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damaged; the garrison had 10 of old vessels, picked up at various their 40 guns dismounted or other. northern ports and taken down to wise disabled, and several men our fleet blockading the entrance to wounded-one of them fatally. They Charleston harbor, being loaded with were especially impelled to surren- stone, were sunk" across one of the der by the fact that our guns were channels. A tremendous uproar was purposely trained on their magazine, raised against this procedure, mainly which must soon have been pierced by British sympathizers with the and exploded had our fire continued. Rebellion, who represented it as an
The credit of this almost bloodless effort permanently to choke and deconquest is primarily due to Quincy stroy the harbor. This accusation is A. Gillmore, who was at once Gene absurd. What was intended was to ral and Engineer; Gen. Viele, com- render it more difficult for blockademanding under him the land forces, runners, navigated by Charleston and Com'r John Rodgers their naval pilots, to run out and in under the auxiliaries, who were employed only screen of fog or darkness; and this in transporting and landing the ma- result was probably attained. No teriel. But the moral of this siege complaint has since been made of was the enormous addition made by any actual injury thus inflicted on rifling to the range and efficiency of the peaceful commerce of Charlesguns. Our artillerists were as green ton: on the contrary, it has been as might be; and their gunnery—as plausibly asserted that the partial evinced more especially by the mor- closing of one of the passes, through tar-firing—was nowise remarkable which the waters of Ashley and for excellence; but the penetration Cooper rivers find their way to the of a solid brick wall of seven feet ocean, was calculated to deepen and thick at a distance of 1,650 yards by improve those remaining. old 32s (now rifled) to a depth of Com. Dupont, in his steam frigate 20 inches, and by old 42s to a depth Wabash, with twenty other armed of 26 inches, where the same guns, vessels, and six unarmed transports, when smooth-bore, would have pro- conveying a brigade of volunteers, duced no effect whatever, was so un- Gen. Wright, and a battalion of malooked-for by Gen. Gillmore that he rines, Maj. Reynolds, setting out from afterward reported that, had he been Port Royal ” swept down the coast aware at the outset of what this siege to St. Andrew's and Cumberland taught him, he might have curtailed sounds; taking unresisted possession his eight weeks of laborious prepara- of Fort Clinch on Amelia island, tion to one; rejecting altogether his Fernandina, St. Mary's, Brunswick," heavy mortars and columbiads as un- Darien, St. Simon's island, Jacksuited to such service, and increasing, son ville," and St. Augustine; where if that were desirable, the distance at Fort St. Mark-another of the old which his nearer batteries were plant- Federal coast defenses-was “rëposed to 2,300 or even 2,500 yards. sessed” without bloodshed-Gen.
Trapier, Rebel commander on this A considerable flotilla of worthless coast, having no force adequate to 19 Jan. 23, 1862. Feb. 28. March 9. 16 March 13. ? March 12.
Loth of April to ] Arnold, commandine, and by Gen:
PENSACOLA AND JACKSONVILLE RETAKEN. 459 resisting such an expedition-Florida | Pensacola was evacuated by Brig.having ere this contributed nearly | Gen. Thos. N. Jones, its Rebel com10,000 men, out of a total white mander; who burned every thing population of 80,000, to the Confede combustible in the Navy Yard, Forts rate armies fighting in other States. McRae and Barrancas, the hospital,
A considerable Union feeling was &c., &c., and retreated " inland with evinced at various points ; a Union his command. The place was immeeting held in Jacksonville (the mediately occupied by Com. Porter, most populous town in the State), of the Harriet Lane, and by Gen. and a Convention called to assem- Arnold, commanding Fort Pickens. ble there on the 10th of April to Another naval expedition from organize a Union State Govern- Port Royal, under Capt. Steedman, ment; but, on the 8th, Gen. Wright consisting of the gunboats Paul withdrew his forces from that place, Jones and Cimarone, with three other sending an invitation to Gen. Tra- steamboats, visited the Florida coast pier to come and rëoccupy it. Of in the Autumn, shelling and silenccourse, the projected Union Con- ing the Rebel batteries at the mouth vention was no more; and those who of the St. John's. had figured in the meeting or call Gen. Brannan, with a land force of whereby the movement was initiated | 1,575 men, with a fleet of six gunwere glad to save their necks by ac- boats under Capt. Steedman, repeated companying our departing forces. this visit somewhat later ;30 expecting That settled, for years, the for- to encounter an obstinate resistance: tunes of Unionism in Florida. And, but the Rebel works on St. John's though Com. Dupont, on returning bluff were evacuated—9 guns being with his fleet to Port Royal, left a abandoned on his advancing to small force at each of the more de- attack them; and he rëtook Jackfensible places he had so easily re- son ville without resistance, but found covered to the Union, it is question- it nearly deserted, and did not garriable that his expedition effected, on son it. The Rebel steamboat Gov. the whole, more good than harm for Milton was found up a creek and the national cause.
captured. - At Mosquito inlet, the farthest Gen. R. Saxton next dispatched," point visited by a detail from his on three transports, an expedition, squadron, a boat expedition, under composed of two negro regiments Lt. T. A. Budd, of the Penguin, was under Col. Thos. W. Higginson, 1st fired on while returning from an S. C. Volunteers, which went up * excursion down Mosquito lagoon, to Jacksonville, captured it with Lt. Budd and 4 others killed, and little resistance, and held it as a reseveral more wounded or captured. cruiting station for colored volunThus closed unhappily an enterprise teers. Two White regiments were which was probably adequate to the soon afterward sent to rëenforce complete recovery of Florida, though them; but hardly had these landed not able to hold it against the whole when a peremptory order came from power of the Confederacy.
Gen. Hunter for the withdrawal of 19 May 9-10. Sept. 13. 30 Sept. 30. ? March 6, 1863. March 10.
the entire force; and, as if this were | Beaufort to Charleston. No inhabinot enough, several buildings were tants were left on Edisto but negroes; fired by our departing soldiers—of and the cotton which the departing the 8th Maine, it was said, though Whites could not remove they had, that regiment laid it to the 6th Con- for the most part, burned. The fall necticut-while hundreds of inhabi- of Pulaski, soon afterward, gave us tants, who desired to leave with our extension and security on the other forces, were put ashore after they flank; and now Gen. Hunter and had embarked, and left to meet the Com. Dupont proposed to extend our vengeance of the Rebels as they possession still farther toward the might. The beautiful old town was city by the reclamation of Wadsubstantially destroyed; though our milaw and Johns islands, bringing higher officers did their best to save us within cannon-shot of Charleston. it—a high wind fanning the flames, To this end, various and careful rewhich swept all within their reach. connoissances were made, and soundThe deserted inhabitants-many of ings taken ; ending with marking by them hearty Unionists—were left to buoys the channel of Stono river, famish among their ashes and ruins; separating Johns from James isthough the few families who were land; whereupon, our gunboats brought away to Hilton Head were Unadilla, Pembina, and Ottawa, treated with considerate humanity. crossed the bar at its mouth and Pensacola was likewise abandoned a proceeded up that river: the Rebel and burned-burned by the Rebels, earthworks along its banks being it was asserted—but that would abandoned at their approach. Thus neither be reported nor believed the gunboats made their way slowly, within the lines of the Confederates carefully, up to a point within range
-80 that it may be fairly concluded of the Rebel batteries guarding the that by this time whatever Unionism junction of Stono with Wappoo there had been in Florida—that is, creek, barely three miles from among the Whites--was pretty thor- Charleston, whose spires and cupolas oughly eradicated by those who were were plainly visible, over the intersent thither as upholders of the Na- vening trees, from the mast-heads of tional cause.
But this bold advance of our gunOn returning from his Florida ex boats, unsupported by infantry, was pedition to Port Royal,” Com. Du a blunder. These were too weak to pont found that the enemy had, dur- effect any thing but give the enemy ing his absence, abandoned their for warning of what they must be premidable batteries on Skiddaway and pared to meet. Nearly two weeks Green islands, conceding to us full had thus been spent ere Gens. Hunpossession of Warsaw and Ossibaw ter and Benham, with their soldiers, sounds; while Gen. Sherman had landed” on James island ; and three long since " taken quiet possession of more days elapsed ere Gen, Wright Edisto island on our right, carrying came up from Edisto with the our flag more than half way from residue of their forces. Such dis
13 March 3, 1862. 2 March 27. 25 Feb. 11. 8 May 20. 97 Jure 2.
whatever comeluded of the Robe to a point w
GEN. TUNTER'S ATTACK ON SECESSIONVILLE. jointed combinations in an intensely three sides, and swamps narrowing hostile region could have but one re- to a mere ridge the only practicable sult; since the enemy were probably land approach from the west. Pemtwice as strong, both in defenses and berton was in chief command at in men, as they would have been Charleston, Brig.-Gen. N. G. Evans found had our advance been made having direction under him in this with compact celerity.
quarter ; but Col. J. G. Lamar was Secessionville is a petty village in immediate charge of the works ; formed of the Summer residences of against which Gen. H. G. Wright a few James island planters, on the advanced at early dawn,' with a east side of their island, two miles force of perhaps 6,000 men, though from the Stono, with salt water on some 1,500 more were on the island,
30 June 16.
tured mosto poiselessly the dark-s0/of
guarding camps, &c. The direct, landers lost 110 out of 450; and our attack was made by Brig.-Gen. Isaac total loss was at least 574, whereof I. Stevens," with Col. W. M. Fen- Stevens's two brigades lost 529 — ton's brigade, composed of the 8th nearly all within half an hour. The Michigan, 17th Conn., and 28th Rebel loss was 204; Lamar and Mass., and Col. Leisure's, comprising Lt. Col. Gaillard being among the the 79th New York (Highlanders), wounded. 46th do., and 100th Pa., with 4 de- Though it was plain that the enetached companies of artillery, &c.— my's works could not be carried by in all, 3,337 men. Stevens had these storm, a second but feebler assault in position at 31 A. M. at our outer was made on them after the failure picket line, within rifle-range of the of the first, aided by a flank advance enemy, and advanced at 4—the on the enemy's right by a battalion morning being cloudy and dark--so of the 3d R. I. artillery, Maj. E. swiftly and noiselessly that he cap- Metcalf, with the 3d N. H. and 97th tured most of the Rebel pickets, and Pa.; but nothing was accomplished; was within 100 yards of the main and our entire force fell back, unpurdefenses, not having fired a shot, sued, but leaving their dead and some when Lamar opened on him with of their severely wounded to fall into grape and canister, plowing bloody the hands of the enemy. And this lanes through the storming party, virtually terminated in defeat Gen. and destroying its compactness if Hunter's ill-managed advance upon not impairing the momentum of its Charleston. charge.
The 8th Michigan—Col. Fenton's Four months afterward-Gen. own—was in the direct advance, im- Hunter having been succeeded in mediately supported by the High- command of this department by Gen. landers, with the residue of both bri- 0. M. Mitchel—the latter planned an gades ready and eager to do and advance, not aimed at Charleston, but dare all that men might; and, if well due northward from Beaufort, with directed valor could have carried the intent to break the railroad connecenemy's works by direct assault, they tion between Charleston and Savanwould have done it. But the neck nah, by destroying bridges, &c., about of dry land over which it was possi- Pocotaligo and Coosawhatchie. Gen. ble to advance was barely 200 yards Mitchel being prostrated by the diswide, completely swept by grape and ease of which he ultimately died, the canister at close range from six guns execution of this project was confided in the Rebel works, as well as by to Brig.-Gen. J. M. Brannan, with an their musketry; while insuperable effective force of 4,448 men. abatis, a ditch seven feet deep, and This force, embarked on gunboats a parapet nine feet high, rendered and transports, moved " up Broad such an assault a simple squandering river to the junction of the Coosawof precious lives. The 8th Michigan hatchie and Tullifinny, where it was lost here 185 out of 534 men, includ- landed and pushed inland; first meeting 12 out of 22 officers; the High- ing resistance when 5 or 6 miles on ** Killed, a few weeks later, at Chantilly,
30 Oct. 21-2.