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boro'. The army, after an arduous march, 1 The 12th having been spent in getrendered more difficult by the rains, reached tince Hagerstown on the afternoon of the 6th and
ting our troops into position, Gen. morning of the 7th July."
Meade called a council of his corps He had had a marvelous escape. commanders, to consider the expediWhen his shattered columns com- ency of attacking next morning. The menced their retreat from Gettys- council sat long and debated earnestburg, few of his officers can have im- ly. Gens. Howard, Pleasanton, and agined that they would ever reach Wadsworth (in place of Reynolds, Virginia with their artillery and most killed) urged and voted to attack; of their trains. There was not a but Gens. Sedgwick, Slocum, Sykes, probability that they could rëcross | French, and Hays (in place of Hanthe Potomac with more than the cock, wounded at Gettysburg) opwreck of an army. But heavy rains posed it. Gen. Meade, having heard fell, as usual after great battles; and all, stated that his judgment favored these are apt to impede pursuers an attack—that he came there to more than pursued, though they need fight, and could see no good reason not. Then, every sort of miscalcula for not fighting. Still, he could not tion combined with lack of energy to take the responsibility of ordering an impede the progress of our army; so assault against the advice of a majorthat Lee had had four days wherein ity of his corps commanders—four to strengthen his position at Wil- of them ranking officers of the army liamsport before Meade was there" next to himself. His decision would to assail him.
seem to have been a mistake; but he But neither Lee's army nor his had been in command little more troubles were yet over. The heavy than a fortnight, and the responsibil. rains following the battle had swelled ity of overruling a majority and the the Potomac to an unfordable state; seniors among his counselors was a while Gen. French, who, with 7,000 grave one. At all events, he did veterans, had been left idle at Fred- not take it: so our army stood idle erick during the great events in Penn- throughout the following day; and sylvania, had, without orders, sent a in the night Lee withdrew across the cavalry force to Falling Waters and Potomac, leaving (he says) but two Williamsport, which captured the stalled guns, a few disabled wagons, weak guard left by Lee to hold his and some weary stragglers, to fall bridge, which they forthwith de- into the hands of his pursuers. stroyed. Lee's hold on the Mary- This, however, is not exactly true. land bank was therefore compulsory, Kilpatrick, commanding our cavalry while he collected material and re- on the left, learning at 3 A. M. that paired or renewed his bridge. Ere the enemy's pickets in his front were this was accomplished," Meade's ar- retiring, started after them, and, at my was before him, strengthened by 74 A, B., came up, about two miles French's division, and by part of from their bridge at Falling Waters, Couch's militia, which had reported with their rear-guard, under Gen. at Gettysburg and joined the army Pettigrew, who had taken up a strong at Boonsboro'.
position and contested thereon his ad*7 July 12.
* July 13.
MEADE IN VIRGINIA-FIGHT IN MANASSAS GAP. 393
vance. A gallant saber-charge by being in advance of Lee, who halted the 6th Michigan, Maj. Webber, into for some days near Bunker Hill, and and over their earthworks, was re- made a feint of rëcrossing the Potopulsed with loss—Maj. Webber being mac, Meade was enabled to seize all among the killed; but, after a fight the passes through the Blue Ridge of over two hours, the enemy was north of the Rappahannock, barring driven to the river, with a loss of 125 the enemy's egress from the Shenankilled and 1,500 prisoners, which in- doah Valley save by a tedious flank cludes 50 of their wounded. Gen. march. Pettigrew was here mortally wound Meade, misled by his scouts, had ed. Our total loss was 105.
expected to fight a battle in Manas
sas Gapor rather, on the west side Our cavalry advance, Col. J. I. of it—where our cavalry, under BuGregg, crossed the Potomac at Har- ford, found the Rebels in force ; per's Ferry that day," and moved when the 3d (French's) corps was out, next morning, from Bolivar sent in haste from Ashby's Gap to Heights on the Winchester turnpike Buford's support, and its 1st division, to Hall's Mills, thence taking the road Gen. Hobart Ward, pushed through 66 to Shepherdstown; where it was soon the Gap, and the Excelsior (New involved in a spirited fight with Fitz York) brigade, Gen. F. B. Spinola, Hugh Lee's cavalry, and driven back made three heroic charges up so a short distance to a strong position, many steep and difficult ridges, diswhere it held its ground, repulsing lodging and driving the enemy with several determined charges, until the mutual loss-General Spinola being Rebels were willing to give it up. twice wounded. Col. Farnum and The day's loss was about 100 on Major McLean, 1st Excelsior, were either side; Cols. Drake (1st Vir- also wounded, and Capt. Ben. Price 66 ginia) and Gregg were among the killed. Rebel killed ; Capt. Fisher, 16th Pa., Next morning, our soldiers pushed. being the highest officer lost on our forward to Front Royal, but encounside. The ground was so rough and tered no enemy Unknown to us, wooded that nearly all the fighting the Excelsiors had been fighting a was done on foot.
brigade of Ewell's men, who were Gen. Meade crossed the Potomac holding the Gap while Rhodes's di. at Berlin on the 18th; moving by vision, forming the rear-guard of Lovettsville, Union," Upperville, Lee's army, marched past up the and Salem," to Warrenton ; • thus valley, and had, of course, followed retaking the line of the Rappahan on its footsteps during the night. No nock which our army had left hardly enemy remained to fight; but two two months before. This movement days were lost by Meade getting into ** July 14. 50 July 19. “July 20. 62 July 22. especially of the National Homestead bill. He 63 July 24. 6 July 25. 66 July 24.
volunteered at the very outset of the war, and
gave his best efforts and his life for Freedom 68 Capt. Price had been for years honorably and Equal Rights to all mankind. Though distinguished as an ardent, indefatigable, effi. distinguished by gallantry, capacity, intelli. cient advocate for the limitation of the area of gence, and zeal, he entered the service a captain, individual ownership of real estate, and more and died a captain.
The day one willing to give it the mutual lossGering the enemy with
in pelled hi
he North That Lee
and out of the Gap; during which,' Gen. Buford, with his cavalry diLee moved rapidly southward, pass- vision, pushed" across the river, at ing around our right flank and ap- Rappahannock Station, and crowded pearing in our front when our army back, first a brigade, then a division, again looked across the Rappahan- of Stuart's cavalry nearly to Culpepnock.
per Court House, when their infantry
compelled him to retreat, fighting, till So soon as it was known that Lee he was supported by the 1st corps; had started for the North with all when the foe in turn desisted. Our the force that he could muster, Gen. loss this day was 140, including 16 Dix, commanding at Fortress Mon- | killed. roe, was directed to make a demon-| Gen. Kilpatrick next crossed" at stration on Richmond. Gen. Keyes Port Conway below Fredericksburg, was appointed to lead it. Starting 67 driving before him a Rebel force stafrom White House, about 5,000 mentioned on this side, and burning two of all arms, under the more immedi- gunboats recently captured by the ate command of Gen. Getty, with at Rebels on the Potomac, and run into least as many more behind at call, the Rappahannock for future use. Keyes moved up to Baltimore Cross- Gen. Pleasanton next crossed the roads, whence some 1,500 cavalry Rappahannock at Kelly's and other were sent forward to burn the Central fords with most of our cavalry, in Railroad bridge over the South Anna, three divisions, under Buford, Kilwhich they effected. There was some patrick, and Gregg, pressing back skirmishing at various points, with Stuart's cavalry to Brandy Station the advantage oftener on the side of and Culpepper Court House, and the enemy; the upshot of all being thence across the Rapidan, capturing that Keyes retreated without a seri- two guns and quite a body of prisonous fight, and without having accom-ers. Otherwise, the losses on either plished any thing worth the cost of side were light. Gen. Warren, with the movement. As Richmond was the 2d corps, supported our cavalry, defended by a single brigade under but was at no time engaged. Wise, with such help as might be This reconnoissance having proved hastily summoned from points farther that Lee had depleted his army to south or obtained from her office- rëenforce Bragg in Tennessee, Gen. holders and other exempts organized Meade crossed" the Rappahannock as militia, it seems obvious that a in force, posting himself at Culpepmore determined leader, who would per Court House, throwing forward not have fallen back without know- two corps to the Rapidan; which he ing why, was badly needed. A spir- was preparing to cross when he was ited, resolute dash might have given ordered from Washington to detach" us Richmond on the same day that the 11th and 12th corps, under HookGrant took possession of surrendered er, to the aid of our army at ChattaVicksburg and Lee recoiled from nooga. Being rëenforced soon afterMeade's unshaken front at Gettys- ward, he sento Gen. Buford, with his burg.
cavalry division, across the Rapidan 67 July 1. 6 Aug. 1. Sept. 1. 6 Sept. 13. " Sept. 16. Sept. 24. 3 Oct. 10.
LEE CHASES MEADE UP TO CENTERVILLE.
to uncover the upper fords, prepara-, and was hemmed in where his whole tory to an advance of the 1st and 6th command must have been destroyed corps; but Lee at the same time cross-or captured had he not succeeded in ing Robertson's river and advancing hiding it in a thicket of old-field in force from Madison Court House on pines, close by the road whereon our our right, Meade fell back" across the men marched by: the rear of the corps Rappahannock; our cavalry, under encamping close beside the enemy, Pleasanton, covering the retreat, and utterly unsuspicious of their neighbeing engaged from Culpepper Court borhood, though every word uttered House to Brandy Station, where Bu- in our lines as they passed was disford rejoined him and the enemy were tinctly heard by the lurking foe. Stuheld in check till evening, when Pleas- art at first resolved to abandon his anton withdrew across the river. guns and attempt to escape with
Meade now, presuming the enemy moderate loss, but finally picked in force at Culpepper Court House, three of his men, gave them muskets, pushed over“ the 6th, 5th, and 2d made them up so as to look as much corps to Brandy Station, while Bu- as possible like our soldiers, and thus ford's cavalry moved in the van to drop silently into our ranks as they Culpepper Court House; when, on passed, march a while, then slip out hearing from Gen. Gregg, command on the other side of the column, and ing the cavalry division on our right, make all haste to Gen. Lee at Warthat the enemy had driven him back renton, in quest of help. During the from Hazel run across the Rappa- night, two of our officers, who stepped hannock, and were crossing at Sul- into the thicket, were quietly captured. phur Springs and Waterloo in heavy At daylight, the crack of skirmishforce, Meade hastily drew back his ers' muskets in the distance gave toarmy across the river and retreated" ken that Lee had received and reto Catlett's Station and thence" to sponded to the prayer for help; when Centerville; Gregg, with the 4th and Stuart promptly opened with grape 13th Pa. and 1st N. Y. cavalry and and canister on the rear of our as10th N. Y. infantry, being surround- tounded column, which had bivoued and attacked near Jefferson, and acked just in his front, throwing it routed, with a loss of 500, mainly into such confusion that he easily prisoners.
dashed by and rejoined his chief; Our army was sharply and impu- having inflicted some loss and sufdently pursued, especially by Stuart's fered little or none. cavalry, who gathered up quite a But such ventures can not always number of prisoners, mainly strag- prove lucky. That same day," A. glers, of little value unless to ex- P. Hill's corps, which had left Warchange. Stuart, with 2,000 of his renton at 5 A. M., moving up the, cavalry, pressed our rear so eagerly Alexandria turnpike to Broad Run that, when near Catlett's Station, church, thence obliquing by Greenhe had inadvertently got ahead, by a wich to strike our rear at Bristow flank movement, of our 2d corps, Station, had obeyed the order, and Gen. Warren, acting as rear-guard; fallen in just behind our 3d corps,
" Oct. 11. 6 Oct. 12. 8 Oct. 13. 67 Oct. 14. 68 Oct. 12. Night of Oct. 13–14. * Oct. 14.
At he thicket
and was eagerly following it, picking continued up to Fairfax Court House up stragglers, and preparing to charge, -and would have attempted to rewhen, about noon, our 2d corps, Gen. trace his steps directly; but a heavy Warren, which was still behind, ap- rain " had rendered Bull Run unpeared on the scene, and considera- fordable, and obliged him to send for bly deranged Hill's (or Lee's) calcu- pontoons; meantime, the enemy, aflations. Hill turned, of course, to ter skirmishing along his front and fight the advancing rather than the making feints of attack, retreated as retreating foe, having his batteries rapidly as they had advanced, comready for action; while Warren, who pletely destroying the Orange and was for the moment surprised at find- Alexandria Railroad from Bristow to ing an enemy in his front rather than the Rappahannock-Stuart, aided by his rear, required ten minutes to pre- a flank attack from Fitz Hugh Lee, pare for a suitable reply. Soon, how- worsting Kilpatrick, by force of numever, Brown's and Arnold's batteries bers, in a not very sanguinary encounopened on our side, with such effect, ter“ near Buckland's Mills, whence aided by the fire of Webb's and our cavalry fell back nimbly to Hays's divisions of infantry, that the Gainesville. In this affair, Custer's enemy fell back, abandoning six guns, brigade did most of the fighting on whereof five--all that were servicea our side; but the enemy was so vastly ble-were at once seized and put to the stronger, backed by infantry, that use on our side. An attempt to Kilpatrick did well to escape with charge our right flank by Petti- little loss. Stuart claims to have grew's old brigade, now Heth's, was taken 200 prisoners. signally repulsed, with a loss of 450 Lee rëcrossed the Rappalannock prisoners. After this, the fighting next day; leaving Meade, by reason was more cautious and desultory; of his ruined railroad, unable, if willthe enemy recoiling to the woods, ing, to follow him farther for some and thence keeping up a long-range time. cannonade, which amounted to noth- During these operations, General ing. Our loss in killed and wounded J. D. Imboden, who, with a Rebel was about 200, including Col. James cavalry division, had been guarding E. Mallon, 42d N.Y., killed, and Gen. the gaps of the Blue Ridge, swooped Tile, of Pa., wounded; that of the down" upon Charlestown, near Harenemy was probably 400, including per's Ferry, which he took; capturing Gens. Posey (mortally), Kirkland, and 424 men, with a large amount of Cooke,” wounded, and Cols. Ruffin, stores. Two hours afterward, a su1st N. C., and Thompson, 5th N. C. perior Union force appeared from cavalry, killed. Our soldiers held the IIarper's Ferry, before which Imbofield till dark, then followed the rest den deliberately fell back, fighting, of our army, whose retreat they had to Berryville, saving nearly all his so effectually covered.
spoils; thence making good his esMeade, on reflection, was evidently cape by a night-march. ashamed—as well he might be of Besides Imboden's, Lee claims to this flight--which, the Rebels assert, have taken 2,000 prisoners during
" Son of Gen. Philip St. George Cooke, Union army. Oct. 16. "Oct. 19. " Oct. 18.