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was heard from Warren, till ten plenished. Then the turnpike and minutes before 9, when his dispatch plank roads must be abandoned, and reached Meade, stating that he had our army cut loose from its resources, found the enemy's defenses so strong at a season when a few hours' rain that he did not feel able to carry would convert the river in its rear them, and had suspended his attack into a raging, foaming flood. All the in consequence. Sedgwick was there important roads in this region run upon directed to hold off till further from Gordonsville and Orange Court orders, while Meade galloped to House eastward to Fredericksburg; Warren, four miles off, and conferred and our army, moving southward to with him as to the situation. He flank the enemy, must cut and bridge found Warren fixed in the conviction roads for its guns and trains. That that an attack on this flank was army, if not discouraged by the bunhopeless; and now it was too late to gles and failures of the last week, concentrate for a determined attack must by this time have been soured on the center; while, if the attempt and intensely disgusted. To rush it to flank the enemy's left was to be now on the Rebel defenses which further prosecuted, the whole army had grown and were growing strongmust be moved toward our left, aban- er each hour-would be to expose it doning the turnpike, which was our to defeat in a position where defeat main line of communication and of was sure to be disastrous, and might retreat.

prove ruinous. Meade decided, thereMeade concluded to desist for the fore, to back out—and this was the day : the 5th and 6th corps, with least wretched part of the entire two divisions of the 3d, returning to wretched business. He says he should their former positions. Meanwhile, have marched to the heights of Fredthe opening of our batteries in the ericksburg, if Halleck had left him morning had exposed to the enemy at liberty to do so; but he probably the point on his left where we had evinced more sense, if less spirit, in purposed to attack, and he had made plumply retreating, so bringing his haste to strengthen it by earthworks, army back across the Rapidan during abatis, and guns.

the night," and taking up his ponOur supply trains had been left toons next morning, without having north of the Rapidan. If the move been pursued, or anywise molested ment should be persisted in, they during his retreat. And this termust be brought over, in order that minated, with the Army of the Potoour soldiers’ haversacks might be re- mac, the campaign of 1863. 86 Dec. 1-2.

they have, I will not say confidence, but faith in 86 Gen. A. P. Howe, testifying before the Com. him. They do not expect from him what the mittee on the Conduct of the War, thus sums up

crisis seems to call for. They believe that, if he

| is attacked, he will do all he can to defend his the judgment of those officers of his army who

position. But that he will act with zeal and enwere dissatisfied with Meade's leadership:

ergy, or that his whole heart and soul are in the "I do not think they have full confidence in bringing all the means successfully to bear to the ability or state of mind of Gen. Meade. break down the enemy, so far as I can judge, What I mean by that is the animus that directs they do not look for that; they do not expect it. the movements of the army. They do not think so far as I can judge, a great many officers think there is that heart, and energy, and earnestness he can do very well in a defensive fight. If he of purpose in the war, to make every use of the was called upon to guard tho Potomac or Washmeans at his command to injure the enemy and ington, he will make good marches to stop the carry on the war successfully. I do not think 'enemy; but that he will be active, zealous, en. who have no faith in this war, who have no " Question : The same observation you apply | heart in it; they will not do any thing to com. to Gen. Meade will apply to the corps command. mit themselves; but there is a wide difference ers you refer to, will it not?

FIGHTS AT WYTHEVILLE AND LEWISBURG.

403

s mountsi Vir- /feed mountains, indir

und Wyomith. / least 3 400 miles ville; haviation

The more important military op- , roughest mountains, and being four erations in (and from) WEST VIR- days without food, till they struck GINIA, during 1863, were as follows: Tug fork the second night, where

A raiding expedition, 1,000 strong, they found and killed some cattle. consisting of the 2d Virginia (Union) Misled by a treacherous guide, they cavalry, Col. John Toland, and 34th wasted next day wandering through Ohio infantry (mounted), which struck the mountains, finding ® rations and ont * from Browntown, West Vir- feed at Fayetteville; having ridden ginia, crossing Lens mountain to over 400 miles, lost 83 men, with at Coal river, and thence moving south- least 300 horses, and endured as much easterly by Raleigh and Wyoming misery as could well be crowded into Court House, zigzagged over the a profitless raid of eight days. Guyan, Tug, and several other ranges of mountains, swooped down" on Gen. W. W. Averill, setting forth Wytheville, a village of 1,800 inhab- from Huttonsville, Randolph county, itants, and a place of considerable moved down the line dividing West importance. Hitherto, they had pass from old Virginia, pushing back the ed over a rugged, wild, and sterile small Rebel forces in that quarter region, having very few inhabitants under Col. W. S. [“Mudwall'] Jackand no elements of resistance; but, son, and menacing an advance on charging into Wytheville, they were Staunton. At length, when near Lewfired on from the houses, whereby isburg and White Sulphur Springs, Col. Toland was soon killed and Col. he was met" by a force about equal Powell, 34th Ohio, mortally wound- to his own, under Maj.-Gen Sam. ed, as were several of their leading Jones, but more immediately coinsubordinates. After firing some of manded by Col. Geo. S. Patton, who the buildings whence they were thus had chosen a strong position in a assailed, our men, abandoning their gorge between steep mountains that dead and wounded, fell back two precluded flanking, where a spirited miles and encamped; starting for fight was maintained throughout the home, under Lt.-Col. Franklin, 34th day, and till noon of the next; when Ohio, early next morning. Hungry, Averill drew off, short of ammuniworn out, and dispirited, they lost tion, leaving one disabled gun. He nearly half their horses on their de had calculated on help from Gen. vious way homeward: wending from Scammon, commanding on the Kaearly dawn till midnight over the nawha, which did not reach him. Our ergetic, in using his means to strike successful ernment; they do not like the way the Negro offensive blows against the enemy, not at all; he question is handled. And, again, the inpres. is not the man for that at least that is my im sion is made upon my mind that there are some pression.

| between doing your duty so as not to commit “ Answer: I think so. I do not know as it yourself, and doing all that might reasonably be would be proper for me to state here the terms expected of you at these times. I do not know we use in the army. However, we say there is as I can express myself better than saying that too much Copperheadism in it. This is so for there is Copperheadism at the root of the mat. different reasons: with some, there is a desire to raise up Gen. McClellan; with others, there is a dislike to some of the measures of the Gov.l July 13. 68 July 18. ^ July 23. " Aug. 26. and several more of his best officers " Nov. 6. June 19, 1863. June 27. July 1-2. •July 3. •July 4.

total loss here was 207; Patton re- I strongly posted on the top of Droop ports his at 156, and says he took 117 mountain, in Greenbrier county, prisoners. He attempted to pursue routed him, and drove him back into with cavalry, but to little purpose. Monroe county, with heavy loss. Averill returned to Huttonsville. Ours was 120 in all; the Rebels

twice or thrice so many, including Late in the Fall, Averill, starting 100 prisoners, with 3 guns and 700 from Beverly with some 5,000 men, small arms. West Virginia was thus and, chasing Col. “Mudwall' Jack- nearly cleared of armed Rebels at son, struck” a somewhat smaller the close of the campaign; and they Rebel force under Gen. Echols, I never after entered it but as raiders.

XVIII.

THE CHATTANOOGA CAMPAIGN.

MIDDLE AND EAST TENNESSEE.

WHILE Gen. Rosecrans, at Mur- At length, setting out from Sparfreesboro', was accumulating wagons, ta, Morgan crossed the Cumberland, munitions, and supplies, for a deter- then in flood, near Burkesvillemined advance against Bragg's army building boats for his trains and confronting him at Shelbyville or swimming his horses —with a wellTullahoma, the noted and generally mounted force of 2,028 effectives and successful raider Morgan was prepar- 4 guns; pushing back Col. Wolford's ing, on our right, for a more exten- cavalry, who sought to impede his sive and daring cavalry expedition march, passing through* Columbia, than he had yet undertaken. Mean- which was partially sacked by his time, a party of predatory horsemen, subordinates, contrary to orders, and about 80 in number, claiming to be striking Green river at Tebb's bend; long to the 2d Kentucky Confederate where 200 of the 25th Michigan, Col. cavalry, crossed the Ohio from west-0. H. Moore, had, wholly within the ern Kentucky near Leavenworth,Ind., last 24 hours, intrenched themselves, about the middle of June, raiding formed abatis, &c., and prepared to through Orange, Orleans, and Wash- stay. Morgan summoned them in ington counties; and were trying to due form, and was courteously inmake their way back into Kentucky, formed by Moore that, on account of when they were cornered' by the this being the glorious Fourth,' he Leavenworth home guards, Maj. Clen- could n't entertain the proposition. denin, and the steamboat Izetta, and Morgan, having two regiments at were soon glad to surrender. Barely hand, forthwith assaulted, and a desone of them escaped to the Kentucky perate fight of some hours ensued, shore, and he was immediately cap- wherein Col. Chenault, Maj. Brent, tured.

1800, 201, which / Loreenville sped in had left iter Mora

MORGAN'S RAID INTO INDIANA AND OHIO. 405 were killed, and he was finally com- , the direction of Gen. H. M. Judah, pelled to draw off, badly worsted. reached Brandenburg just after MorMoore had but 6 killed, 23 wound- gan's last boat-load had left it. ed. Morgan lost 25 killed and 20 Morgan sped inland, by Corydon, wounded.

Greenville, and Palmyra, to Salem, • Moving thence on Lebanon, which Ind., where he surrounded" and capwas held by Col. Hanson,' 20th Ky., tured 350 ‘Home Guards, who had with 400 of his men, Morgan sum- fallen back thus far from Corydon moned it at sunrise,' and was refused. before him. He here broke up the After spending seven hours in fruit- railroad, burnt the dépôt, and orless efforts to reduce it, he at length dered a general conflagration of mills charged into the town, and set fire and factories, but allowed each to be to the buildings whence Hanson was ransomed by the payment of $1,000 firing—burning a good part of the in cash. Thence moving by zigzags, place, and compelling Hanson to sur- but in an easterly course, through render. Here Morgan's young brother Vienna, dividing up his command so was killed, leading a charge. And as to cut railroads and telegraphs he had lost so much time at Tebb's on every side, the raider at once bend and here, that our cavalry were threatened" Madison and demanded closing in upon him; so the Rebel the surrender of Old Vernon, where raider decamped at dark, during a a body of militia had hastily assemfurious rain, compelling his prisoners bled to oppose him; but he decamped (whom he had not yet had time to pa- on finding the militia in earnest. role) to race ten miles in ninety min- Passing thence through Versailles," utes to Springfield—one, who could and making capital bargains in horsenot or would not keep the pace, being trades all along, his followers concenshot dead by the way.

trated at Harrison, just across the Moving rapidly by Shepherdsville Ohio line; sweeping around Cincinand Bardstown,' Morgan struck the nati" at distances of 7 to 20 miles, Ohio at Brandenburg,'' 40 miles be- and pushing thence by Miamisville, low Louisville ; seizing there the Williamsburg, Sardinia, Piketon, and steamboats McCombs and Alice Jackson, they struck the Ohio at Dean, on which he crossed his com- Buffington island, not far below mand-increased, during his prog- Parkersburg, whence they counted ress, by Kentucky sympathizers, till on an easy escape through the poor, it was said now to number 4,000 thinly settled adjacent region of West men, with 10 guns. The Alice Dean Virginia and north-eastern Kentucky was burned; the McCombs—which to the more congenial shades of southprobably belonged to a friend, who had western Virginia. placed it where it would be wanted Of course, they levied on the stores

-was left unharmed. Gen. Hobson, and granaries, as well as the stables who, with a bad start, had been fol- and kitchens, along their route; but lowing from the Cumberland, under the pursuit was so hot that they

They say. Moore says 50 killed, 250 wounded. | 'Brother of Roger W., the Rebel General. I

July 5. July 6. 10 July 7. "July 9. + July 11. 1 July 12. ^ July 13-14.

burnin, and they/bluftis in his appeared,

found time to do comparatively little panies, who were received with a volmischief. Crossing the Little Miami ley, which plainly said, “No thorrailroad, they obstructed the track at oughfare;' and the next moment a spot suited to their purpose, and brought tidings of a gunboat, which watched it till the train, at 7 A. M., had drawn off when fired at, but came down from Morrow; throwing would of course spread the alarm far off the locomotive, killing the fire- and wide. man, and wounding the engineer; One of Morgan's Colonels now rewhen they rushed out of the adjacent ported that he had charged and routwoods, and, while the cars were being ed a hostile force posted in rifle-pits fired and burnt, they captured and not far distant, capturing 150 prisonparoled 200 unarmed recruits, who ers; and the chief was hurrying his they had probably been apprised were preparations for crossing his men coming.

forthwith, when the roar of guns There was some skirmishing from down the river argued gunboats at day to day; but the raiders were too hand, just as three heavy columns strong for any force that could be as- of infantry appeared, crowning the sembled on the instant, while their bluffs in his rear and on his right, route could not be foreseen, and they opening fire on the close columns of moved too swiftly—burning bridges the fugitives. Forthwith, the word and obstructing roads behind them, was given to flee up the river, and it to permit the gathering cloud in their was obeyed with alacrity; leaving rear to overtake them : these having guns, wagons, &c., with dismounted but a second and very inferior choice men, sick, wounded, &c., to the numin swapping horses.

ber of 600, to become prisoners. Still, a considerable force had col. Morgan and his remaining trooplected in their front at Chilicothe; ers sped up the river some 14 miles but Morgan had pressing business in to Belleville; where they had fairly another direction.

begun, at 3 P. M., to swim their horses Hobson, on reaching the Ohio, had across330 having got away—when foreseen that the chase would be Gens. Hobson and Shackleford, in obliged to take water again, and had command of a division of their pursent at once to Louisville to have the suers, were again upon them; while river well patrolled by gunboats. And, several gunboats confronted them on 80 soon as it became evident that Mor- the river, manned by Gen. Scammon, gan was making for Pomeroy or Gal- commanding on the Kanawha; he lipolis with intent to cross, the inhab-having brought down two or three itants along the roads leading thither regiments to share in the hunt. As began to fall trees across them in his there was no hope in fighting, the front, materially interfering with the raiders took post on a high, scarcely freedom and celerity of his move- accessible bluff, where they were summents. At length, the weary, har- moned by Shackleford to surrender. assed raiders struck the Ohio just at They asked an hour for consideradaylight, at a ford a little above tion: he gave them forty minutes ; Pomeroy, and sent across two com- and, when these expired, all that re

26 July 19.

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