance on his flank, his right resting must be held at whatever cost until on the river; and, though he had Ricketts should have crossed to the been obliged to form in a single line Baltimore pike and commenced his without reserves, so great was the retreat thereon. Tyler held on, fightdisparity of numbers that his front ing, till 5 P. M.; by which time his was considerably overlapped by theirs. remaining force was nearly enveloped Wallace, perceiving the inequality, by the overwhelming numbers of the sent two of Tyler's guns to Ricketts; enemy; so that he, with his staff, was and soon-burning the wooden bridge compelled to dash into the woods on and the block-house across it, so as to the right, and thus barely escaped preclude an easy advance of the ene capture. Brown had just retreated my thereby—sent to Ricketts every down the pike; losing some of his man who could be spared.

men, but holding the most of them The enemy's first line charged, and steadily in their ranks. The enemy was quickly repelled; his second line inade no effective pursuit; Bradley next advanced, and was likewise re- T. Johnson's cavalry being absent, pulsed; but after a fiercer, more pro- marching on Baltimore by the Libertracted struggle. And now Wallace ty road. Ricketts's three missing might have retreated with honor, regiments had been halted at Monrohaving achieved the main purpose of via, 8 miles distant; whence they had his stand; but 1 o'clock was at hand, ample time to reach the field in time when Ricketts's three absent regi- to save the day. They joined Wallace ments of veterans were promised; and, at Newmarket, and thence covered with their help, he felt able to hold the retreat: which terminated twelve his ground against the enemy's far miles from the Monocacy. superior numbers. But 1 P. M. ar- Our loss in this action was 98 rived and no regiments; nor could killed, 579 wounded, 1,282 missing : anything be heard of them—both total, 1,959. Many of the missing telegrapher and railroad agent hav- probably only straggled in the reing decamped. He waited an hour treat, as the enemy took but 700 longer; but there were no rëenforce- prisoners. They admitted only a ments; while the enemy, in two strong total loss of 600; but 400 of their selines, again issued from the woods on verely wounded were found in hospiour left and advanced deliberately to tal at Frederick, when we réoccupied the charge; and he reluctantly or that city two or three days afterdered Ricketts to prepare for a ward. retreat by the Baltimore pike, which | Johnson's cavalry next day apcommenced at 4 P. M.

proached Baltimore, when that city The stone bridge on that road was was filled with reports that Wallace's held by Col. Brown; and it was of little army had been annihilated at vital importance that it should still the Monocacy. The Baltimore Secesbe held firmly. Gen. Tyler had al- sionists, less numerous than in April ready sent his reserve to Brown; he or July, 1861, were no whit less bitnow galloped thither himself, and I ter; and they reasonably hoped, for

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some hours, to welcome a ' liberating' | horses, and 5,000 cattle. For the army. But Early, after a brief halt 19th corps (Emory's), ordered from on the battle-field, was now march- New Orleans by sea, had reached ing on Washington; and Baltimore, Fortress Monroe a few days previous, though weakly held, was not to be and had been sent by Grant to Washtaken on a gallop. Brig.-Gens. Lock- ington; as had the 6th (Wright's) wood and Morris were there ; and from before Petersburg, with directhey soon rallied thousands of loyaltions that Gen. Wright should ascitizens, by whom every approach | sume command. Had Early waited, was guarded, and earthworks thrown his force, now reduced to 15,000, up in the suburbs which could not be would have been confronted and carried without difficulty and delay. crushed by one of at least 40,000. Johnson declined the attempt; but a Wright's pursuit was not made in detachment of his horsemen, under such force as he should have had, and Harry Gilmor, made a dash at the was timid and feeble. Crossing the Philadelphia railroad near Magnolia Potomac at Edwards's ferry, he moved station, next morning; butning the through Leesburg and Snicker's gap long trestle over the inlet known as to the Shenandoah ; which he had Gunpowder, stopping there the morn- partially crossed when Early turned" ing train northward, and robbing pas- upon him suddenly and fiercely, drivsengers and mails.

ing back his advance with a loss of Early's cavalry advance reached fully 500. Wright rëcrossed after the Rockville on the evening of the 10th; enemy had moved off, but soon rehis infantry was next day within 6 turned to Leesburg, and, turning over or 7 miles of Washington; which the command to Crook, repaired to they actually menaced on the 12th. Washington. Gen. Augur, commanding the de- Averill, moving from Martinsburg fenses, pushed out, toward evening, on Winchester, was fought near a strong reconnoissance to develop that city, for three hours, by a Rebel their strength; and a smart skirmish force, which he finally worsted; takensued, wherein we had 280 killed ing 200 prisoners and 4 guns; with and wounded, and the enemy at least a loss of 150 or 200 killed and woundas many. If Early had rushed upon ed on either side. The approach of Washington by forced marches from Early from Snicker's gap now comthe Monocacy, and at once assaulted pelled him to draw off. with desperate energy, he might have Grant, deceived by advices that taken the city, and might have lost Early was returning to Lynchburg half his army: he must have lost all and Richmond, ordered the 6th and his army if he had carried the city 19th corps by water to Petersburg, and attempted to hold it.

intending to strike a blow with his . Whatever his purpose, it was now thus augmented forces before Early too late to do any thing but what could arrive. Hunter was still on he did - retreat across the Poto- his weary way from his miscarriage mac, with his cavalry, batteries and at Lynchburg — dry rivers, broken trains freshly horsed, 2,500 spare railroads, &c., impeding his progress. 10 July 19.

20 July 20.

Crook, left in command of the deple-1 The excuse alleged for this act ted force on the Potomac, now moved of Vandalism was the burning of exup to Harper's Ferry, and thence Gov. Letcher's house at Lexington pushed ont once more to Winchester, by Hunter, six weeks before. That supposing that there was nothing was held to be justified-and, at all there that could stop his progress. events, was solely incited—by find

He was grievously mistaken. Early ing in a Lexington printing-office had not gone south, but was close at the type and proof of a handbill ishand; and soon our advance was an- sued and signed by Letcher, calling noyed” by smart skirmishing, which on the people of that region to 'bushpushed back our cavalry on our in- whack' Hunter's men—that is, fire fantry, and next day routed them, at them from every covert, while not driving Crook's entire command embodied as a military force and pell-mell to Martinsburg with a loss seeming to be peaceful farmers or of 1,200, including Gen. Mulligan" artisans. If this burning violated killed. Early's loss was trilling. the laws of war, it had already been There was an artillery duel next twice avenged by burning Gov. Bradday at Martinsburg; but Crook, hav- ford's country residence near Baltiing gained time to save his trains, more, and ex-P. M. General Blair's, crossed over into Maryland, leaving near Washington. It was not in acEarly undisturbed master of the south cordance with Lee's orders nor his side of the Potomac from Shepherds- practice in either of his invasions; town to Williamsport.

for, though he burned Thaddeus SteHe made an unwise use of his vens’s iron-works near Gettysburg (as advantage. Maryland and southern we burned manufactories of warlike Pennsylvania being in utter panic- material, clothing, &c., throughout many running off their stock to places the South), he sternly forbad wanton of safety, while thousands openly ex- devastation; and he was obeyed. ulted at the brightened prospects of Averill, with 2,600 cavalry, perthe Rebellion-he sent B. T. John- plexed by the enemy's bewildering son, McCausland, and others, with demonstrations, had fallen back from perhaps 3,000 cavalry, on a sweep- Hagerstown to Greencastle, and was ing raid northward. McCausland but 9 iniles from Chambersburg while took a considerable circuit, threaten- Johnson and McCausland, with but ing some points in order to distract part of the Rebel cavalry north of attention from others; dispersing a the Potomac, sacked and burned that small body of recruits at Carlisle town. He arrived that day, but they barracks, and finally striking Cham- had left; moving westward to Mcbersburg," then totally defenseless and Connellstown, whither he followed ; in good part deserted, and demand- arriving in time to save it from a ing $100,000 in gold or $500,000 in similar fate. He promptly charged; currency, under penalty of conflagra- but there was not much of a fight; tion. The money not being instantly the enemy hurrying southward to produced, the place was fired, and Hancock, and thence across the Poabout two-thirds of it destroyed. tomac.

** July 23. The Col. Mulligan who defended Lexington, Mo., in 1861. July 30.


607 The panic throughout southern | branch of the Potomac, pursued by Pennsylvania had ere this become Averill, who struck" them ncar intensified. Gen. Couch, command Moorefield, routing them, with a loss ing there, was assured that a great of but 50 on our side; Averill capRebel army of invasion was march- turing their guns, wagons, and 500 ing on Pittsburg; and that city re- prisoners. newed the defensive efforts of the Gen, Grant had already sent * year before. The guerrilla John S. Sheridan to Washington, with intent Moseby, with 50 men, dashed across to have him placed in charge of our the Potomac at Cheat ferry, surpri- distracted operations on the Potomac sing and capturing at Adamstown and Shenandoah ; and he now came nearly his own number of horsemen, up" himself, to obtain, if possible, a and robbed a few stores; and, though better understanding of what was he ran back instantly, his trifling raid going on. In his conference with was magnified into a vague and Hunter, that officer expressed a willgloomy significance.

ingness to be relieved, if that were Neither the 6th nor the 19th corps deemed desirable; and Grant at once had proceeded farther than George- telegraphed to Washington to have town, D.C., when Crook's defeat and Sheridan sent up to Harper's Ferry; its consequences impelled them in himself awaiting there that officer's quite another direction than that of arrival. An order soon appeared as Petersburg. Moving” by Rockville appointing Maj.-Gen. Philip H. Sherand Frederick, they had reached idan commander of the new Middle Harper's Ferry, and there met Crook, Department,' composed of the late with part of Hunter's long expected Departments of West Virginia, Washinfantry, on the day Chambersburg ington, and Susquehanna; and two was burned; and now, with an im- divisions of cavalry (Torbert's and mense train, the whole force was Wilson's) were soon sent him by started on a wild-goose-chase after Grant; raising his force to nearly Early, who was supposed to be laying 30,000 men; while Early's, confrontwaste southern Pennsylvania. ing him, can hardly have exceeded

Gen. Kelley, commanding at Cum- 20,000.” berland, had undertaken to stop John- It was no fault of Sheridan's that his son's raiders as they passed him on accession to command was not immeditheir retreat, and had a smart skir-ately followed by a vigorous offensive. mish with them at Falck's mill, in Doubtless, his motley forces needed which he claimed the advantage; but to be better compacted and fitted toCol. Stough, with 500 men, sent to gether; but, under skillful and capaOldtown to intercept them, had there ble leadership, they would attain this been routed, after a short skirmish; most rapidly in the field. Yet there himself and 90 men being captured. had been so much failure and disapThe enemy retreated up the south pointment in this quarter, while the 24 July 26. 25 Aug. 4. 20 Aug. 2. | Early made his force scarcely half so numerous 97 Aug. 4. 22 Aug. 7.

as Sheridan's. Sheridan rejoined that the prison* There was, in 1865, a spicy newspaper con- ers taken by him from Early exceeded the numtroversy between these Generals touching their ber to which that General limited his entire respective strength in their Valley campaign. I command.

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