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boats, and more than a hundred | fight, and was run upon a shoal, cannon.“

| where she sank; while the Mallory, Com. Foote, having refitted, moved which had attempted to crush her, down“ the river in order of battle, was herself caught by the St. Louis, followed by transports conveying cut into and sunk, most of her crew part of Gen. Pope's army; finding going down with her. One of the his way first impeded at Fort Pillow, Confederate gunboats had ere this or Wright, situated on the first been burnt; another had her boiler Chickasaw Bluffs, near the Islands exploded by a shot; while the rest Nos. 33 and 34, about 70 miles above were so crippled as to render them Memphis. Landing his mortars on nearly ineffective; so they gave up the Arkansas bank, he commenced" the fight and drifted down the river, a bombardment of the fort at a dis- under cover of the smoke, to the protance of three-fourths of a mile, and tection of their batteries. The Cinwas replied to with energy and ac- cinnati was our only vessel that had curacy. The high stage of the river suffered, and she had but 4 wounded. prevented cooperation by our army;| A month later," Fort Pillow was 30 the cannonade was kept up for evacuated, as was Fort Randolph, two weeks with spirit on both sides, twelve miles below. Some damaged but with little effect.

guns were left in thein, but nothing : A powerful ram having been re- of much value. Com. Davis dropped ceived by the Rebels from below, they down next day to within gun-shot of resolved to test its efficiency; and Memphis, where he came to anchor; accordingly made an attack on our and next morning, with five gunboats fleet,“ the ram leading, backed by and four rams, slowly approached three gunboats, and making a rush the city. Soon, a Rebel fleet of eight at the Cincinnati, whose rapid broad-gunboats was seen approaching in sides at short range made no impres-order of battle, opening fire when sion on her assailant's iron mail. within three-fourths of a mile. The The boats collided with a fearful Union ram, Queen of the West, soon crash, instantly followed by a broad-struck the Rebel gunboat, Gen. side from the Cincinnati and a vol- | Price, crushing in her wheel-house, ley of musketry; directly after which, and causing her to leak so badly Commander Stembel fired his pistol that she was headed at once for the at the head of the Confederate pilot, Arkansas shore. The Rebel gunkilling him instantly. The pilot's boat, Beauregard, now made at the mate thereupon shot the Commander Queen, which attempted to strike through his shoulder and neck, dis- her; but the shock was skillfully abling but not killing him. The evaded by the Beauregard's pilot, Cincinnati, though crippled and sink- who struck the Queen aft so heavily ing, was able to withdraw from the as to disable her. The Union ram

43 Gen. Pope, in his official report, says: mense quantity of ammunition of all kinds, many

“Three Generals, 273 field and coinpany hundred horses and mules, with wagons and officers, 6,700 prisoners, 123 pieces of heavy harness, &c., are among the spoils. artillery-all of the very best character, and of the latest patterns-7,000 stand of small arms, 1

44 April 12.

45 April 17. several wharf-boat loads of provisions, an im: 4May 4.

1? June 4.

MEMPHIS SURRENDERED BY THE REBELS.

57

Monarch thereupon made at the and replied, while our troops were Beauregard, and struck her heavily landed below to take those batteries on the bow, causing her to fill rapidly in the rear. A ball, from a siegeand sink, while the Monarch took gun on the bluff, pierced the side of the Queen in tow and drew her out the Mound City, and passed through of peril. Com. Davis's flag-boat, her steam-drum, filling the vessel inthe Benton, threw a 50-pound ball stantly with the scalding vapor. Of from a rifled Parrott into the Rebel the 175 persons on board, barely 23 gunboat Gen. Lovell, striking her escaped injury. Many jumped overaft, just above the water-line, and board, frantic with pain, and were tearing a great hole, into which the drowned; while the boats sent from water rushed in a torrent. In four the Conestoga to their relief, were minutes, she had sunk in 75 feet fired on by the Rebels with grape of water, carrying down a part and canister, killing most of our of her crew. There remained but scalded and frantic fugitives. In a four of the Rebel boats; and few minutes, Col. Fitch had carried these, which had been for some time the works by a charge, capturing 9 drifting, though firing, now turned guns and about 30 prisoners, inclutheir bows toward the Arkansas ding Col. Frye, the commandant. shore, which the Jeff. Thompson The expedition failed to effect its soon reached, when her officers and purpose. crew leaped off and ran into the The triumphant Union fleet soon woods, while a shell exploding on proceeded down the river, encounher deck, set her on fire, and she was tering no serious obstacle till near burned down to the water. The Vicksburg," where it communicated crew of the Gen. Bragg and the with Com. Farragut, whose fleet Sumter escaped in like manner; from the Gulf lay below this natural while the swifter Gen. Van Dorn stronghold, accompanied by Gen. filed down the river. The battle had Williams, with four regiments of lasted a little over an hour, and its infantry. The Rebel fortifications result was most decisive. No man were bombarded " for several hours, was killed on board our fleet. Mem- without result; but Lt.-Col. Ellet, phis, whose population had all been with two rams, went that day up the interested spectators of the combat, Yazoo river, to capture three Rebel surrendered immediately.

gunboats, which, on his approach, An expedition, comprising four were set on fire and impelled down gunboats and a steam transport, the current, with intent to envelop conveying the 46th Indiana, Col. our vessels in the flames. The Rebel Fitch, was soon dispatched up the boats were destroyed. Arkansas and White rivers, to open The siege of Vicksburg was concommunication with Gen. Curtis, tinued by our fleet, and a determined known to be approaching from the attack made on it July 1, but deWest. Reaching St. Charles, the feated. The Rebel ram Arkansas Mound City, then in advance, was came down the Yazoo, ran through fired on from two concealed batteries, the astonished Union fleet, and took 4 June 24. 19 June 26.

50 July 15.

refuge under the batteries of Vicks- / wooded. Two or three miles southburg, unharmed. Repeated attempts ward is Shiloh Church, and some ten to destroy or sink her“ were defeated miles farther is the road-crossing by the shore batteries; and, on the known as Monterey, where there 24th, the siege was raised; Com. were half-a-dozen houses. The reFarragut, with Gen. Williams, re- gion is thinly and recently settled ; turning down the river; while Com. still mainly covered by the primitive Davis, with his fleet, steamed up to forest; gently rolling, and traversed the mouth of the Yazoo, thus aban- by a number of inconsiderable creeks, doning, for the time, the rëopening making eastward and northward, to of the Mississippi.

be lost in the Tennessee.

At Pittsburg Landing, the Tyler Gen. Grant's victorious army, after found a Rebel battery of six guns, a brief rest at Fort Donelson, re- which it silenced, after a mutual can. crossed, considerably strengthened, nonade of two hours; returning to the Tennessee, just above Fort thence to Danville and reporting. Henry, where several gunboats and a The movement of the army southlarge number of transports, passing ward on transports was continueddown the Cumberland into the Ohio, the 46th Ohio, Col. Worthington, and thence into the Tennessee, took leading, on the transport B. J. up our soldiers by regiments and Adams—so far as Savannah, where started with them on a new move- it was landed, and proceeded to ment up the Tennessee. General take military possession. All the Charles F. Smith had been desig- transports, 69 in number, conveying nated by Gen. Halleck to direct this nearly 40,000 men, were soon demovement, but was soon disabled by barking the army, with its material, the sickness of which he died not long at and near this place, whence Gen. after reaching Savannah, Tenn., and Lew. Wallace's division was disGen. Grant was thus restored to chief patched 6s to Purdy, a station 16 miles command. The rendezvous of the W.S.W., where the railroad was deexpedition was at a little place called stroyed. Gen. Sherman's first diviDanville, where the railroad from sion was next" conveyed up the river Memphis to Clarkesville and Louis- to Tyler's Landing, just across the ville crosses the river. The gunboats Mississippi State line; whence the Tyler and Lexington had already 6th Ohio cavalry was dispatched to made a reconnoissance up the Ten- Burnsville, on the Memphis and nessee, meeting their first resistance Charleston road, some miles eastward at PITTSBURG LANDING, an insignifi- of Corinth, which was likewise decant two-house nucleus of a prospec- stroyed without resistance. The extive village, 8 miles above Savannah pedition then returned unmolested and 20 miles N.N.E. of Corinth, Miss., to Savannah. at the junction of the Memphis and These easy successes, and the fact Charleston with the Mobile and Ohio that no enemy came near or seemed Railroad. The country hence to to meditate annoyance, must have Corinth is rolling, and generally imbued our leading officers with a

o July 16-22. ** March 10. ** March 12. * March 14.

59

GRANT'S ARMY AT PITTSBURG LANDING. contempt for the power or the prowess pickets were scarcely a musket-shot of their enemy; since our regiments, from the tents of our foremost regias they arrived, were mainly de- ments; some of which, it was asserted, barked at Pittsburg Landing, on the had not even been provided with side of the Tennessee nearest to and ammunition, though it was known within easy striking distance of the that the woods, scarcely a mile away, Rebel headquarters at Corinth. One had suddenly been found swarming of the six divisions, under Gen. Lew. with Rebel scouts and sharp-shooters Wallace, was encamped nearly op- in such strength as to forbid observaposite Savannah; the other five were tion on our part." Low but ominous thrown out in a semicircle southward whispers and meaning glances of exof Pittsburg Landing, with a front ultation among the Rebel civilians like a Methodist camp-meeting, strag- in our rear had already given indigling from Lick creek on the south cations that a blow was about to be or left, to Snake creek on the north struck; and alarmed Unionists had or right, a distance of some three or sought the tents of our Generals with four miles. Gen. Prentiss's division monitions of danger, which were rewas encamped across the direct road ceived with sneering intimations that to Corinth, with Gen. McClernand's every one should stick to his trade. behind his right, and Gen. Sherman's Gen. Grant was at Savannah, superstill further to the right, with Shiloh intending the reception of supplies. church in his front, on a road lead- Such was the condition of our forces ing also, but more circuitously, to on Saturday evening, April 5th. Corinth. Gen. Hurlbut's division Albert Sidney Johnston was problay in the rear of Gen. Prentiss. ably the ablest commander at any Gen. Smith's division, commanded, time engaged in the Rebel service. because of Smith's sickness, by Gen. He had braved unpopularity and reW. H. L. Wallace, was on the left of proach from the herd of chimneyand behind McClernand, with its corner critics who supposed it the right near Pittsburg Landing and its duty of a General to run his head front somewhat protected by the against every stone-wall within reach, ravines of two rivulets running into by refusing to fight losing battles for Snake creek.

Bowling Green and Nashville, and had Though the vicinity of the enemy thus brought off his army intact and was notorious, not an intrenchment undemoralized; retreating across the nor defense of any kind, not even an Tennessee and into a region at once abatis, here so easily made, covered undevastated and unappalled by war, and protected our front; no recon- full of resources, wherein devotion noitering parties were thrown for- to the Union had been utterly supward to watch for and report an ad- pressed, if not eradicated, and whence, vance of the enemy; and even the by a net-work of railroads and telegraphs, he communicated easily with | masked by cavalry, he confidently Richmond, and with every portion of expected to attack in full force on the Cotton States. The recent evac- the morning of the 5th; but a heavy uation of Columbus by Polk was rain on the 4th so deepened the mire probably ordered by him, in obedi- of the narrow, wretched roads, that ence to his policy of concentrating his army was by that time but fairly around Corinth the greatest possible concentrated at Monterey, thence force, with intent to rush upon and moving with the utmost caution unoverwhelm the Union army, so care- til within three and a half miles of lessly encamped just before him on our pickets, where, unable to advance the hither bank of the Tennessee. farther without braving discovery, he Having a spy in nearly every dwell | halted for the night. Here, with ing in southern Tennessee, he was double guards along his front, indoubtless aware that the command structed to shoot any man who, upon of that army had just been turned whatever pretext, should attempt to over by Gen. C. F. Smith, an expe- pass, a council of war was held at 8 rienced and capable soldier, to Gen. P. M., and every preparation made for Grant, so recently from civil life; a stealthy and desperate assault at and he had no doubt of his ability to daybreak; while the soldiers, forbidaccomplish its destruction. Calling den to make fires, sank on the cold, urgently upon the Governors of Ten- damp ground, under the open sky, nessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and shivered through a part of the for all the troops they could spare night. Each Colonel had orders to or raise, and being strongly rëen- have his regiment under arms and forced by Gen. Braxton Bragg, with ready to move by 3 A. M. a drilled corps from Mobile and Pen- At early dawn, the advance was sacola, he had, by the 1st of April, resumed in line of battle: Maj.-Gen. collected an army of about 50,000. Hardee, with the 3d corps, in front, Moving silently out from Corinth, in with the 2d, and strongest, under light marching order and without Gen. Bragg, 500 yards behind him; tents, at 3 A. M., on the 3d, the ad- the 1st, under Gen. Polk, half a mile vance of his infantry preceded and in the rear of this, with the reserve,

* " Agate" (Whitelaw Reid), of the Cincin | out throwing up a single breastwork or preparnati Gazette, in his report of the battle, says : ing a single protection for a battery, and with

| the brigades of one division [Sherman's “We had lain three weeks at Pittsburg Land- stretched from extreme right to extreme left of ing, within 20 miles of the Rebels, that were our line, while four other divisions had been likely to attack us in superior nurnberg, with. | crowded in between, as they arrived."

60 About this time abandoned by the Rebels. SR " An Impressed New-Yorker," who was

then serving on Beauregard's staff, in his “Thir. 87 Beauregard, in his field return of the · Ar

teen Months in the Rebel Army," says: my of the Mississippi,' before and after the bat

“While it is no part of my duty, in this narratle of Shiloh, makes his effective total, before

tive, to criticise military movements, and espebattle, 40,355 men, of whom 4,382 were cavalry, cially those of the Union forces, I may state that which he says was useless and could not oper the total absence of cavalry pickets from Gen. ate at all, the battle-field being so thickly wood Grant's army was a matter of perfect amazement ed. But this return includes none of his troops

to the Rebel officers. There were absolutely

none on Grant's left, where Gen. Breckinridge's left to guard his base at Corinth, or his trains in

division was meeting him; so that we were able the rear of the battle-field, and conceals the fact

to come up within hearing of their drums enthat his cavalry were usefully employed in guard tirely unperceived. The Southern Generals al. ing, on their way to Corinth, his prisoners as ways kept cavalry pickets out for miles, even well as his wounded. Beside, when he comes

when no enemy was supposed to be within a

day's march of them. The infantry pickets of to sum up his losses, he states the loss of his

Grant's forces were not above three-fourths of a cavalry at 301-rather inexplicable, if that cav- mile from his advance camps, and they were too alry was useless and unemployed.

1 few to make any resistance."

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