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The Rebel loss by this conflict and capitulation must have been fully 10,000 men, including 2,000 killed and wounded," to say nothing of arms and munitions. Our loss in killed and wounded was probably the larger."
The blow so well struck at Donelson was swiftly followed by important successes throughout Kentucky and in Tennessee.
Gen. Don Carlos Buell had, at the then recent partition of departments, been assigned" to that of the Ohio, including, besides three Free States, Tennessee, and all of Kentucky east of the Cumberland, with his headquarters at Louisville; where he still remained when his advance, consisting of some 16,000 men, led by Gen. 0. M. Mitchcl, moved," simultaneously with Gen. Grant's demonstration on Donelson, upon Bowling Green, the Rebel stronghold in Kentucky, where Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston had succeeded to the command, while Gen. Beauregard had been sent him from the east as a reenforcement. But Johnston's force, enormously and purposely magnified
"Gen. Pillow, in his supplemental report, sayi
"We sent up from Dover, 1,134 wounded. A Federal Burgeon's certificate, whicli I have Been, says that there were about 400 Confederate prisoners wounded in hospital at Paducah, making 1,534 wounded. I waa satisfied the killed would increase the number to 2,000."
Pollard gives what he terms a correct list, by regiment:*, of the Confederate prisoners taken at Fort Donelson, footing up 5,079; but he evidently does not include in this total the wounded, of whom many must have been left on the Held or in the hospital at the fort, as he says: "The village of Dover, which was within our lines, contained in every room in every houso fick, wounded, or dead men. Bloody rags wcro everywhere, and a door could not lie opened without hearing groans." And in his list of regi
by current report, had never amounted to 25,000 effectives, and had ere this in good part been sent to the defense of Donelson, until it had been reduced to about 7,000 or 8,000 men. As Mitchel advanced across Green river from his camp at Bacon creek, Johnston commenced his retreat on Nashville; so that, when Mitchel had reached" the north bank of Barren river, and looked across into Bowling Green, sending over Col. Turchin's brigade during the night, at a ferry a mile and a half below, he found the railroad depot on fire, witli 7 locomotives, and a large amount of corn and other provisions, with the bridges of course destroyed, and the last of the Rebel army, consisting of Texas Rangers, just moving off on a railroad train, which had been retained for the purpose. The river, being wide and at a high stage, could not here be crossed till next day; so that Mitchel's forced march of 42 miles in 37 hours, clearing his road of trees which had been felled across it, was rewarded by very moderate captures, including a bras3 6-pounder, and some $5,000 worth of commissary stores; but it was
ments we do not find the 20th Mississippi, whose commander, Maj. W. M. Brown, officially reports that ho surrendered 454; nor the 32d Tennessee, CoL Cook, who reports that he surrendered
Gen. Grant's report makes his captures 12,000 to 15,000 prisoners, at least 40 pieces of artillory, and a large amount of stores, horses, mules, and other public property.
"Gen. Grant, speaking of the battle of the 15th, says: "Our loss can not fall far short of 1,200 killed, wounded, and missing," including 250 taken prisoners. The reports of CoL Crult, Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, and CoL Lauman, show an aggregate loss of 1,306 in their three brigades, clearly indicating that Gen. Grant underestimated his casualties.
"Nov. 9, 1861. "Feb. 11, 1862. "Feb. 14. computed that the Rebels had been compelled to destroy not less than half a million dollars' worth of munitions, including many arms. Large quantities of provisions and other stores, industriously collected throughout the preceding Fall and Winter, had been removed to Nashville during the last three or four days.
Nashville had been electrified, during the 15th (Saturday), with a telegraphic dispatch from Dover, announcing a Rebel victory; somewhat tempered by reports from Bowling Green that Johnston would be obliged to evacuate that post. Next morning, however, came news of the capture of Donelson, with most of its defenders; and along with it a first installment of Johnston's army retreating from dismantled Bowling Green. The general astonishment was only equaled by the general consternation. Churches were closed, or failed to open; there were hurried consultations and whispered adieus in every quarter, whence bank directors rushed to impel specie and other valuables toward the cars, soon to bear them to Chattanooga, to Columbia, and other points of comparative safety. Gov. Harris and
his Legislature, with the State archives and treasure, betook themselves swiftly to Memphis; while Confederate officers devoted their attention to moving as rapidly as possible, the vast stores of provisions and munitions here accumulated. Two fine gunboats, being built at the river-side, were prepared for instant conflagration; and the magnificent and costly railroad and wire suspension-bridges over the Cumberland were likewise made ready for speedy destruction—a fate which overtook them two or three days later. A fortification had in the mean time been commenced on the Cumberland, four miles below the city, calculated to dispute and prevent the .passage of our gunboats; but this was soon abandoned upon information that Gen. Johnston had decided not to fight for Nashville, but to continue his retreat; which he did, unassailed, to Corinth, Miss., south of the Tennessee river, and nearly 300 miles from Bowling Green. Six weeks were consumed in that retreat; which, with a green and undisciplined army, was probably quite as disastrous as a battle."
Directly after the capture of Fort Henry, Commander Phelps, with the
* "An Impressed New-Yorker," in his narrative of personal adventures, entitled " Thirteen Months in the Rebel Army," says:
"The army was not far from 80,000 strong, after Gen. George B. Crittenden's forces were added to it at Murfreesboro'. The season of the year was the worst possible in that latitude. Rain fell—sometimes sleet—four days out of the seven. The roads were bad enough at best; but, under such a tramping of horses and cutting of wheels as the march produced, soon became horrible. About 100 regiments were numbered in the army. The full complement of wagons to each regiment (24). would give above 2,000 wagons. Imagine such a train of heavily loaded wagons passing along a single mud road, accompanied by 55,000 infantry and
r>,000 horsemen, in the midst of rain and sleet, day after day, camping at night in wet fields, or dripping woods, without sufficient food adapted to their wants, and often without any tents; the men lying down in their wet clothes, and rising chilled through and through. And let this continue for six weeks of incessant retreat, and you get a feeble glimpse of what we endured. The army suffered great loss from sickness, and some from desertion; some regiments leaving Bowling Green with six or seven hundred men, and reaching Corinth with but half of this number. Tiie towns through which we passed were left full of sick men: and many were sent off to hospitals at some distance from our route."
Pollard makes Johnston's army at Murfreesboro' but 17,000.
wooden gunboats Conestoga, Tyler, and Lexington, steamed up the Tennessee to Florence, Ala., at the foot of the Muscle Shoals, where he captured two steamboats, and constrained the Rebels to burn six others; he havinsr burnt the railroad bridge near Benton on the way. The wholly unexpected appearance of the National flag in North Alabama, where slaves were comparatively few, and at least three-fourths of the people had stubbornly opposed Secession, was a welcome spectacle to thousands, and was greeted with enthusiastic demonstrations of loyalty.
Com. Foote, with the gunboats Conestoga and Cairo, moved up" the, Cumberland from Donelson, three days after its surrender. At Clarksville, he found the railroad bridge destroyed; while the wealthier citizens had generally fled, and he encountered no resistance. As it would have been absurd to attack a city like Nashville with such a force, he now returned to Cairo for additional boat3; while Gen. Smith, with the advance of our victorious army, marched up to Clarksville; whence Lieut. Bryant, of the Cairo, followed by 7 transportSjConvcying the brigade of Gen. Nelson, moved up the river to Nashville, where they arrived on
"Gen. Johnston had moved tho main body of his command to Murfroesboro'—a rear-guard being left in Nashville under Gen. Floyd, who mad arrived from Donelson, to secure the stores tnd provisions. In the first wild excitement of the panic the store-houses had been thrown open to the poor. They were besieged by a mob ravenous for spoils, and who had to be dispersed from the commissariat by jets of water from a rteam fire-engine. "Women and children, even, were seen scudding through the streets under loads of greasy pork, which they had taken as prizes from the store-houses. It is believed that hundreds of families, among the lower orders of he population, socurod and secreted Govcrn
the 24th, but found no enemy prepared to resist them. In fact, the city had virtually surrendered already to the 4th Ohio cavalry, Col. John Kennett, being the advance of Buell's army. Col. Kennett had reached Edgefield Junction, 8 or 10 miles from Nashville, and thence sent forward a detachment, under Maj. II. C. Rodgers, who occupied without resistance the village of Edgefield, opposite Nashville, on the Cumberland, and communicated with Mayor Cheatham, who surrendered the city to Col. Kennett on his arrival, which was before that of Gen. Nelson's command. A small squad of the 4th Ohio crossed over into the city and returned, their orders not contemplating its occupation; but the battery of the regiment had been planted where it commanded the heart of the city, and a reasonable fear of shells impelled Mayor Cheatham to proffer and hasten a surrender, by which he agreed to protect and preserve the public property in Nashville until it could be regularly turned over to the use of the United States.
But, in fact, the spoils of victory had already been clutched by the Nashville mob; so that, while the Rebel loss was enormous," the positive Union gain was inconsiderable.
mcut stores enough to open respectable groceries. It was with tlio greatest difficulty that Gen. Floyd could restore order and get his martial law into any thing like an effective system. Blacks and Whites had to bo chased and captured and forced to help the movement of Government stores. One man, who, after a long chase, was captured, offered fight, and was in consequence shot and badly wounded. Not loss than one million of dollars in stores was lost through the acts of the cowardly and ravenous mob of Nashville. Gen. Floyd and Col. Forrest exhibited extraordinary energy and efficiency in getting off Government stores. Col. Forrest remained in the cily about 21 hours, with only 40 men, after the arrival of the enemy at Edgefield."
Gen. Buell soon afterward reached Nashville, and established there his headquarters, while his army was quartered around the city. Col. Stanley Matthews, 51st Ohio, was appointed Provost-Marshal, and soon restored the city to order; discovering and reclaiming a considerable amount of Rebel stores which had been appropriated to private use. The bridges and roads northward were speedily repaired, and railroad connection with Louisville reopened. The wealthier classes had in great part left, or remained sullenly dis. loyal; but among the mechanics and laboring poor a good degree of Union feeling was soon developed.
By the Union successes recorded in this chapter, the Rebel stronghold at Columbus, Ky., commanding the navigation of the Mississippi, had been rendered untenable. It was held by Maj.-Gen. Polk, Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana, who had expended a vast amount of labor in strengthening its defenses, while the adjacent country had been nearly divested of food and forage to replenish its stores. Its garrison had been reported at 20,000 men; but had been reduced by successive detachments to 2,000 or 3,000. Com. Foote, on returning from Clarksville to Cairo, speedily collected a flotilla of six gunboats, apparently for service at Nashville; but, when all was ready, dropped down the Mississippi, followed by three transports, conveying some 2,000 or 3,000 soldiers, under Gen. W. T. Sherman, while a supporting force moved overland from Paducah." Arriving opposite Columbus, he learned that the last of
the Rebels had left some hours before, after burning 18,000 bushels of corn, 5,000. tons of hay, their cavalry stables, and much other property; while many of their heavy guns, which they were unable to take away, had been rolled off the bluff, here 150 feet high, into the river. The 2d Illinois cavalry, Col. Hogg, from Paducah, had entered and taken possession the evening before. A massive chain, intended to bar the descent of the Mississippi, had here been stretched across the great river, but to no purpose; the Missouri end being loose, and buried in the mud of the river-bed.
Island No. 10 lies in a sharp bend in the Mississippi, 45 miles below Columbus, and a few miles above New Madrid on the Missouri bank. This island had been strongly fortified, its works well supplied with powerful guns and ammunition, under the direction of Gen. Beauregard, so that it was confidently counted on to stop the progress of the Union armies down the river. Gen. Pope with a land force of nearly 40,000 men, had previously marched down the Missouri shore of the river, reaching and investing New Madrid, March 3. Finding it defended by stout earthworks, mounting 20 heavy guns, with six strongly armed gunboats anchored along the shore to aid in holding it, he sent back to Cairo for siege-guns; while he intrenched three regiments and a battery under Col. Plummer, 11th Missouri, at Point Pleasant, ten miles below, so as to command the passage of the river directly in the rear of No. 10. The Rebel gunboats attempted to dislodge Col. Plummer, but without THE REBELS ABAS
success. Pope's siege-guns arrived at sunset on. the 12th, and, before morning, had been planted within (half a mile of the enemy's main work, so as to open fire at daylight, just 34 hours after their embarkation at Cairo. The Rebel garrison had meantime been swelled to 9,000 infantry, under Maj.-Gen. HcCown, and nine gunboats directed by Com. Hollins, on which our fire was mainly concentrated. A heavy cannonade from both sides was kept up throughout the day, with little damage to the Unionists, who, driving in the Rebel pickets, steadily pushed forward their trenches.
A violent thunder-storm raged through most of the following night; and at daylight it was discovered that the Rebels had left, taking very little with them. Thirty-three cannon, several thousand small arms, with ammunition, tents, cartridges, wagons, &c, were abandoned by the fugitives, with scarcely an attempt even to destroy them. Our loss during the siege was barely 51 killed and wounded.
Com. Footc, with his gunboats, had moved down from Columbus early in March, opening on the Rebel works at No. 10 on the 15th. Two days later, a general attack was made, with five gunboat3 and four mortarboats; but, though maintained for nine hours, it did very little damage. Beauregard telegraphed to Richmond " that our vessels had thrown 3,000 shells, expended 50 tons of powder, and had killed but one of his men, without damaging his batteries. He soon left for Corinth," ceding the command at No. 10 to
MAr snowiHo mi* itm.Airr« rosrnnxa or Iilakd
NO. 10, NEW MADRID, TIPTON VILLK, ETC.
Brig.-Gen. Makall, who assumed it in a bombastic proclamation. Meantime, Gen. Pope's engineers were quietly engaged in cutting a canal, 12 miles long, across the Missouri peninsula, opposite No. 10, through which steamboats and barges were safely transferred to the river below the Rebel stronghold; while two of our heavier gunboats succeeded in passing the island" in a heavy fog. Gen. Pope, thus relieved from all peril from the Rebel flotilla, pushed a division" across the river toward the rear of the remaining Rebel stronghold, and was preparing to follow with the rest of his army, when the Rebels under McCown, sinking their gunboat Grampus, and six transports, abandoned No. 10 to its fate, and escaped eastward, leaving Makall to be driven back upon the swamps, and forced to surrender some thousands of men, several gun
• April 1. "April 6.
"The Carondelet, April 4, and the Pittsburg, April G. * April 7.