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WHEELER'S RAID IN MIDDLE TENNESSEE. 433 man, who represented him at Vicks-, terward, by Col. E. M. McCook, who, burg, did not receive the dispatch till with three regiments of cavalry, had it was several days old. Hurlbut been ordered from Bridgeport to purpromptly put his West Tennessee sue him. McCook had the better of corps in motion eastward; but this the fight; but darkness closed it; and was not enough; and Halleck, on the enemy moved off during the night, learning of the reverse on the Chick-while McCook had no orders to puramauga--hearing nothing from Grant | sue him. or Sherman-detached" the 11th | Wheeler next struck McMinnville, and 12th corps from the Army of in the heart of Tennessee, which, with the Potomac, and ordered them, un- 600 men, a train of wagons, and one der Gen. Hooker, to Middle Tennes- of cars, was surrendered to him withsee, to hold, till further orders, Rose-out a struggle, and where he burned crans's line of communications from a large quantity of supplies. But Nashville to Bridgeport. This trans- here he was overhauled by Gen. Geo. fer of 20,000 men, with all their ar- Crook, who, with another cavalry tillery, munitions, and baggage, was division, 2,000 strong, had started made with remarkable celerity, from Washington, Tenn., and had for through the extraordinary exertions some hours been pursuing and fightof Gen. D. C. McCallum, govern- ing Wharton, and by whose order ment superintendent of railroads, M. Col. Long, with the 2d Kentucky, C. Meigs, Quartermaster General, and charged the rear of the now flying foe W. Prescott Smith, master of trans- with spirit and effect. Wheeler's portation on the Baltimore and Ohio force being superior, he halted and road : the two corps marching from fought dismounted till dark, and then the Rapidan to Washington, taking struck out for Murfreesboro'; but that cars, and being transported by Cum-post was firmly held, and he could berland, Wheeling, Cincinnati, Lou- not wait to carry it; so he swept isville, and Nashville, to the Tennes down to Warren and Shelbyville, see, and there debarked in fighting burning bridges, breaking the railarray, within eight days.
road, and capturing trains and stores, Meantime, Bragg had sent a large taking thence a south-west course portion of his cavalry, under Wheel across Duck river to Farmington, er and Wharton, across the Ten- where another fight" was had, and nessee at Cottonport, between Chat-the Rebels worsted by the fire of tanooga and Bridgeport, instructed to Capt. Stokes's battery, followed by a cut our cominunications and destroy charge of infantry, and lost 4 guns, our supplies so far as possible. Wheel- captured by Crook, though he was er, doubtless thoroughly informed, in inferior force. Wheeler got away made directly for a large portion of during the night to Pulaski, and Gen. Thomas's train of 700 to 1,000 thence into North Alabama; making wagons, laden with supplies, then in his escape across the Tennessee river, Sequatchie valley, near Anderson's near the mouth of Elk; losing 2 more Cross-roads, which he captured" and guns and his rear-guard of 70 men burned; being attacked, directly af- in getting over. Gens. Thomas and ** Sept. 23.
to Oct. 7. VOL. II.-28
Crook estimate his loss during this Brig.-Gen. W. F. Smith, chief engiraid at 2,000 men, mostly prisoners neer, to examine the river below Chator deserters. Ours, mainly in pris- tanooga with reference to crossing. It oners, must have exceeded that num- was decided that Hooker should cross ber; while the Government property at Bridgeport with all the force he destroyed must have been worth mil- could muster, advancing directly to lions of dollars. Roddy, who crossed Wauhatchie in Lookout valley, menathe Tennessee at Guntersville, threat-cing Bragg with a flank attack. So ening Decherd, retreated on learning much was to be observed and underthat Wheeler had done so, and escaped stood by the enemy. But, while his without loss.
attention was fixed on this move
ment, and on the march of a divisGen. Grant, having assumed" at ion, under Gen. Palmer, down the Louisville command of his new de- north bank of the river from a point partment, telegraphed, next day, to opposite Chattanooga to Whiteside, Gen. Thomas at Chattanooga to hold where he was to cross and support that place at all hazards, and was Hooker, a force was to be got ready, promptly answered, “I will hold on under the direction of Smith, and, till we starve.” Famine, not fire, was at the right moment, thrown across the foe most dreaded by the Army the river at Brown's ferry, three or of the Cumberland, though it had four miles below Chattanooga, and a pretty rough experience of both. pushed forward at once to seize the Proceeding forth with to Chattanoo- range of hills skirting the river at ga, the new commander found" Gen. the mouth of Lookout valley, coverHooker's force concentrated at Bridge- ing the Brown's ferry road and a port, preparing to argue with Bragg pontoon bridge to be quickly thrown our claim to supply our forces at across the ferry; thus opening a line Chattanooga by means of the river of communication between our forces and the highway along its bank, in- in Chattanooga and Hooker's in Waustead of sending every thing by wag. hatchie, shorter and better than that ons across the mountains on either held by Bragg around the foot of side of the Sequatchie valley — a Lookout mountain. most laborious and difficult under- / Hooker crossed, unimpeded, on taking, which left our men on short the 26th ; pushing straight on to rations and starved many of our WAUHATCHIE, which he reached on horses. It is computed that no less the 28th. Meantime, 4,000 men had than 10,000 horses were used up in been detailed to Smith; of whom this service, and that it would have 1,800, under Brig.-Gen. Hazen, were been impossible, by reason of their embarked on 60 pontoon-boats at exhaustion and the increasing bad- Chattanooga, and, at the word, ness of the roads caused by the Au- floated quietly down the river during tumn rains, to have supplied our army the night of the 27th, past the Rebel a week longer.
pickets watching along the left bank, Grant proceeded, the day after his and, landing on the south side, at arrival, accompanied by Thomas and Brown's ferry, seized the hills over" Oct. 11. * Oct. 18.
** Oct. 23.
GEARY ATTACKED AT WAUHATCHIE.
looking it, without further loss than | Chattanooga, directly under the 4 or 5 wounded. The residue of Gen. guns of the Rebel batteries on LookSmith's men, with further materials out mountain. Of course, every for the bridges, had simultaneously movement on our side was watched moved across Moccasin point on by the enemy, who might almost our side, to the ferry, unperceived by count the men in our ranks as they the enemy; and, before dawn, they marched. Through another gorge had been ferried across, and the diffi- on Hooker's left, a road led down cult heights rising sharply from the to Kelly's ferry, three miles distant. Tennessee and from Lookout valley Howard's (11th) corps, in our adon the south-west were firmly se- vance, had passed Wauhatchie, and cured. By 10 A. M., a capital pon- had lost a few men by shells thrown toon-bridge had been completed at from Lookout mountain, and as the ferry; and now, if Bragg chose many by an irregular musketry fire to concentrate on Hooker or on from the wooded hills in its front, Chattanooga, we had the shorter line whence the enemy was speedily of concentration, and were ready. dislodged by a flanking advance ; Before night, Hooker's left rested on burning the railroad bridge over Smith's force and bridge; while Lookout creek as he fled. At 6 Palmer had pushed across to White- P. M.," our column was halted for the side in his rear; and now the wagon night, but little over a mile from route of supply for Chattanooga, no Brown's ferry, toward which three longer infested by Rebel sharp- companies were thrown out;. while shooters, was reduced to the 28 miles Geary's weak division of the 12th of relatively tolerable road from corps bivouacked at Wauhatchie, Bridgeport, or, by using the river three miles back, holding the road from Bridgeport to Kelly's ferry, to from Kelly's ferry that leads up Lookbarely 8 miles. Grant's fighting had out valley. not yet begun; but Chattanooga was Law's division of Longstreet's safe, and Bragg virtually beaten. corps held Lookout mountain, and
Hooker had found no enemy to re- were deeply interested but quiet pel, save pickets and perhaps a few spectators of Hooker's arrangements sharp-shooters, until-having passed for the night. They were not strong through a gorge of Raccoon moun- enough to fight his entire force by tain into Lookout valley, some two daylight; but it was calculated that miles wide, which is commanded and they would suffice" to strike Geary observed throughout by the crests of by surprise in that strange, wooded Raccoon mountain on the one hand region; routing him before he should and of Lookout mountain on the be fairly awake, stampeding his men, other, while a low range of five or running off his animals, and burning six hills, 200 to 300 feet high, divides his trains. Accordingly, about 1 it nearly in the center-he reached a. M.," they attacked him with Rebel Wauhatchie, a petty station on the impetuosity and the unearthly yells railroad, some 12 or 15 miles from wherein they stood confessedly unri* Oct. 28.
sions: Pollard says they were but six regi. * Hooker says they were two strong divi- I ments.
* Oct. 29.
valed, driving in his pickets on a quailed; and, though the 73d Ohio run, and following them into his suffered most, losing over 100, the lines; but they found him wide charge of the 33d Massachusetts and awake, and no wise inclined to panic that of the 136th New York, Col. or running. Charged at once on James Wood, Jr., were equally inthree sides, he met the enemy with trepid and effective. This beginning a fire as deadly as theirs, and with of its work in the West signally inranks steadier and firmer than those spirited and prepared Ilooker's comof a charging column could be, and mand for the arduous labors before it. was fully holding his own against The flight of the Rebels occurred them, when Carl Schurz's division of at 4 A. M., before all Howard's corps Howard's corps came rushing from had arrived; those in the rear were Hooker to his aid; Tyndale's brig- now halted and impelled in an oppoade assaulting and carrying the hill site direction ; soon clearing Raccoon whence they were enfiladed on their mountain of the enemy, with all left, while a thin brigade of Stein- west of Lookout valley. And Bragg, wehr's division, which closely fol- who had weakened himself by sendlowed, was led by Col. Orlan Smith, ing Longstreet against Burnside, did 73d Olio, on a charge up a very not feel encouraged to make any steep, difficult hill farther behind; more attacks, but remained quiet carrying it without a shot, and tak- and watchful in his intrenchments ing some prisoners. It was now before Chattanooga. time for the. Rebels to be off, and His position was one of remarkathey left-all save 153 who lay dead ble strength, along the western and in Geary's front, and over 100 pris- northern declivities of the difficult oners. Their reports admit a loss steeps known as Lookout mountain of 361. Darkness prevented any ef- and Mission ridge, and across the fective pursuit. Hooker's total loss valley at the mouth of Chattanooga here was 416."7 including Gen. Green creek, here very narrow, and so entiseverely, and Col. Underwood, 33d laded by heavy batteries along its Mass., desperately wounded. Capt. mountain sides as to be impregnable Geary, son of the General, was to direct assault. Grant was eager killed.
to attack, so as to be able to send aid There can be no severer test of the to Burnside, who was urgently callquality of soldiers than such a night ing for it; but the utterly brokenattack, in a country whereof they down condition of most of his horses, know nothing and their assailants rendering them unequal to the task know every thing; and when the pre- of hauling his cannon, much less sumption is strong that the latter mounting his cavalry, constrained must have carefully measured their him to await the arrival of Sherinan, strength, and know what they have who, with the 15th corps, then on to do. Geary's men were inferior in the Big Black, had been telegraphed" number to their foes; but the ordeal by Grant, on his assuming command was nobly passed. No regiment of this department, to embark a di
67 Since crossing the Tennessee, 437: 76 the Rebel loss much higher—some 1,500; but killed, 339 wounded, 22 missing. He estimates he is clearly in error.
* Sept. 22.
SHERMAN REENFORCES GRANT AT CHATTANOOGA. 437
vision at once for Memphis, and had senger reached Sherman with an started it, under Osterhaus, at 4 P. M. order to drop all work on the railof that day. Repairing next day by road, and push on rapidly to Bridgeorder to Vicksburg, he dispatched port. Moving energetically to Eastthe rest of his corps up the river; fol-port, Sherman found there two gunlowing" himself to Memphis, whence boats and a decked coal-barge, which he marched eastward, repairing and Admiral Porter, at his request, had using the Charleston railroad for his sent up the Tennessee from Cairo, to trains, to Corinth. His forces having facilitate his crossing; but two transbeen sent forward from Memphis in ports and a ferry-boat soon arrived, ** divisions, he took the cars," and by whose aid Sherman was pushing reaching, about noon, Colliersville sta- on next day, leaving Blair to protect tion, found there the 66th Indiana, his rear. Arrived at Rogersville, he Col. D. C. Anthony, just undergoing found the Elk unbridged and unfordan attack by Chalmers, with 3,000 able, and was compelled to move up Rebel cavalry and 8 guns. Having its right bank to Fayetteville, crossas escort a battalion of the 13th regu. ing there on a stone bridge, and lars, he helped beat off the assailants, marching by Winchester and Decherd and moved on; reaching Corinth that to Bridgeport;" whence he forthwith night.
reported in person to Grant at ChatBut the Rebels did not seem recon- tanooga," being at once made acciled to his movements, and were con- quainted with the plans of the Genstantly infesting Osterhaus's division, eral commanding, and accompanying who held the advance, supported by him to a survey of the positions of Morgan L. Smith's, both under the the enemy; returning forth with to command of Frank Blair, as well as Bridgeport to expedite the movement John E. Smith's, which covered the of his troops. working parties engaged in repairing Grant had resolved to put in Sherthe railroad; so that the movement man's force mainly on his left-or had to be made circumspectly and up the Tennessee; so his first point slowly. Stephen D. Lee, with Rod was to make Bragg believe that he dy's and Ferguson's brigades, made should use it on his extreme right. up a force of about 5,000 irregular To this end, his divisions were crossed cavalry, who were constantly watch as they arrived at Bridgeport; the ing for chances to do mischief; and, foremost (Ewing's) moving by Shell though not strong enough to be per- Mound to Trenton, threatening to asilous, they were so lively as to be sail and turn Bragg's extreme right. vexatious. At length, they got di- But the residue of this army, as it rectly in the way at Cane creek," came up, moved quietly and screened near Tuscumbia, compelling Blair to from Rebel observation to Kelly's hurt some of them before they would ford, rëcrossing on Smith's pontoons, move. By this time—Hooker having and marching around Chattanooga long since arrived on the Tennessee | to its assigned position on the left of -Grant had become impatient for Thomas, where materials had already more decisive operations, and a mes- been noiselessly prepared for throw
20 Sept. 27. 2o Oct. 11. "Oct. 27. Oct. 31. Nov. 13. " Nov. 15.