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DEFENSE OF PINE BLUFF-SHELBY'S RAID.

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Curtis, and several civilians. Gen. , court-house and several dwellings, Blunt, rallying some 15 of his guard, hattering most of the residue ; but escaped capture and death by great they could not take the town; and, coolness and courage: their persist- at 2 P. M., drew off, having lost 150 ency in boldly fighting creating a be killed and wounded, beside 33 prisonlief that they were the van of a heavy ers. Our loss was but 17 killed and force. A considerable train that ac- 40 wounded—5 of the former and companied them was sacked and 12 of the latter among the negro burned. The attack was made very volunteers. near the little post known as Fort Part of Cabell's command, which Blair, which was next assailed; | (as we have seen) had been worsted, but its defenders, though few, were in the Indian Territory, by Blunt and brave and well led by Lt. Pond, 3d Phillips, undertook, under Shelby, a Wisconsin cavalry, who beat the en- Fall raid into Missouri-probably in emy off, inflicting a loss of 11 killed quest of subsistence. Emerging from and many more wounded. Gen. the Choctaw region of the Indian Blunt and his remnant of escort kept Territory, the raiders passed rapidly the prairie till night, then made their through the north-west corner of way to the post. They had not ven- Arkansas, crossing the river eastward tured thither before, apprebending of Fort Smith, and evading any colthat it had been taken.

lision with our forces near that post PINE BLUFF, on the south bank of as well as with those holding Little the Arkansas, 50 miles below Little Rock, and entering south-western Rock, was occupied, early in October, Missouri; being joined" at Crooked by Col. Powell Clayton, 5th Kansas Prairie by a similar force under Cofcavalry, with 350 men and 4 guns. fey, whereby their number was said Marmaduke, at Princeton, 45 miles to be swelled to 2,500. These adsouth, resolved to retake it. By the vanced rapidly through Western Mistime he advanced to do so,“ Clayton souri to the river at Booneville, but had been rëenforced by the 1st Indi- forthwith commenced a retreat-disana cavalry: so that he had now 600 appointed, probably, in their hopes men and 9 light guns.

of rëenforcement from the now pasMarmaduke, with 12 guns and a sive Rebels of that disloyal section. force estimated at 2,500, advanced in They were pursued by a hastily gaththree columns, and poured in shell ered body of Missouri militia, under and canister for five hours, setting Gen. E. B. Brown, who struck" them fire to the place; but Powell had or- near Arrow Rock at nightfall ; fightganized 200 negroes to barricade the ing them till dark; renewing the streets with cotton-bales, by whose attack at 8 next morning, and putservices the fire was stopped without ting them to flight, with a loss of subtracting from his slender fighting some 300 killed, wounded, and prisforce. The Rebel shells burned the

oners." 26 Oct. 25. 37 Oct. 1. * Oct. 12. fight was obstinate and lasted five hours. The

“St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 14, 1863, Rebels were finally completely routed and scat"Maj.-Gen. HALLECK, General-in-Chief:

tered in all directions, with loss of all their ar“Gen. Brown brought the Rebels under Shel. tillery and baggage and a large number of small by to a decisive engagement yesterday. The ' arms and prisoners. The enemy's loss in killed

Gen. McNeil was at St. Louis, many of them Southrons, and all when first apprised" of this raid, and intensely pro-Slavery. These were at once set out for his post, Lebanon : generally superseded, under Mr. Lin. whence, gathering up what force he coln, in the course of 1861; and were could, he advanced on Bolivar, mov- suspected of having been stimulated, ing by Humansville and Stockton on by wrath at finding themselves disLamar, where he hoped to intercept placed and by political and sectional their flight. But Shelby had already sympathies, to use their necessarily passed through Humansville, hotly great influence among the several pursued, losing there his last gun, tribes to attach them to the fortunes when McNeil reached that point; so and involve them in the struggles of the latter joined the hunt through the Confederacy. Of some of them, Greenfield and Sarcoxie into Arkan- this is probably true; but it is not sas, and on through Huntsville over known to be proved, save with those Buffalo mountain, taking prisoners formerly accredited to the tribes reby the way; continuing the chase to siding within the boundaries of the Clarksville, unable to come fairly up Indian Territory. But, however with the nimble fugitives, who had caused, the general feeling of the now crossed the Arkansas and van- western Indians toward us became ished among the wilds beyond. Mc- more and more hostile during 1861–2; Neil here gave over the pursuit, mov- until at length certain bands of the ing deliberately up the river to Fort Sioux of Minnesota, with some other Smith. During this chase, he had tribes, plunged into open war. Little been designated" to command of the Crow's band bore a conspicuous part Army of the Frontier, vice Gen. in these butcheries ; striking in rapid Blunt, relieved.

succession the north-western frontier Standwatie and Quantrell made settlements at Yellow Medicine," another attack“ on Col. Phillips's New Ulm," Cedar City," Minn., and outposts near Fort Gibson, Indian a few other feeble outposts; besieging Territory; but, after a fight of four for nine days Fort Ridgeley ;“ beor five hours, the assailants were leaguering and twice assaulting Fort routed and driven across the Arkan- Abercrombie, whence they were drivsas. This terminated the fighting in en with heavy loss; and butchering this quarter for the year 1863. in all some 500 persons, mainly de

fenseless women and children. MiliA general Indian war on our West- tia were promptly called out and sent ern frontier, had been gravely ap- against them, under Gen. H. II. Sibprehended in 1862; and that appre- ley; and the main savage band was hension was partially realized. Un- finally struck" at Wood lake; where der the administrations of Pierce Little Crow was utterly routed, fleeand Buchanan, the Indian agents and ing thence into Dakota. Some 500 other Government employés among of the savages were captured; of the aboriginal tribes of the great whom 498 were tried by court-marplains were of course Democrats ; | tial, and about 300 convicted and and wounded is very great. Ours is also large. Oct. 9. “ Oct. 20. Dec. 18. “ Aug. 18, '62. Our troops are still pursuing the flying Rebels.

“J. M. SCHOFIELD, Major-General.” | “ Aug. 21. “ Sept. 3. “Oct. 17–26. “ Sept. 22. SIBLEY'S AND CONNOR'S INDIAN CAMPAIGNS.

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line of Teted | Bether (140 cherein

sentenced to be hanged; but Presi-, expeditions suffered terribly for water dent Lincoln deferred their execution, -a great drouth then prevailing on and most of them were ultimately set the plains. at liberty.

Far West, Brig.-Gen. P. E. Connor, Next summer-Gen. Pope being 1st California volunteers, commandin command of this department, |ing in Utah, on hearing 6 of Indian the irregular frontier line of settle- depredations by the Shoshonees on ments in the north-west was picketed Bear river, western Idaho, marched by about 2,000 men; while Gen. thither (140 miles) through deep WinSibley moved westward from Fort ter snows, wherein 75 of his men Snelling in June, with some 2,500 were disabled by frozen feet, and, infantry; Gen. Sully, with a body of with the residue, attacked " 300 savcavalry being sent up the Missouri ages in their stronghold, killing 224; on boats to cooperate. The two his own loss being 12 killed and 49 commands did not unite; but Sibley wounded. Four months later, Gen. found and fought “ some of the hos- | Connor, with most of his force, tratile savages at Missouri Couteau, Big versed the region westward of the mound, Dead Buffalo lake, and Stony Rocky mountains so far north as old lake; killing or wounding some 130 Fort Hall on Snake river, but found of thein; while Sully encountered" no enemy to combat. a band at Whitestone hill, rout- These Indian hostilities, though ing them with heavy loss, and tak- inglorious and most unprofitable, ing 156 prisoners. The remnant subtracted considerably from our fled across the Missouri and evaded military strength, and added largely pursuit. This was the virtual close to our exhausting outlays during the of the Sioux war. Our men on these trying year 1863.

XX.

THE CAROLINAS, GEORGIA, FLORIDA–1862–63.

The Savannah river having, with ter of mud-formed, often sand-fringed its largest affluent, the Tugaloo, sea islands, matted over with a thin formed the boundary between South crust of grass-roots, covering a jellyCarolina and Georgia from their like mud several feet deep, resting northern verge, after a generally uneasily on a bed of light, semi-liquid south-east course of some 300 miles, clay. FORT PULASKI, on Cockspur passing, at the head of ship naviga- island (a mile long by half as wide), tion, near its mouth, its namesake was a carefully constructed brick Nacity, which is the commercial empo- tional fortress 25 feet above ground rium of Georgia, winds its sluggish by 77 thick, completely commanding way to the Atlantic through a clus- not only the main channel of the

** July 25–29, 1863 4 Sept. 3. 30 January, 1863. on Jan. 29.

Savannah, but all other inlets prac | to place a battery, barring all dayticable for sea-going vessels to the light access to the beleaguered fort city and the firm land above. Having from above. To this point, mortars, early fallen an easy prey to the devo- weighing 84 tuns each, were brought tees of Secession, it was held by a through New and Wright rivers (each garrison of 385 men,, Col. C. H. Olm- of them a sluggish tide-course bestead, 1st Georgia ; its 40 heavy guns tween rush-covered islets of semibarring access to the river by our liquid mud); being patiently tugged vessels, and affording shelter and pro-across Jones island on a movable tection to blockade-runners and Rebel causeway of planks laid on polescorsairs.

those behind the moving gun being Very soon after our recovery of taken up and placed in its front;' and Port Royal and the adjacent sea- thus the guns were toilsomely dragislands, Gen. T. W. Sherman direct-ged across and placed in battery on ed' Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore to re- strong timber platforms, constructed connoiter this ugly impediment, and by night behind an artfully contrived report on the feasibility of overcom- screen of bushes and reeds to reing it. Gillmore obeyed; and receive them. Just as the batteries ported that the fort might be re- were completed, the Rebel steamboat duced by batteries of mortars and Ida passed down from Savannah to rifled guns planted on Big Tybee Pulaski, and the recoil of our guns island, south-east of it, across the fired at her sent all but one of them narrower southern channel of the off the platforms; which had thereSavannah, as also from Venus point, upon to be enlarged and improved. on Jones island, over two miles from Soon, another battery was established Cockspur, in the opposite direction : on Bird island, a little nearer Cockand submitted his plan ; which was spur: and next, vessels having arsent to Washington, returned ap- rived in Tybee roads with heavy proved, and the requisite ordnance guns and munitions, the 7th Conn., and other enginery ultimately for- 46th New York, and some detached warded or collected. Meantime, the companies, were employed in land46th New York, Col. R. Rosa, was ing these on Big Tybee, constructsent* to occupy Big Tybee, and a ing batteries and magazines, making detachment directed quietly to clear roads of poles and plank, &c., &c. out the Rebel obstructions in “Wall's Nearly all this work had to be done cut," an artificial channel connecting by night, within range of Pulaski's New and Wright rivers, north of guns—the outline presented to the Cockspur, and completing an inland enemy by the low bushes skirting water passage from Savannah to the river being skillfully and graduCharleston. After some shąrp fight- ally altered, night after night, so as ing and four nights' hard work, this to afford to the garrison no indicawas achieved ; and, after some far- tion of the menacing work going on ther delay, Venus point, on Jones behind its friendly shelter. island, north-west of the coveted fort- The moving of each gun over the ress, was selected as a point whereon quaking, treacherous bog, from its See Vol. I., p. 605. 'Nov. 29, '61. 'Dec. 1. *In Dec. Jan. 14, '62. Jan. 28. 'Feb. 10-11. Feb. 21.

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point of debarkation to its designated orders given to regulate the firing. position in battery, was the tedious, And now the fort was summoned " arduous task of 250 men, all per- in due form by Gen. Hunter-of formed under the cover of darkness : course, to no purpose —whereupon, the men being forbidden to speak; at 87 A. M., fire was deliberately opentheir movements being directed by a ed, and kept up till dark—the morwhistle. When a gun slipped, as it tars throwing very few of their shells often would, off the planks and skids' within the fort; but the rifled guns supporting it, the utmost efforts were chipping and tearing away its masonrequired to keep it from plunging work, until it became evident that, straight down through the 12 feet unless our batteries should be disaof mud to the supporting clay, if no bled, the fort would soon be a ruin. farther.

Five of the enemy's guns had already Thus were the remnant of Febru- been silenced; while our widely scatary and the whole of March intently tered, low-lying, inconspicuous batteemployed — Maj.-Gen. Hunter, who ries had received no damage whathad just succeeded to the command ever. of the department, with Brig.-Gen. During the ensuing night, four of Benham as district commander, vis- our pieces were fired at intervals of iting the works on Tybee island, | 15 or 20 minutes each ; and at sunand finding nothing in them to im- rise " our batteries opened afresh ; prove.

and now the breach, already visible, At length, all was in readiness :10 was steadily and rapidly enlarged : 36 10 to 13-inch mortars and heavy casemate after casemate being openrifled guns being firmly planted in ed, in spite of a heavy and well11 batteries—the farthest two miles, directed fire from the fort; until, at the nearest less than a mile, from the 2 P. M., a white flag was displayed doomed fort, with a dépôt and sepa- from its walls, and the siege was endrate service magazine where they ed. One only of our men had been should be, and carefully considered killed, and no gun hit or otherwise • March 31. 20 April 9. 11 April 10.

13 April 11.

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