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ing the many desperate combats of purposeless commander would have this bloody year, the Army of the failed to achieve them at all. The Potomac lost only 25 and gained but merit which may be fairly claimed 32 guns. Its losses of guns were for Grant is that of resolutely undermainly incurred at Reams's station; taking a very difficult and formidaits gains were chiefly made at Spott ble task, and executing it to the best sylvania.

of his ability—at all events, doing it. Grant's conduct of this campaign That, when south of the James, he was not satisfactory to the Confeder- was just where the Rebels wished ate critics, who gave a decided pref- him not to be, they showed by despeerence to the strategy of McClellan. rate and hazardous efforts to draw They hold that the former aimed him thence; and the proof was duonly to overpower and crush by plicated in the final collapse of the brute force—by the employment of Rebellion. Other campaigns were overwhelming numbers — and by a more brilliant; but none contributed lavish expenditure of blood. Doubt-more positively and eminently to less, a great military genius, such as | break the power of the Confederates appears once in two or three centu- than that which began on the Rapiries, might have achieved them at a dan and ended in front of Petersburg smaller cost; as a timid, hesitating, I and across the Weldon road.

XXVI. WEST VIRGINIA AND NORTH OF THE RAPIDAN

IN 1864.

THE 'ANACONDA' is a clumsy, slug-, northern Virginia. The first occurred gish beast; effecting his ends by an at Jonesville, in the extreme west of enormous, even lavish expenditure of old Virginia, near Cumberland gap, force; but Grant's anaconda differed held by Maj. Beers with 300 Illinoisfrom that of Scott and McClellan ans and 3 guns, who were surroundin being thoroughly alive. The si-ed, surprised, and captured by Sam. multaneous National advance in 1864 Jones, after a smart contest, in which from all points, against the armies our loss was 60. The excuse for holdand remaining strongholds of the Re- ing an outpost thus exposed was the bellion, was not merely ordered; it necessity of collecting forage for our was actually attempted—with many larger force at Cumberland gap. reverses at the outset, and no deci- A nearly simultaneous raid by Fitzdedly encouraging results for some Hugh Lee's cavalry, on the line of months, but with ultimately over the Baltimore and Ohio railroad west whelming success.

of Cumberland, came to nothing; Before Gen. Grant had been placed but a later expedition, sent under in chief command, there had been Rosser over into West Virginia from several collisions in western and the Valley by Early, surprised' a train "Jan. 3, 1864.

* Jan. 30.

BRECKINRIDGE DEFEATS SIGEL AT NEW MARKET. 599

moving from New creek to Peters- Gen. Crook, aiming at the Rebel reburg, Hardy county; and, after a sources in the vicinity of Staunton brief struggle, captured 270 prison- and Lynchburg. Sigel, with some ers, 93 six-mule wagons, heavily la- 10,000 men, moved up the Valley den, and brought away 1,200 cattle accordingly, and was met, near Newand 500 sheep, in addition. Of many MARKET, by a Rebel army of at least raids from · Dixie' into West Virginia, equal force under Breckinridge; to hardly another was so cheaply suc- strengthen whom, the region west of cessful as this.

him had very properly been stripped Rosser next surprised' the Balti- and left nearly defenseless. After more and Ohio railroad station at Pat- some maneuvering and skirmishing, terson creek bridge, 8 miles west of Breckinridge, at 3 P. M.,' ordered a Cumberland, capturing a company determined charge, by which Sigel's which held it; but was struck, on his badly handled army was routed, and return, at Springfield, near Romney, driven back to Cedar creek, near by Gen. Averill, with a far superior Strasburg, with a loss of 700 men, 6 Union force, and chased out of the guns, 1,000 small arms, his hospitals, new State; losing his Patterson creek and part of his train. Breckinridge prisoners and a considerable portion seems not to have followed up his of his own men and horses.

victory, because his forces were need. Col. Gallup, commanding on the ed to repel the advance of Crook border of eastern Kentucky, sur- from the west. prised Col. Ferguson, a Rebel guer- Crook had moved from Charlesrilla, at the Rock House, Wayne co., town simultaneously with Sigel's adWest Virginia, killing 15 and taking vance from Winchester; and—as if 50 prisoners, including Ferguson. to preclude the last chance of ulti

Gen. Scaminon, commanding at mate success—had divided his comCharlestown, had been surprised and mand; sending Averill, with 2,000 captured, with the steamboat Levi, cavalry, to destroy the lead-mines on the Kanawha, by Lt. Verdigan, near Wytheville, while he advanced one of Ferguson's subordinates, a few farther to the left. But when Avedays before. Verdigan, with but 10 rill reached' Wytheville, he found men, captured a General, 4 other of there John Morgan, with a formidaficers, and 25 privates, beside the ble cavalry force dispatched by Gen. steamboat and her crew; throwing W. E. Jones from Saltville; and a overboard the captured arms so fast stubborn fight came off, wherein Aveas he could seize them, so as to pre- rill was clearly worsted. He tries in clude the danger of a rescue. Scam- his ‘General Order' to make the remon and his two aids were sent prison-sult a drawn fight against “overers to Richmond; the residue paroled. whelming numbers ;" but, as he does

not claim to have destroyed the leadGen. Grant's comprehensive plan works, nor taken the town, nor of campaign embraced a cooperative achieved anything in particular, save movement up the Shenandoah under that “the purposes of the enemy were Gen. Sigel, and up the Kanawha by foiled by the engagement,” there is

• Feb. 2. Feb. 12. May 1. May 13. May 10.

bridge; | Humouse — and a vited in the

no room for doubt that he was virtu- | ing Gen. Hunter to succeed him. ally beaten.

The old, fatally vicious system of Gen. Crook, with 11 regiments, a concentric advance from opposite numbering some 6,000 men, had points on a common focus was made directly for the Virginia and still adhered to. Hunter, somewhat Tennessee railroad at Dublin station ; strengthened, at once resumed the 4 miles from which he was met by a offensive; the pressure on Lee by far inferior Rebel force under Mc- Grant's persistent hammering havCausland, which fought bravely, but ing constrained Breckinridge's withwas beaten off, with a loss on our drawal, with the better part of his part of 126 killed and 585 wounded. force, to the defenses of Richmond; The railroad here, and for a short W. E. Jones, with most of the Rebel distance eastward, was destroyed. forces in the western part of old VirAnd now the appearance of a con- ginia, including McCausland's, havsiderable Rebel rëenforcement, dis- ing been hurried forward to confront patched from Wytheville by Morgan the new danger. The two armies before he fought Averill, impelled meto at PIEDMONT, near StauntonCrook to retreat to Meadow bridge; Hunter's being somewhat more nuso that, when Averill reached Dub- merous — and a spirited and welllin, Crook was gone, which left him fought action resulted in the defeat no choice but to follow. Thus the con- of Jones, who was shot through the centric movement upon Lee's flank head, and fell dead on the field. and rear resulted, as usual with such Among the fruits of this victory combinations, in general failure, if were 1,500 prisoners, 3 guns, and not positive disaster. A force that, 3,000 small arms. It was, in fact, a if concentrated, could have beaten all rout; leaving the Rebel army incathe Rebels in Virginia west of the pable of further resistance. Blue ridge, had been so dispersed and Hunter advanced to Staunton, frittered away as to achieve less than where Crook and Averill—no connothing.

siderable force having been left by Grant at once relieved Sigel, send-Jones to oppose them-joined" him; June 5.

beating back repeated charges of our infantry and o Col. C. G. Halpine, chief of staff to Hunter,

cavalry. under Gens, Sullivan and Stahl-for says of this conflict:

neither the divisions of Crook nor Averill had

then joined us; and it was quite late in the af. "The forces actually engaged were about

ternoon, after a long and sweltering day of bat. equal: Gen. Hunter having some 9,000 men ac

tle, when the movement of the gallant Col. Thotually in action, while the enemy had about the

burne's division across the narrow valley, and same-strongly posted, however, on a range of

its charge up hill upon the enemy's right flank, hills, horse-shoe shaped and heavily timbered,

decided the contest in our favor. Gen. Wm. E. and further protected by rifle-pits and rail-fence

Jones, their commander, was killed, as also four barricades, hastily thrown up the night before.

Colonels; and we had about 1,800 prisoners, The Rebel morning report of the day previous,

including the worthless reserve militia, seventy found on the dead body of Gen. Jones that afternoon, showed that he had then under him 6,800

regular officers, and 2,800 stand of arms, as the regular Confederate soldiers; while we knew that

spoils attesting our success. But for the com

ing on of night, and the broken, heavily-tim. he was joined on the morning of the engagement by Vaughan's brigade from East Tennessee, and

bered nature of the country, the famous feat of

bagging' that army—so popular with Congresalso by about 1,500 militia-old men and young

sional orators and enthusiastic editors-might boys, not worth the powder required to kill

have been easily accomplished; for a worse them - hurried forward from Staunton and

whipped or more ulterly demoralized crowd of Lynchbung on news of our advance. "The fight, though not large in numbers, was

beaten men never fled from any field." singularly obstinate and fluctuating: the enemy | 10 June 8.

HUNTER MISCARRIES AT LYNCHBURG.

601

and moved thence directly to Ler- have been misjudged; but Hunter, ington; disappointing Grant, who lacking many things, never lacked had expected him at Gordonsville, courage; and he believed that an atand had sent his cavalry under Sheri-tempt to regain the Shenandoah didan to meet him there. His failure rectly from Lynchburg would have to do so subjected Sheridan to like seriously imperiled his army. But failure in his approach to Gordons- his withdrawal into West Virginia ville, as we have seen.

rendered him no longer formidable Hunter's force was now increased to the enemy, and involved a circuitto about 20,000 men ; and he hast- ous, harassing movement by the Kaened, via Lexington, to Lynchburg nawha, the Ohio, Parkersburg, and

-the chief city of western (old) Vir- Grafton, before he could again be of ginia—intent on its speedy reduc any service. tion. But Lynchburg, the focus of a The Rebels, aware of this, promptly rich, populous region, and of exten- resolved to make the most of their sive manufactures, lies on the James opportunity. Early, who had headed river and canal, in unbroken railroad the corps sent from Richmond to the communication with Richmond and relief of Lynchburg, collecting all the Petersburg on the one side, and with forces he could muster, moved rapthe farther south on the other. Lee- idly northward, and very soon apwho might as well have lost Rich-peared” on the Potomac: Sigel, commond-dispatched a very considera- manding at Martinsburg, retreating ble force to its relief; part of which precipitately by Harper's Ferry, with arrived the day before Hunter at a heavy loss of stores, and taking post tacked" the city from the south, and on Maryland Heights, where the enestill more during the following night, my did not see fit to assail him, but wherein several trains arrived from once more destroyed the Baltimore the east filled with men.

and Ohio railroad for a consideraHunter found his ammunition run- ble distance, levied a contribution ning low, a strong city before him, of $20,000 on Hagerstown, burned and the whole Confederacy virtually some buildings at Williamsport, and, rallying to overwhelm him. He had raiding up into the border of Pennno choice but to retreat, sharply pur- sylvania, scoured the country far and sued; following the railroad west- wide for horses, cattle, provisions, and ward to Salem—where the pursuit money. The.movement was so well ended-and thence striking, via New- masked by cavalry that the strength castle," for Meadow bluff," in West of the invading force-probably never Virginia; his provisions long since so much as 20,000—was enormously exhausted, and very little to be exaggerated, spreading general panic, gleaned in midsummer from that and causing the Government to call poor, thinly-peopled, war-exhausted urgently on Pennsylvania, New York, region. No rations were obtained till and Massachusetts, for militia to meet the 27th; and the sufferings of men the emergency. and loss of horses were deplorable. Gen. Couch was commanding in The direction of his retreat may Pennsylvania ; Gen. Lew. Wallace 1 June 18.

Jupe 22.
13 June 25.

* July 2-3.

in Maryland: the demonstrations | Finding the enemy in his front rapidly against the former were only intend-growing forinidable, and threatening ed to distract attention from a blow to turn his left, Wallace now withaimed at the latter. Wallace, soon drew by night" from Frederick across satisfied of this, drew out his scanty the Monocacy, and took up the posiforces—for the East had, ere this, been tion on its left bank, already held swept nearly bare of troops to fill the by Gen. Ricketts, which he resolved chasms made by constant fighting in to hold so long as he could-since, if the armies operating against Rich- the Rebels were in strong force, and mond—and resolved to confront the intent on a dash at Washington, it invaders on the Monocacy, which af- was important at least to check them, forded a tolerable defensive position. by compelling them to concentrate Yet, when his forces were concen- and fight; thus gaining time for the trated at Frederick, they numbered arrival of help from Grant. barely 3,000; and these mainly Early in the morning, '* Wallace's Home Guards and 100-day volun- dispositions for battle were completed. teers, who had never been in action. His right, under Gen. Tyler, cover

Col. Clendenin, with his cavalry- ed the Baltimore pike; his left, unsome 400 in all—was sent out to der Gen. Ricketts, held the high Middletown to find the enemy; but road to Washington. Each had three was soon driven back by Gen. guns. The bridges were held; skirBradley T. Johnson, with 1,000 Rebel mishers being thrown out beyond horsemen. Clendenin retreated on them. Col. Clendenin's cavalry Frederick, and was there supported watched the lower fords. Only part by Lt. Col. Griffin's infantry, raising of Ricketts's division was on hand; his force to 1,000; and a brief artil- but the residue was expected by raillery duel ensued, which resulted in road at 1 P.M. At 8 A, M., the enemy Johnson's falling back.

advanced in force from Frederick, Wallace now reached Frederick- throwing out skirmishers and planthis forces having hitherto been im- ing behind them his guns, which soon mediately directed by Gen. Tyler- opened the battle. Having not less but could gain no reliable account than 16 Napoleons to our 6 smaller of the enemy's strength or purposes pieces, the superiority of his fire was -the wildest and most conflicting very decided. The skirmishing grew reports being in circulation. He gradually warmer and more general, soon learned by telegram from Sigel, and soon there was serious fighting on Maryland Heights, that the ene- at the stone bridge on the Baltimore my lately beleaguering him had left, pike. A considerable body of Rebel marching northward, as if making infantry, moving by their right just for Pennsylvania; while he had as- out of range of our guns, flanked our surances from Washington that a left, forcing a passage of the Monoccorps of veterans were hurrying to his acy at a ford nearly two miles below assistance. General Ricketts, with a the wooden bridge on the Washingbrigade of good soldiers, belonging ton road. And now, at 101 A, M., to the 19th corps, actually came up. the enemy advanced in battle array 15 July 6. 16 July 7. 17 July 8.

18 July 9.

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