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ing a bridge across the river above, left, reaching nearly to Citico creek; the town. At the proper time, Hugh Palmer, of the 14th corps, supporting S. Ewing's division was drawn back Granger's right with Baird's division, from Trenton and followed the oth- refused; Johnson's division under ers to our extreme left; but the arms in our intrenchments, ready to roads were so bad, and the over- move to any point at a word. Howtaxed bridges broke so frequently, ard's corps was likewise held in readthe river being swelled by heavy rains iness to act whenever required.
—that unexpected delays occurred; It was 2 P. M. when Granger's and Osterhaus's division was left to men moved out; advancing steadaid Hooker on the right.
ily, squarely, swiftly, upon the Rebel Grant, impatient to relieve Burn- intrenchments, driving before them side, had fixed the 21st for the at- pickets, reserves, and grand guards, tack; but it was found impossible for and rushing into the Rebel rifle-pits, Sherman to get ready by that time; on the low hill known as Orchard in fact, Ewing was not in position ridge, where they made some 200 till the 23d, when the movement was prisoners. This was done so quickly begun.
that no force was, and probably none Grant's eagerness to attack was could have been, sent from Bragg's stimulated by the misguiding report main camp, somewhat farther away of a deserter that Bragg was falling"s from us, to resist it; and Granger, back, when he was only posting his under orders to secure his new posiforces to strengthen himself for the tion at once by temporary breastcoming attack. A most impertinent works, and throw out strong pickets, message" from the Rebel chief, re- while Howard moved up on his left, ceived two days before, had strength was soon too well established to be ened Grant's suspicion that Bragg was expelled during the remaining daymainly intent on getting safely away light: so he held on, unmolested, from that dangerous neighborhood. through the night. Hence, before Sherman was fairly in Hooker was now to take the laborposition, Thomas was ordered* to ing oar, by an assault on the north advance our center, and see what was face and west side of Lookout mounbehind the Rebel picket-line facing tain, attracting the enemy's attention Chattanooga. Hooker's purposed at- to that quarter while Sherman should tack on Lookout mountain was sus- lay his pontoons and cross the Tenpended, and Howard's (11th) corps nessee on our left, near the mouth of pushed over to Chattanooga and tem- the Chickamauga. Accordingly, porarily added to Thomas's command. Hooker, at 4 a. M., was under arms
The movement was initiated by and ready to advance; but an unexGranger's (4th) corps; Sheridan's di- pected obstacle confronted him. The vision on the right, Wood's on the heavy rain of the 21st and 22d had % Nov. 22.
combatants in Chattanooga, I deem it proper to 36 " HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, I notify you that prudence would dictate their
“IN THE FIELD, Nov. 20, 1863. I early withdrawal. " Maj.-Gen. U. S GRANT, Commanding U. S.
I l “1 am, General, very respectfully, your obe
| dient servant, forces at Chattanooga:
BRAXTON BRAGG, Gen. Com'g." “GENERAL: As there may still be somo non- 07 Nov. 23.
HOOKER CARRIES LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN.
not only deranged our pontoon | By 11 A. M., Wood had his bridge bridges; it had so swelled Lookout finished; Geary was close at hand, creek that it was unfordable : so he skirmishing smartly; and now all dispatched Geary, supported by our guns opened in concert; while Cruft, up the creek to Wauhatchie, Wood and Gross, springing across there to cross and hold the right the creek, joined Geary's left, and bank, while the residue of his com- moved down the valley, sweeping all mand should construct temporary before them; taking many prisoners bridges directly in their front, lower in their rifle-pits, and allowing few down.
to escape up the mountain; our men A heavy mist favored this move from right to left following at full ment; which would otherwise have speed, right under the muzzles of the been perilous; as it was, the enemy enemy's guns; climbing over ledges were so intent on watching Hooker's and bowlders, crests and chasms, and bridge-builders that they did not ob- driving the Rebels through their serve Geary, who crossed the creek camp without allowing them to halt at 8 A. M.," capturing a picket of 42 there; hurling them back with litmen posted at the bridge, resting tle more than a show of fighting; here his left, extending his right to Geary's advance rounding the peak the foot of the mountain, on the of the mountain about noon, and still enemy's side of the valley, facing pressing on; though Hooker, who northward. Gross's brigade now, knew that Bragg had rëenforced this by Hooker's order, advanced and wing, but not to what extent, had seized the bridge over the creek just given orders that they be halted and below the railroad crossing, and rëformed on reaching the summit; pushed across there. Now Oster- but the men would not be halted, but haus, who had just come up from rushed forward, making hundreds of Brown's ferry, pushed forward prisoners, and hurling the residue Wood's brigade to a point half a mile down the precipitous eastern declivity above Gross, laid a temporary bridge, of the mountain. and crossed there. Meanwhile, our Darkness, at 2 P, M., arrested our batteries, established on the most victorious arms; the mountain being available hills, were so planted as to now enveloped in a cloud so thick enfilade the Rebel infantry, as they and black as to render farther movemarched down from their camp on ment perilous, if not impossible; the mountain to man their breast- when Hooker's line was established works and rifle-pits. Part of them along the east brink of the precipice, had taken post behind a railroad its left near the mouth of Chattaembankment, and kept up a deadly nooga creek; where, by 4 P. M., it fire with little exposure or loss on was so fortified, by whatever means their part. Still, Hooker's men were at hand, that he sent word to they were 9,681, all told, and no two Grant that his position was impregdivisions of them had hitherto fought nable. in the same battle acted from the first At 51, Brig.-Gen. Carlin, of the as though they were bound to conquer. 14th corps, reported to him, and, with his brigade, was assigned to emergency. Meantime, Col. Long, duty on the extreme right, where with his brigade of Thomas's cavalry, Geary's men were nearly exhausted had crossed the Tennessee and the with hours of climbing and fighting. Chickamauga on our left, and raided This wing was assailed, about dark, on the enemy's lines of communicabut to no purpose-Carlin easily re- tion; burning Tyner's Station, and, pelling the enemy; who, before pushing out to Cleveland, capturing morning, abandoned the mountain 200 prisoners, with 100 wagons, and altogether, leaving 20,000 rations destroying considerable Rebel stores, and the camp equipage of three brig- with small loss on our side. ades, as they silently dropped into the Thomas this day improved and Chattanooga valley.
** Nov. 24.
strengthened his advanced positions ; Sherman had begun to cross the pushing Howard's corps up the TenTennessee early this morning." His nessee till it joined hands with Sherpontoons had been prepared in the man, just as the latter had brought little creek on the north side, called his rear division across the river. the North Chickamauga; whence Thus, by continuous though modethey, before daylight, were pushed rate advances, our army, at small out into the river, bearing 30 men cost, had wrested from the enemy each, and floated silently past the several important advantages of poRebel pickets, along the south bank, sition, and was now stretched in unto the destined point just below the broken line from the north end of mouth of the South or real Chicka- Lookout mountain to the north erd mauga, where they struck the hostile of Mission ridge, with the enemy shore, capturing a picket of 20 before compressed between them. their coming was suspected. The Next morning, Hooker moved steamboat Dunbar, with a tow-barge, down from Lookout mountain, and having been employed during the across Chattanooga valley, which his night in ferrying across horses pro- hold of Lookout mountain had comcured from Sherman, wherewith to pelled the enemy to abandon, burnmove Thomas's artillery, was sent up ing the bridge over the creek; which to hasten the crossing here; and, by arrested our advance here for three daylight, 8,000 of Sherman's men hours. So soon as our new bridge were over the river and so established could be crossed, Osterhaus pushed in rifle-trenches as to be prepared for on to Rossville; driving the enemy an assault by twice their number. out of the gap in Mission ridge by By noon, Sherman had bridges across flanking them, and capturing guns, both the Tennessee and the South munitions, wagons, &c. By this Chickamauga, and was pushing over time, the bridge was finished, and the rest of his command; and, at 31 Hooker's force all over : so Hooker P. M., he had, by sharp fighting, car- undertook, as ordered, to clear Misried the north end of Mission ridge sion ridge, on his left, of the enemy: nearly to the railroad tunnel; and Osterhaus moving eastward of the here he so fortified himself during ridge, Geary on the west of it, and the night as to be ready for any Cruft directly upon it, the batteries » Nov. 24.
200 Nov. 25.
HOOKER STILL ADVANCING-SHERMAN CHECKED. 441
with Geary, and all moving together, had anticipated. The ridge was not toward Bragg and Chattanooga. In continuous, but a succession of emithe progress of the movement, the nences: that which he had carried narrowness of the crest compelled a being commanded by that in his division of Cruft's command into front, across quite a valley; its crest two lines.
covered with forest, and bristling The enemy's front was protected with breastworks and abatis. But, by breastworks, thrown up by our difficult as was the task, these works men while holding here in front of must be carried; and by sunrise Bragg's triumphant army during the Sherman had completed his disposinight and day following the fight of tions and given the order to adChickamauga, and they seemed dis- vance. posed to hold on; but that was not to Gen. Corse, with a regiment from be. As their skirmishers advanced to Lightburn's brigade, was directed check our movement, the 9th and the to advance along the ridge; Gen. 36th Indiana sprang forward, form- Morgan L. Smith to move along its ing line under their fire, and, in- east base, connecting with Corse; stantly charging, drove them back; Col. Loomis, in like manner, was to while the residue of our column advance along its west base, supportformed line: Gross's brigade, with ed by two reserve brigades under the 51st Ohio and 35th Indiana, in Gen. John E. Smith. And thus our advance; the residue of Whitaker's line moved on: the 40th Illinois, brigade, closely supporting; Geary supported by the 20th and 46th Ohio, and Osterhaus advancing abreast of pushing directly down the face of the them; and all, at a charging pace, hill held by Sherman and up that swept on, pushing back all opposi- held by the enemy, to within eighty tion; every attempt of the enemy to yards of the Rebel intrenchments, make a stand being defeated by a where Gen. Corse found a secondary withering flank-fire from Geary and crest, which he gained and held; Osterhaus, who gathered up as pris- calling up his reserves, and preparing oners all who sought escape by flight to assault, when a hand-to-hand condown the ridge. Osterhaus alone test was maintained for an hour with took 2,000 of them. Those who fled varying success and heavy loss on along the ridge were intercepted by our part; but Corse was unable to Johnson's division of Thomas's corps, carry the enemy's works, as were who were now advancing from the they to drive him from his sheltering direction of Chattanooga. At sun- hill. But Gen. Morgan L. Smith on set, Hooker halted for the night, there one side, and Col. Loomis on the being no more enemies in his front; other, gained ground on the flanks, his troops going into bivouac on the though John E. Smith's supporting rocky steeps they had so nobly won. brigades recoiled before a sudden and
Gen. Sherman, who had been for- heavy artillery fire, giving the imtifying his position during the night, pression in Chattanooga that Sherreceived orders to attack at daylight man was losing ground. Yet no this morning, and did so; finding ground was really lost by our adthe ground far more difficult than heyance; and an attempt to pursue the recoiling brigades was promptly , volley of grape and canister from near 30
| pieces of artillery and musketry from still checked by a flanking fire from the
well-filled rifle-pits on the summit of the crest; the enemy taking to the shel- ridge. Not a waver, however, was seen in ter of his crest and his woods. Still,
all that long line of brave men. Their prog
| ress was steadily onward until the summit no decided success had been won by
was in their possession. In this charge, the Sherman's column up to 3 P. M. casualties were remarkably few for the fire Meantime, Gen. Giles A. Smith had
encountered. I can account for this only
on the theory that the enemy's surprise at the been disabled at 4 P. M. of the day audacity of such a charge caused confusion before; and Gen. Corse had been se
and purposeless aiming of their pieces.
"The nearness of night, and the enemy verely wounded at 10 A. M. of this day.
still resisting the advance of Thomas's lett, Gen. Grant had been awaiting ad prevented a general pursuit that night; but vices of Hooker's successful advance
Sheridan pushed forward to Mission mills.
“The resistance on Thomas's left being on the right, before giving Thomas overcome, the enemy abandoned his posithe signal to advance. Unaware of
tion near the railroad tunnel in front of
Sherman, and by midnight was in full rethe long detention of Hooker in bridg
treat; and the whole of his strong position ing Lookout creek, he had expected on Lookout mountain, Chattanooga valley, such advices before noon; and was
and Mission ridge, was in our possession, to
gether with a large number of prisoners, still impatiently awaiting them, when,
| artillery, and small arms." seeing that Bragg was weakening his
Says Gen. Thomas, in his report: center to support his right, and judg- |
“Our troops advancing steadily in a coning that Hooker must by this time
tinuous line, the enemy, seized with panic, be at or near Rossville, he gave abandoned the works at the foot of the hill Thomas, at 2 P. m., the order to ad
and retreated precipitately to the crest;
whither they were closely followed by our vance and attack.
troops, who, apparently inspired by the imAt once, Baird's, Wood's, Sheri pulse of victory, carried the hill simultane
ously at six different points, and so closely dan's, and Johnson's divisions went
upon the heels of the enemy, that many of forward, with double lines of skirmish. them were taken prisoners in the trenches.
We captured all their cannon and ammuniers in front, followed, at easy support
tion, before they conld be removed or deing distance, by the entire force, right stroyed. After halting a few moments to into the enemy's rifle-pits at the base rëorganize the troops, who had become
somewhat scattered in the assault of the hill, of the ridge; driving out the occu
Gen. Sherman pushed forward in pursuit, pants, and hardly stopping to rëform and drove those in his front, who escaped
capture, across Chickamauga creek. Gens. their lines before they charged right
| Wood and Baird, being obstinately resisted up the steep and difficult ascent- | by rëenforcements froin the enemy's exslowly, of course, but steadily and in
treme right, continued fighting until dark
ness set in; slowly but steadily driving the order; following so close to the re
enemy before them. In moving upon Rosstreating foe as to embarrass, doubt ville, Gen. Hooker encountered Stewart's less, his gunners firing from the crest
division and other troops; finding his left
flank threatened, Stewart attempted to es. of the ridge. Says Gen. Grant, in | cape by retreating toward Greysville ; but his official report:
some of his force, finding their retreat threat
ened in that quarter, retired in disorder to“These troops moved forward, drove the ward their right along the crest of the ridge; enemy from the rifle-pits at the base of the where they were met by another portion of ridge like bees from a hive, stopped but a | Gen. Hooker's command, and were driven moment until the whole were in line, and by these troops in the face of Johoson's commenced the ascent of the mountain from division of Palmer's corps, by whom they right to left almost simultaneously, follow- I were
| were nearly all made prisoners." ing closely the retreating enemy without further orders. They encountered a fearful! As yet, we have looked at this re