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GEN. MITCHEL AT BOWLING GREEN

51

The Rebel loss by this conflict and by current report, had never amounted capitulation must have been fully to 25,000 effectives, and had ere this 10,000 men, including 2,000 killed in good part been sent to the defense and wounded,a to say nothing of of Donelson, until it had been rearms and munitions. Our loss in duced to about 7,000 or 8,000 men. killed and wounded was probably As Mitchel advanced across Green the larger."

river from his camp at Bacon creek,

Johnston commenced his retreat on The blow so well struck at Donel- Nashville ; so that, when Mitchel had son was swiftly followed by important reached ** the north bank of Barren successes throughout Kentucky and river, and looked across into Bowlin Tennessee.

ing Green, sending over Col. TurGen. Don Carlos Buell had, at the chin's brigade during the night, at a then recent partition of departments, ferry a mile and a half below, he been assigned” to that of the Ohio, found the railroad dépôt on fire, with including, besides three Free States, 7 locomotives, and a large amount of Tennessee, and all of Kentucky east corn and other provisions, with the of the Cumberland, with his head- bridges of course destroyed, and the quarters at Louisville; where he still last of the Rebel army, consisting of remained when his advance, consist- Texas Rangers, just moving off on ing of some 16,000 men, led by Gen. a railroad train, which had been reO. M. Mitchel, moved," simulta- tained for the purpose. The river, neously with Gen. Grant's demon-being wide and at a high stage, stration on Donelson, upon Bowling could not here be crossed till next Green, the Rebel stronghold in Ken- day; so that Mitchel's forced march tucky, where Gen. Albert Sidney of 42 miles in 37 hours, clearing his Johnston had succeeded to the com- road of trees which had been felled mand, while Gen. Beauregard had across it was rewarded by very been sent him from the east as a re- moderate captures, including a brass enforcement. But Johnston's force, 6-pounder, and some $5,000 worth enormously and purposely magnified of commissary stores; but it was

* Gen. Pillow, in his supplemental report, ments we do not find the 20th Mississippi, whose says:

commander, Maj. W. M. Brown, officially reports “We sent up from Dover. 1.134 wounded. A that he surrendered 454; nor the 32d TennesFederal surgeon's certificate, which I have seen, see, Col. Cook, who reports that he surrendered says that there were about 400 Confederate pris 538. oners wounded in hospital at Paducah, making

Gen. Grant's report makes his captures 12,000 1,534 wounded. I was satisfied the killed would

to 15,000 prisoners, at least 40 pieces of artilincrease the number to 2,000."

lery, and a large amount of stores, horses, mules, Pollard gives what he terms a correct list, by and other public property. regiments, of the Confederate prisoners taken at Fort Donelson, footing up 5,079; but he evi.

» Gen. Grant, speaking of the battle of the dently does not include in this total the wound

15th, says: “Our loss can not fall far short of ed, of whom many must have been left on the

1,200 killed, wounded, and missing,” including field or in the hospital at the fort, as he says:

250 taken prisoners. The reports of Col. Cruft, "The village of Dover, which was within our

Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, and Col. Lauman, show lines, contained in every room in every house

an aggregate loss of 1,306 in their three bri. sick, wounded, or dead men. Bloody rags were

gades, clearly indicating that Gen. Grant undereverywhere, and a door could not be opened / estimated his casualties. without hearing groans." And in his list of regi- 52 Nov. 9, 1861. 5 Feb. 11, 1862. “Feb. 14. *** An Impressed New-Yorker," in his narra. | 5,000 horsemen, in the midst of rain and sleet, tive of personal adventures, entitled “Thirteen day after day, camping at night in wet fields, or Months in the Rebel Army," says:

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computed that the Rebels had been | his Legislature, with the State arcompelled to destroy not less than chives and treasure, betook themhalf a million dollars' worth of selves swiftly to Memphis; while munitions, including many arms. Confederate officers devoted their Large quantities of provisions and attention to moving as rapidly as posother stores, industriously collected sible, the vast stores of provisions throughout the preceding Fall and and munitions here accumulated. Winter, had been removed to Nash- Two fine gunboats, being built at the ville during the last three or four river-side, were prepared for instant days.

conflagration; and the magnificent Nashville had been electrified, and costly railroad and wire suspenduring the 15th (Saturday), with a sion-bridges over the Cumberland telegraphic dispatch from Dover, were likewise made ready for speedy announcing a Rebel victory; some- destruction-a fate which overtook what tempered by reports from them two or three days later. A Bowling Green that Johnston would fortification had in the mean time be obliged to evacuate that post. been commenced on the Cumberland, Next morning, however, came news four miles below the city, calculated of the capture of Donelson, with most to dispute and prevent the passage of its defenders; and along with of our gunboats; but this was soon it a first installment of Johnston's abandoned upon information that army retreating from dismantled Gen. Johnston had decided not to Bowling Green. The general aston- fight for Nashville, but to continue ishment was only equaled by the his retreat; which he did, unassailed, general consternation. Churches were to Corinth, Miss., south of the Tenclosed, or failed to open; there were nessee river, and nearly 300 miles hurried consultations and whispered from Bowling Green. Six weeks adieus in every quarter, whence bank were consumed in that retreat; which, directors rushed to impel specie and with a green and undisciplined army, other valuables toward the cars, was probably quite as disastrous as a soon to bear them to Chattanooga, battle." to Columbia, and other points of Directly after the capture of Fort comparative safety. Gov. Harris and Henry, Commander Phelps, with the

dripping woods, without sufficient food adapted

to their wants, and often without any tents; the "The army was not far from 60,000 strong, men lying down in their wet clothes, and rising after Gen. George B. Crittenden's forces were chilled through and through. And let this conadded to it at Murfreesboro'. The season of tinue for six weeks of incessant retreat, and the year was the worst possible in that latitude. you get a feeble glimpse of what we endured. Rain fell-sometimes sleet-four days out of The army suffered great loss from sickness, and the seven. The roads were bad enough at some from desertion; some regiments leaving best; but, under such a tramping of horses and Bowling Green with six or seven hundred men, cutting of wheels as the march produced, soon and reaching Corinth with but half of this numbecame horrible. About 100 regiments were ber. The towns through which we passed were numbered in the army. The full complement left full of sick men; and many were sent off of wagons to each regiment (24), would give to hospitals at some distance from our route." above 2,000 wagons. Imagine such a train of heavily loaded wagons passing along a single ' Pollard makes Johnston's army at Murfrees. mud road, accompanied by 55,000 infantry and boro' but 17,000.

NASHVILLE RESTORED TO THE UNION.

wooden gunboats Conestoga, Tyler, the 24th, but found no enemy preand Lexington, steamed up the Ten- pared to resist them. In fact, the nessee to Florence, Ala., at the foot city had virtually surrendered alof the Muscle Shoals, where he cap- ready to the 4th Ohio cavalry, Col. tured two steamboats, and constrained John Kennett, being the advance the Rebels to burn six others; he hav- of Buell's army. Col. Kennett had ing burnt the railroad bridge near | reached Edgefield Junction, 8 or 10 Benton on the way. The wholly un-. miles from Nashville, and thence sent expected appearance of the National. forward a detachment, under Maj. flag in North Alabama, where slaves' H. C. Rodgers, who occupied withwere comparatively few, and at least out resistance the village of Edgefield, three-fourths of the people had stub- opposite Nashville, on the Cumberbornly opposed Secession, was a wel- land, and communicated with Mayor come spectacle to thousands, and was Cheatham, who surrendered the city greeted with enthusiastic demonstra- to Col. Kennett on his arrival, which tions of loyalty.

was before that of Gen. Nelson's comCom. Foote, with the gunboats, mand. A small squad of the 4th Conestoga and Cairo, moved up" the, Ohio crossed over into the city and Cumberland from Donelson, three returned, their orders not contemdays after its surrender. At Clarks-plating its occupation; but the batville, he found the railroad bridge tery of the regiment had been planted destroyed; while the wealthier citi- where it commanded the heart of the zens had generally fled, and he en-city, and a reasonable fear of shells countered no resistance. As it would impelled Mayor Cheatham to proffer have been absurd to attack a city and hasten a surrender, by which he like Nashville with such a force, he agreed to protect and preserve the now returned to Cairo for addi- public property in Nashville until it tional boats; while Gen. Smith, with could be regularly turned over to the the advance of our victorious army, use of the United States. marched up to Clarksville; whence But, in fact, the spoils of victory Lieut. Bryant, of the Cairo, followed had already been clutched by the by 7 transports,conveying the brigade Nashville mob; so that, while the of Gen. Nelson, moved up the river Rebel loss was enormous," the posito Nashville, where they arrived on tive Union gain was inconsiderable.

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* Feb. 19.

| ment stores enough to open respectable groce57 Pollard says:

ries. It was with the greatest difficulty that "Gen. Johnston had moved the main body Gen. Floyd could restore order and get his marof his command to Murfreesboro'-a rear-guardtial law into any thing like an effective system. being left in Nashville under Gen. Floyd, who Blacks and Whites had to be chased and caphad arrived from Donelson, to secure the stores tured and forced to help the movement of Gov. and provisions. In the first wild excitement of ernment stores. One man, who, after a long the panic, the store-houses had been thrown open chase, was captured, offered fight, and was in to the poor. They were besieged by a mob ray. consequence shot and badly wounded. Not less enous for spoils, and who had to be dispersed than one million of dollars in stores was lost from the commissariat by jets of water from a through the acts of the cowardly and ravenous steam fire-engine. Women and children, even, mob of Nashville. Gen. Floyd and Col. Forrest were seen scudding through the streets under exbibited extraordinary energy and efficiency in loads of greasy pork, which they had taken as getting off Government stores. Col. Forrest reprizes from the store-houses. It is believed that mained in the city about 2 1 hours, with only 40 hundreds of families, among the lower orders of men, after the arrival of the enemy at Edgehe population, secured and secreted Govern- / field.”

Gen. Buell soon afterward reached the Rebels had left some hours beNashville, and established there his fore, after burning 18,000 bushels of headquarters, while his army was corn, 5,000 tons of hay, their cavalry quartered around the city. Col. stables, and much other property; Stanley Matthews, 51st Ohio, was while many of their heavy guns, appointed Provost-Marshal, and soon which they were unable to take restored the city to order; discover- away, had been rolled off the bluff, ing and reclaiming a considerable here 150 feet high, into the river. amount of Rebel stores which had The 2d Illinois cavalry, Col. Hogg, been appropriated to private use. from Paducah, had entered and The bridges and roads northward taken possession the evening before. were speedily repaired, and railroad A massive chain, intended to bar the connection with Louisville rëopened. descent of the Mississippi, had here The wealthier classes had in great been stretched across the great river, part left, or remained sullenly dis- but to no purpose; the Missouri end loyal; but among the mechanics and being loose, and buried in the mud laboring poor a good degree of Union of the river-bed. feeling was soon developed.

Island No. 10 lies in a sharp bend

in the Mississippi, 45 miles below By the Union successes recorded Columbus, and a few miles above in this chapter, the Rebel stronghold New Madrid on the Missouri bank. at Columbus, Ky., commanding the This island had been strongly fornavigation of the Mississippi, had tified, its works well supplied with been rendered untenable. It was powerful guns and ammunition, held by Maj. Gen. Polk, Episcopal under the direction of Gen. BeauBishop of Louisiana, who had ex- regard, so that it was confidently pended a vast amount of labor in counted on to stop the progress of strengthening its defenses, while the the Union armies down the river. adjacent country had been nearly di- Gen. Pope with a land force of nearly vested of food and forage to replenish | 40,000 men, had previously marched its stores. Its garrison had been re- down the Missouri shore of the river, ported at 20,000 men; but had been reaching and investing New Madrid, reduced by successive detachments to March 3. Finding it defended by 2,000 or 3,000. Com. Foote, on re- stout earthworks, mounting 20 heavy turning from Clarksville to Cairo, guns, with six strongly armed gunspeedily collected a flotilla of six boats anchored along the shore to aid gunboats, apparently for service at in holding it, he sent back to Cairo Nashville; but, when all was ready, for siege-guns; while he intrenched dropped down the Mississippi, fol- | three regiments and a battery under lowed by three transports, conveying Col. Plummer, 11th Missouri, at some 2,000 or 3,000 soldiers, under Point Pleasant, ten miles below, so Gen. W. T. Sherman, while a sup- as to command the passage of the porting force moved overland from river directly in the rear of No. 10. Paducah." Arriving opposite Co- The Rebel gunboats attempted to lumbus, he learned that the last of dislodge Col. Plummer, but without

* March 4.

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MAP SHOWING THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF ISLAND

success. Pope's siege-guns arrived or

CEN.POPC'SA HR. QRS. at sunset on the 12th, and, before morning, had been planted within half a 'mile of the enemy's main

NEW MADRIDI CANAL OPEN STRESS work, so as to open fire at daylight, just 34 hours after their embarkation at Cairo. The Rebel garrison had meantime been swelled to 9,000 infantry, under Maj.-Gen. McCown, || and nine gunboats directed by Com. Hollins, on which our fire was mainly

1.10.10 concentrated. A heavy cannonade from both sides was kept up through

OBIONVILLE , ? ont the day, with little damage to RIDDERS PAS the Unionists, who, driving in the Rebel pickets, steadily pushed forward their trenches.

A violent thunder-storm raged through most of the following night;

no. 10, New MADRID, TIPTONVILLE, ETC. and at daylight it was discovered that the Rebels had left, taking Brig.-Gen. Makall, who assumed it very little with them. Thirty-three in a bombastic proclamation. Meancannon, several thousand small arms, time, Gen. Pope's engineers were with ammunition, tents, cartridges, quietly engaged in cutting a canal, wagons, &c., were abandoned by the 12 miles long, across the Missouri fugitives, with scarcely an attempt peninsula, opposite No. 10, through even to destroy them. Our loss which steamboats and barges were during the siege was barely 51 killed safely transferred to the river below and wounded.

the Rebel stronghold; while two of Com. Foote, with his gunboats, had our heavier gunboats succeeded in moved down from Columbus early passing the island" in a heavy fog. in March, opening on the Rebel Gen. Pope, thus relieved from all works at No. 10 on the 15th. Two peril from the Rebel flotilla, pushed days later, a general attack was made, a division “ across the river toward with five gunboats and four mortar- the rear of the remaining Rebel boats; but, though maintained for stronghold, and was preparing to nine hours, it did very little damage. follow with the rest of his army, Beauregard telegraphed to Rich- when the Rebels under McCown, mond ** that our vessels had thrown sinking their gunboat Grampus, and 3,000 shells, expended 50 tons of six transports, abandoned No. 10 to powder, and had killed but one of its fate, and escaped eastward, learhis men, without damaging his bat- ing Makall to be driven back upon teries. He soon left for Corinth," the swamps, and forced to surrender ceding the command at No. 10 to some thousands of men, several gun

** April 1. * April 6.

" The Carondelet, April 4, and the Pittsburg, | April 6.

49 April 7.

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