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BRAGG'S OFFICIAL REPORT.

443

markable action from our own side, in heavy masses from Lookout, and beyond, exclusively. Let us now see it as it |

to our front, whilst those in front extended

to our right. They formed their lines with appeared to Gen. Bragg, posted on great deliberation, just beyond the range of the crest of Mission ridge (until driv our guns, and in plain view of our position.

“ Though greatly outnumbered, such was en off), and enjoying by far the wider

the strength of our position that no doubt and clearer view of it. His report, was entertained of our ability to hold it, being brief and pungent, is here given

and every disposition was made for that

purpose. During this time, they had made almost entire:

several attempts on our extreme right, and “HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF TENNESSEE, had been handsomely repulsed, with very

“Dalton, Ga., 30th Nov., 1863. | heavy loss, by Maj.-Gen. Cleburne's com“ Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector mand, under the immediate direction of General, Richmond:

Lt.-Gen. Hardee. By the road across the “Sir_On Monday, the 23d, the enemy ridge at Rossville, far to our left, a ronte advanced in heary force, and drove in our was open to our rear. Maj.-Gen. Breckinpicket line in front of Missionary ridge, but ridge, commanding on the left, had occupied made no further effort.

this with two regiments and a battery. It * On Tuesday morning early, they threw being reported to me that a force of the over the river a heavy force, opposite the enemy had moved in that direction, the north end of the ridge, and just below the General was ordered to have it reconnoimouth of the Chickamauga; at the same tered, and to make every disposition necestime displaying a heavy force in our imme-sary to secure his flank; which he proceeded diate front. After visiting the right, and to do. making dispositions there for the new del “ About half-past 3 P. M., the immense velopment in that direction, I returned force in the front of our left and center adtoward the left, to find a heavy cannonad- vanced in three lines, preceded by heavy ing going on from the enemy's batteries on skirmishers. Our batteries opened with our forces occupying the slope of Lookout fine effect, and much confusion was promountain, between the crest and the river. duced, before they reached masket range. A very heavy force soon advanced to the In a short time, the roar of musketry beassault, and was met by one brigade only, y came very heavy, and it was soon apparent Walthall's, which made a desperate resists that the enemy had been repulsed in my ance, but was finally compelled to yield | immediate front. ground. Why this command was not sus. “ Whilst riding along the crest, congratntained is yet unexplained. The commander | lating the troops, intelligence reached me on that part of the field, Maj.-Gen. Steven- that our line was broken on my right, and son, had six brigades at his disposal. Upon the enemy bad crowned the ridge. Assisthis urgent appeal, another brigade was dis ance was promptly dispatched to that point patched in the afternoon to his support, nnder Brig.-Gen. Bate, who hrac so snccessthough it appeared his own forces had not fully maintained the ground in my front; been brought into action—and I proceeded and I proceeded to the rear of the broken to the scene.

line to rally our retirirg troops, and return “ Arriving just before sunset, I found them to the crest to drive the enemy back. that we had lost all the advantages of the Gen. Bate found the disaster so great that position. Orders were immediately given his small force could not repair it. About for the ground to be disputed until we this time, I learned that oor extreme left could withdraw our forces across Chatta had also given way, and that my position nooga creek, and the movement was com- was almost surrounded. Bate was immemenced. This having been successfully diately directed to form a second line in the accomplished, our whole forces were con- rear, where, by the efforts of my staff, a centrated on the ridge, and extended to the nucleus of stragglers had been formed, upon right to meet the movement in that direc- / which to rally. tion.

“Lt.-Gen. Hardee, leaving Maj.-Gen. “ On Wednesday, the 25th, I again Cleburne in command on the extreme right, visited the extreme right, now under Lt.- | moved toward the left, when he heard the Gen. Hardee, and threatened by a heavy heavy firing in that direction. He reached force, whilst strong columns could be seen the right of Anderson's division just in time toarching in that direction. A very heavy to find it had nearly all fallen back, comforce in line of battle confronted our left mencing on its left, where the enemy had and center.

first crowned the ridge. By a prompt and "On my return to this point, about 11 jndicious movement, he threw a portion of A. X., the y 's forces were being moved | Cheatham's division directly across the ridge, facing the enemy, who was now , duty assigned them, however difficult and moving a strong force immediately on his hazardous. They had for two days conleft Alank. By a decided stand here, the fronted the enemy, marshaling his iminense enemy was entirely checked, and that por- forces in plain view, and exhibiting to their tion of our force to the right remained sight such a superiority in numbers, as may intact. All to the left, however, except a have intimidated weak minds and untried portion of Bate's division, was entirely soldiers. But our veterans had so often enrouted, and in rapid fight; nearly all the countered similar hosts, when the strengt artillery having been shainefully abandoned of position was against us, and with perfect by its infantry support. Every effort which success, that not a doubt crossed my mind. could be made by myself and staff, and by As yet, I am not fully informed as to the many other mounted officers, availed but commands which first Aed and brought this little. A panic, which I had never before great disaster and disgrace upon our arms. witnessed, seemed to have seized upon offi- | Investigation will bring out the truth, howcers and men, and each seemed to be strug- ever; and full justice shall be done to the gling for his personal safety, regardless of good and the bad. his duty or his character. In this distress “ After arriving at Chickamauga, and ining and alarming state of affairs, Gen. Bate forming myself of the full condition of was ordered to hold his position, covering affairs, it was decided to put the army in the road for the retreat of Breckinridge's motion for a point farther removed from a command; and orders were immediately powerful and victorious army, that we sent to Gens. Hardee and Breckinridge to inight have some little time to replenish retire their forces upon the dépôt at Chicka- and recuperate for another struggle. The mauga. Fortunately, it was now near | enerny made pursuit as far as Ringgold; but nightfall, and the country and roads in our was so handsomely checked by Maj.-Gen. rear were fully known to us, but equally | Cleburne and Brig.-Gen. Gist, in coininand unknown to the enemy. The routed left of their respective divisions, that he gave us made its way back in great disorder, effec- but little annoyance. tually covered, however, by Bate's small “Our losses are not yet ascertained; but command, which had a sharp conflict with in killed and wounded it is known to have the enemy's advance, driving it back. | been very small. In prisoners and stragAfter night, all being quiet, Bate retired in glers, I fear it is much larger. good order, the enemy attempting no pur- “The chief of artillery reports the loss of suit. Lt.-Gen. Hardee's command, under forty (40) pieces. his judicious management, retired in good “I am, sir, very respectfully, your obeorder and unmolested.

| dient servant, Braxton Beago, “ As soon as all the troops had crossed,

"General Commanding." the bridges over the Chickamauga were destroyed, to impede the enemy, though the He is not usually accounted a good stream was fordable in several places. workman who disparages his tools;

“No satisfactory excuse can possibly be given for the shameful conduct of our

and the soldiers thus discredited by troops on the left, in allowing their line to Bragg were mainly those who fought be penetrated. The position was one

so bravely, skillfully, tenaciously, sucwhich ought to have been held by a line of skirmishers against any assaulting column; cessfully, at the Chickamanga, barely and, wherever resistance was made, the | two months before. They were probenemy fled in disorder, after suffering | heavy loss. Those who reached the ridge,

ably reduced by the casualties of that did so in a condition of exhaustion from the bloody contest, by Longstreet's withgreat physical exertion in climbing, which

nich drawal, and otherwise, to 40,000;

drar i and oth rendered them powerless; and the slightest effort would have destroyed them.

while Grant must have had here not “ Having secured much of our artillery, less than 70,000, nearly all of whom they soon availed themselves of our panic, and, turning our guns upon us, enfiladed were brought

och were brought into action.

to action.

This disour' lines, both right and left, rendering parity of nunibers, together with the them entirely untenable. Had all parts of fact that the movements on our side the line been maintained with equal gallantry and persistence, no enemy could ever |

appear to have been judiciously have dislodged us; and but one possible planned, skillfully combined, and reason presents itself to my mind in explanation of this bad conduct in veteran Vigorously made, exprim

vigorously made, explain the result truops, who had never before failed in any more naturally than does Bragg's as

CLEBURNE TURNS ON HOOKER AT RINGGOLD.

445

sertion, that his men quite generally | mauga, where the enemy had burned and shamefully misbehaved and were the bridge behind him. A most galpanic-stricken. It is plain that they lant but rash effort was made to drive were largely outnumbered, and that him out, wherein the 13th Illinois they saw and felt it; yet, with such was honorably conspicuous. Two or dispositions, such handling on both three charges on our part were resides, as rendered Fredericksburg a pulsed with loss; and it was not till black disaster to us, there is no obvi- afternoon, when some of our guns ous reason for believing that Bragg's had come up, and the mouth of the eyrie, so difficult of approach, might gap had been flanked by our infantry not have been triumphantly held. crowning the ridge on either hand,

Thomas returned directly from the that Cleburne was persuaded to conbattle-field to Chattanooga to expe- tinue his retreat; having inflicted on dite the movement of Granger's corps Hooker a loss of 65 killed and 367 thence to the relief of Knoxville; wounded. The enemy left 130 killed while Sherman and Hooker pursued, and wounded on the field. Hooker at daylight,'" the routed columns of remained at Ringgold till Dec. 1st; Bragg: the former, by way of Chick- but was not allowed to advance: amauga Station ; the latter by Greys- Sherman, with a large portion of ville and Ringgold; Palmer, in his ad- our army, having been dispatched to vance, having overtaken and charged the relief of Knoxville. Meantime, by the way the Rebel rear-guard un- Gross's brigade visited the battleder Gist, breaking it and capturing field of Chickamauga and buried the 3 guns : our advance-badly delayed moldering remains of many of our by the non-arrival of pontoons at the slain, who had been left by Bragg to Chickamauga–bivouacking on the lie as they fell. Osterhaus took post crest of the ridge east of that stream, in the valley of the Chattanooga, and resuming the pursuit at dawn while Geary and Cruft returned to next morning;102 Osterhaus leading, their camps in Lookout valley. followed by Geary, and he by Cruft; Granger's corps turned back from and going into Ringgold, 5 miles far- the battle-field to Chattanooga,''s and ther, close on the heels of the flying was impelled directly thence to the enemy.

| relief of Knoxville–Sherman's corps Cleburne was now in command likewise turning back *** from Greyshere—a man always hard to drive- ville, he assuming command also over and the gap in Taylor's or White Granger, and moving rapidly by Oak ridge, through which he was re- Charleston, Athens, and Loudon, to treating, was one easy to hold and Knoxville ; 15 making the last 84 difficult to carry. Having guns ad- miles over East Tennessee roads in vantageously posted, he refused to be three December days; thus cor pelhurried; while our men, flushed and ling Longstreet to raise the siege and esultant, could not be restrained decamp; then turning at once and from attacking, though our guns marching back to Chattanooga. were still behind, having been detained at the crossing of the Chicka- | Grant states our losses in this se

" Nov. 25. 109 Nov. 27. 103 Nov. 25-6. 204 Nov. 29. 105 Dec. 6.

ries of struggles (not including Burn-, of the latter being included in our side's at Knoxville) at 757 killed, lists of prisoners. These, however, 4,529 wounded, and 330 missing : ultimately exceeded the number retotal, 5,616;1o and adds :

ported by Grant; while Bragg's loss “We captured 6,142 prisoners, of whom by stragglers must have been very 239 were commissioned officers ; 40 pieces

considerable. On the whole, his of artillery, 69 artillery carriages and caissons, and 7,000 stand of small arms." army was doubtless weakened by this

Bragg's loss in killed and wounded struggle and its result by not less was comparatively light-his men than 10,000 men; while its losses in fighting mainly behind breastworks, guns, munitions, supplies, and camp in rifle-pits, or on the crests of high equipage, were seldom paralleled. ridges, where they suffered little, and No further fighting of consequence getting rapidly out of the way of took place in this vicinity that Windanger when it came too near them. ter, and our possession of ChattaProbably 3,000 107 would cover his nooga was not thenceforth seriously killed and wounded—at least 1,000 disputed.

XIX.

MISSOURI AND ARKANSAS IN 1863.

Missouri, save when fitfully in-, assumed the rôle of Confederate vaded or disturbed by domestic insur- Governor, invincibly hoped, and inrection, remained under the Union trigued, and struggled, for a restoraflag from and after the expulsion of tion to the homes they had deserted Price's army by Fremont near the and the power they by treason had close of 1861.' But the Rebel ele- forfeited. ment of her population, though over- Hardly had the year opened, when powered, was still bitter, and was a Rebel force, led by Marmaduke, stirred into fitful activity by frequent estimated at 4,000 strong, mostly emissaries from compatriots serving mounted, emerged from northern with Price, Marma Luke, and other Arkansas, and, evading our main chiefs, who, with their Goversor, body, under Gen. Blunt, struck at Claiborne F. Jackson, who diea in SPRINGFIELD, known to be filled with Arkansas, and his Lieutenant, Tho- Federal munitions and provisions, mas C. Reynolds, who thenceforth lightly guarded. But that important

106 The returns of the corps commanders add wa; among our wounded, Cols. Baum, 56th Ill., up as follows:

Wangeline, 12th Mo., Wiley, 41st Ohio, and Ber. Hooker's............. 960 | Thomas's.......... 8,955 ry, 5th Ky. Sherman's ........... 1,989 Total............ 6,804 And even this makes the loss in Granger's

107 The Telegraph (London) had a Richmond corps (included with Thomas) but 2,391; where

correspondent's description of these battles, as, Granger makes it about 2,700. It is proba- |

which estimates the Confederate loss in killed ble that our entire loss here was at least 7,000.

t least 1000 and wounded at 2,500, and in prisoners at 5,000. Among our killed were Cols. Putnam, 930 'See Vol. I, pp. 592-3. III., O'Meara, 90th III., and Torrence, 80th Io- ! At Little Rock, Dec. 6, 1862.

FIGHT AT HARTSVILLE—THE SAM GATY.

447

post had by this time been rudely, banon; while Marmaduke, moving fortified with detached earthworks, 13 miles eastward that night, turned which were of decided service against abruptly southward and escaped into raw, undisciplined troops, as Marma- Arkansas before a sufficient force duke's appear to have been. Spring- could be concentrated to intercept field was held by Brig.-Gen. E. B. him. Brown, Missouri militia, whose en- Repairing, with a part of his force, tire strength can not have exceeded to Batesville, Marmaduke was here 1,200 men, mainly State militia, with attacked by the 4th Missouri caval156 of the 118th Iowa, Lt.-Col. Thos. ry, Col. Geo. E. Waring, who drove Cook, rëenforced, on the instant, by him over the river, taking Col. Adsome 300 convalescents from the hos-ams prisoner, with others. In a fight pitals, known in army jargon as the the day before, a Rebel band of guerQuinine Brigade,' Col. B. Crabb. rillas had been routed in Mingo With this motley force, Brown fought swamp by Maj. Reeder; their leadthe Rebels bravely and skillfully from er, Dan. McGee, being killed, with 10 A. M.' till dark ; when they desist- | 7 others, and 20 wounded. Lt.-Col. ed and drew off, having taken one Stewart, with 130 of the 10th Illinois gun and lost some 200 men. Our and 1st Arkansas caralry, scouting loss was 14 killed, 145 wounded, and from Fayetteville, Ark., surprised 5 missing; but among our wounded and captured,' at Van Buren, the Arwas Gen. Brown, whose valor had kansas river steamboat Julia Roon; animated his men to fight gallantly, making 300 prisoners. and whose able dispositions had pro- Gen. Curtis was relieved' as combably saved the post.

mander of the Department of MisThe Rebels moved eastward ; their souri; Gen. Schofield being ultimateadvance striking,' at daylight, at ly appointed' to succeed him. Wood's fork, the 21st Iowa, Col. The Missouri steamboat Sam Gaty, Merrill, which, after some fighting, Capt. McCloy, was stopped at Sibthey flanked, moving by a more ley's landing, near Independence, southerly route, on HartSVILLE ; by a gang of guerrillas, headed by where Col. Merrill was joined by the George Todd, who frightened the 99th Illinois, with portions of the 3d pilot into running her ashore, robbed Missouri and 3d Iowa cavalry, sup boat and passengers of money and porting Lt. Waldschmidt's battery, valuables, and then proceeded to and was ready to dispute their prog- murder a number of unarmed White ress. A spirited fight ensued, where passengers, with 20 out of 80 negroes in the enemy was repulsed, with a who were known to be on board, and loss of about 300, including Brig.- who were the ostensible object of the Gen. Emmett McDonald, Cols. Por- raid. The other 60 made their ester, Thompson, and Hinkley, killed; cape; but all who were taken were having 1 gun dismounted and aban- drawn up in line by the side of the doned. Our loss was 78, including boat and shot, one by one, through 7 killed. Merrill, short of ammuni- the head. Barely one of them surtion, fell back, after the fight, on Le- vived. They were probably escaping

'Jan. 8. Jan. 10. Feb. 4. Feb. 28. March 9. May 13. 'March 28.

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