« 上一頁繼續 »
CRAWFORD'S ADVANCE-ME ADE'S CAUTION. 387 main force from being flanked. This charge, ing Round Top on our left, at 5 was first directed toward my lines; but, l, seeing that they were quite strong, five lines
P. M. advanced McCandless's brigade, deep, and well strengthened with rails and by Meade's order, driving back a stones, behind which the men lay, the ene- battery which confronted him withmy changed his mind, and concluded to make the attack on the division of the 2d corps,
out support, and, pushing forward a on my right, where there were but two mile, took 260 prisoners (Georgians), lines. He marched by his right flank, and of Anderson's division, and recoverthen marched to his front. In doing this, the wing apparently did not understand the ing a 12-pounder, three caissons, movement, but kept straight on. The con- 7,000 small arms, and all our woundsequence was, that there was a wide gap between the wing and the main charging |
ed who had fallen in Sickles's repulse, force, which enabled my men on the right, after they had lain 24 hours uncared the brigade of Gen. Stannard, to form im
for within the enemy's lines. It was mediately on the flank of the charging column, while the enemy were subjected manifest that the Rebel force had to an awful fire of artillery in front. It is mainly been withdrawn from this said some few of them laid their hands on our guns. The prisoners state that what
wing to strengthen the grand assault ruined them was Stannard's brigade on their nearer the center, and did not reflank, as they found it impossible to contend
turn; as Crawford held the ground with it in that position; and they drew off, all in a huddle, to get away from it. I sent thus gained without objection. He two regiments to charge them in front at could see no reason why a decided the same time. While this was going on, the enemy were subjected to a terrific artil
advance on this wing of the 5th and lery-fire at short range; and the result was the still comparatively fresh 6th corps that they retreated with frightful loss. might not then have been made with
"Some five minutes after the charge was broken up and they began to retreat, a large
out meeting serious opposition. number of batteries and regiments of infantry reported to me, as I sat on horseback, Gen. Meade has been reproached for orders to repulse the attack. I posted them, with the approval of the corps com
as timid and over-cautious; but it is mander, though they were a little too late to plain that his strategy, though not be of essential service.
daring, was able and wise. Had he “I would state that the wing of the enemy which got astray was also met by part allowed his hot-heads to dash their of Stannard's brigade, which also formed
commands at the outset against the on its flank, and it also retreated. Thus
| Rebel batteries on Seminary ridge, the day was won, and the country saved."
as they would gladly have done, he The battle was over; and it was would have fonght a magnificent won; but that was all. Our guns battle and probably been magnifiwere nearly out of cartridges; the cently beaten. Between two great reserve ammunition had been drawn armies, equally brave, equally resoupon; a single brigade, standing at lute, and equal in numbers and in efease in the rear, composed the entire fectiveness of weapons, the choice of reserve of the army of the retomac; positions hauran? reserve of the Army of the Potomac. position naturally decides the fortune All beside had been brought forward of the day. It is not with these as and put in, on one point or another, with armed mobs, where the assailto brace up the front for that stern ant often triumphs by the mere ordeal.
audacity of his assault—the assailed There was very little fighting after concluding that those who are chargthis decisive repúlse, save that Gen. ing them will not fly, so they must. Crawford, of Sykes's division, hold- Had Lee assailed Burnside on the heights of Falmouth, he would have drawn French's 11,000 men from been beaten most disastrously. And, Maryland Heights, he left 7,000 of though Meade's position at Gettys- them standing idle at Frederick, sendburg does not compare in strength ing the residue as train-guards to with Lee's on the Fredericksburg Washington, and actually apologized heights, it was probably worth a to Halleck, on meeting him, for havrëenforcement of 10,000 men i ng moved them at all! Had Get
Nor is Meade justly blamable for tysburg been lost for want of these not pushing forward at once, on the 11,000 men, his would have been a heels of his beaten foes. Around him fearful responsibility. lay nearly or quite one-fourth of his Couch's militia were pronounced army, killed or wounded; he knew worthless by worthless officers, who that his own ammunition was run- forget what Washington, Gates, and ning low; he did not know that Jackson, severally did with militia; Lee's was even more completely ex- but, though they had been only held hausted. If he had ordered a gen- | in reserve, or set to guarding trains, eral advance, and been repelled from their presence would have had a Seminary ridge by such a fire as had wholesome moral effect. And now, met and crushed the Rebel assailants if they had been at hand to set on the of Cemetery hill, he would have been track of the beaten, flying Rebels, reproached as rash and fool-hardy by they might have done more, and could many who have deemed him defi- not have done less than Sedgwick did cient in courage or in heartiness be- when sent on that same errand. cause he did not make the Union a Fourth-of-July present of the rem- Meade states our losses in this senant of Lee's army.
ries of battles around Gettysburg at His real and grave error dated 2,834 killed, 13,709 wounded, and several days back of this. He had, 6,643 missing (mainly taken prisonon assuming command, been author- ers on the 1st): total, 23,186." He ized to do as he judged best with only claims 3 guns as captured this French's force on Maryland Heights, side of the Potomac, with 41 flags and Couch's in central Pennsylvania. and 13,621 prisoners—many of them Had he, on deciding to fight Lee so wounded, of course. He adds that soon as circumstances favored, or- 24,978 small arms were collected on dered both these to join him at the the field; but part of them may have earliest moment, he would now have been previously our own. been consciously master of the situa- Lee gives no return of his losses; tion, and might have blocked Lee's but they were probably not materireturn to Virginia. But he gave no ally greater nor less than ours"—our such order to Couch; and having, at men fighting on the defensive, someButterfield's urgent suggestion, with- what protected by breastworks, and PLEASANTON FOR PURSUIT-MEADE HESITATES. 389 having the advantage of position. | infantry force was behind them, ready Doubtless, our loss was much the to strike heavily and attempt to turn greater on the first day, a little more the Rebel right. than the enemy's on the second, and The battle being over, Pleasanton, far the less on the third. Proba- who was in chief command of the bly, 18,000 killed and wounded, with cavalry, urged Meade to order a 10,000 unwounded prisoners, would general advance; being satisfied by pretty fairly measure the Confederate appearances that not only was the losses during their Pennsylvania cam- Rebel army demoralized and beginpaign.
39 Among our killed, not already mentioned, I were Brig.-Gens. Gibbon, Barlow, Standard, were Brig.-Gens. S. H. Weed, N. Y., and E. J. Webb, and Paul. Farnsworth, Mich.; Cols. Vincent and Willard
" Pollard rather candidly says: (commanding brigades), Cross, 5th N. H., |
"On our side, Pickett's division had been en. O'Rorke, 140th N. Y., Revere, 20th Mass., and gaged in the hottest work of the day, and the Taylor, Pa. 'Bucktails. Among our wounded I havoc in its ranks was appalling. Its losses on 1 "Gen. D. B. Birney, who succeeded Gen. officers, only two escaped unhurt. The Colonels Sickles in the command of the 3d corps, says: of five Virginia regiments were killed. The
ning to retreat, but nearly out of During the 2d and 3d, the cavalry ammunition. But, as it was not of either army, hovering around its certain that the enemy was going, flanks, ready to make a dash at the Meade chose to be assured on that trains or camps of its adversary if point, by a cavalry reconnoissance to opportunity should serve, had had the Rebel rear. Pleasanton accordseveral slight collisions, but no seri- ingly dispatched some cavalry on this ons contest. On the 3d, an attempt errand, who rode all night; Gregg, of Hood, by a movement on the Em- who, moving by our right, had been mitsburg road, to turn our left- out 22 miles on the Chambersburg which Gen. Meade regarded as our road, returning first, at 8 A. M.," and weak point—was defeated by Merritt's reporting that road strewn with cavalry brigade, then coming up from wounded and stragglers, ambulances Emmitsburg with intent to strike the and caissons, showing that not only rear and flank of the Rebel right, and was the enemy in full retreat, but by Farnsworth's brigade, which was that he was completely demoralized. guarding our own flank in that quar- Gregg had easily taken quite a ņumter. Gregg's division watched our ber of prisoners. Other commanders right flank, confronted by Stuart. of cavalry, returning later from simNo important advantage was gained ilar reconnoissances on other roads, on either side; but a considerable in- found them likewise covered, and fantry force under Hood seems to captured many stragglers and wagons. have been neutralized, during the Still, as Meade did not advance in grand assault, by the sturdy efforts force on their direct line of retreat," of Merritt and Farnsworth, which and as the movement of the artillery were held to indicate that a strong and trains of a great army requires this day are famous, and should be commemora- ' “ Saturday, July 4. ted in detail. Every Brigadier in the division was killed or wounded Out of 24 regimental
"I was ordered to send out a reconnoissance 9th Virginia went in 250 strong, and came out
at daylight (on the 4th] to ascertain the position with only 38 men; while the equally gallant 19th
of the enemy. I did so early Sunday morning, rivaled the terrible glory of such devoted courage."
and reported that the enemy were in full retreai. Among the Rebel killed were Brig.-Gens. I also sent back for permission to open upon the Barksdale, Miss., and Garnett, Va. Among their enemy with my rifled batteries as they were wounded, Maj. Gens. Hood, Trimble, Heth, and crossing a point vers near me, upon the turnPender, the latter mortally: Brig.-Gens. Petti
pike going toward Hagerstown; and the staff
officer brought me permission to do so. I had grew, Kemper, Scales, G. T. Anderson, Hamp
commenced the movemeut to attack, when ano. ton, J. M. Jones, Jenkins, Armistead, and ther staff officer arrived from Gen. Meade with Semmes: the two latter mortally.
Ta written order from him to make no attack;
time, the Rebel pickets along their , left. We moved on through Boonsboro', front were not withdrawn till 2 A. M. and passed up on the pike road leading to
| Hagerstown. After passing Boonsboro', it of next day.“ Meantime, an advance became my turn to lead the 6th corps. That division of Couch's militia, about day, just before we started, Gen. Sedgwick
ordered me to move on and take op the best 5,000 strong, under Gen. W. F.
position I could over a little stream on the [' Baldy'] Smith, had come up in our Frederick side of Funkstown. As I moved
on, it was suggested to me by him to move rear; reporting to Gen. Meade on the
carefully. “Do n't come into contact with
the enemy; we do n't want to bring on a Next morning, there could no general engagement.' It seemed to be the
current impression that it was not desired longer be even an affectation of
to bring on a general engagement. I moved doubt that the enemy were in full on until we came near Funkstown. Gen. retreat; and Sedgwick's (6th) corps
Buford was along that way with his cavalry.
I had passed over the stream referred to, was ordered" to follow on the track and found a strong position, which I conof the fugitives. The spirit in which | cluded to take and wait for the 6th corps to
come up. In the mean time, Gen. Buford, this pursuit was prosecuted is thus
who was in front, came back to me and portrayed by Gen. A. P. Howe, com- said, I am pretty hardly engaged here; I manding a division of that corps,
have used a great deal of my ammunition ;
it is a strong place in front; it is an excelwho thus narrates * its progress and | lent position. It was a little farther out results:
than I was-nearer Funkstown. He said,
*I have used a great deal of my ammuni"On the 4th of July, it seemed evident tion, and I ought to go to the right; supenough that the enemy were retreating. pose you move up there, or send up a brigHow far they were gone, we could not see ade, or even a part of one, and hold that from the front. We could see but a com- 1 position.' Said İ, “I will do so at once, if I paratively small force from the position can just communicate with Gen. Sedgwick; where I was. On Sunday, the 5th and 6th I am ordered to take up a position over here corps moved in pursuit. As we moved, a and hold it, and the intimation conveyed to small rear-guard of the enemy retreated me was that they did not want to get into We followed them, with this small rear a general engagement; I will send for Gen. guard of the enemy before us, up to Fair- Sedgwick, and ask permission to hold that field, in a gorge of the mountains. There position and relieve you.' I accordingly we again waited for them to go on. There sent a statf officer to Gen. Sedgwick, with a seemed to be no disposition to push this request that I might go up at once and assist rear-guard when we got up to Fairfield. A Gen, Buford; stating that he had a strong lieutenant from the enemy came into our position, but his aminunition was giving lines and gave himself up. IIe was a out. Gen. Buford reinained with me until Northern Union man, in service in one of I should get an answer. The answer was, the Georgia regiments; and, without being No, we do not want to bring on a general asked, he unhesitatingly told me, when I engagement.' “Well,' said I, • Buford, what met him as he was being brought in, that can I do?' He said, “They expect me to go he belonged to the artillery of the rear- farther to the right; my ammunition is guard of the enemy, and that they had but pretty much out. That position is a strong two rounds of ammunition with the rear-one, and we ought not to let it go.' I sent guard. But we waited there without re- | down again to Gen. Sedgwick, stating the ceiving any orders to attack. It was a place condition of Gen. Buford, and that he would where, as I informed Gen. Sedgwick, we have to leave unless he could get some could easily attack the enemy with advan- assistance; that his position was not far in tage. But no movement was made by us front, and that it seemed to me that we until the enemy went away. Then, one should hold it, and I should like to send brigade of my division, with some cavalry, some force up to picket it at least. After a was sent to follow on after them, while the time, I got a reply that, it Gen. Buford left, remainder of the 6th corps moved to the I might occupy the position. Gen. Butörd which was done. My skirmishers advanced and stantly to Gen. Meade; but this peremptory took possession of their hospitals, with a large order from him not to open fire at all prevented number of their wounded. I had sent some | any pursuit of the enemy." twenty orderlies with a staff officer, who led the 13 July 5.
** July 5, 11 A. m. reconnoissance; and I reported these facts con- ! ^ Before Committee on the Conduct of the War.
LEE'S RETREAT TO THE POTOMAC.
was still with me, and I said to him, ' If you been started by Butterfield, chief of go away from there, I will have to hold it.' Lot That's all right,' said he; 'I will go away.'
; staff, on the Boonsboro road, were He did so, and I moved right up. ”It was a | halted; while others, farther in adpretty good position, where you could cover vance, moved on. Soon, word came your troops. Soon after relieving Buford, we saw some Rebel infantry advancing. I
from Sedgwick that it was unwise to do not know whether they brought them | push the enemy farther on the route from Ilagerstown, or from some other place.
he was following; whereupon, the They made three dashes, not in heavy force, upon our line to drive us back. The troops whole army was impelled down the that happened to be there on our line were Middletown road; Sedgwick being what we considered in the Army of the Potomac unusually good ones. They quietly
ordered to move the most of his comrepulsed the Rebels twice; and, the third mand from Fairfield Pass by Emtime they came up, they sent them flying mitsburg to join the main body. into Funkstown. " Yet there was no permission to move
Arrived at Middletown, the army on and follow up the enemy. We remained was halted a day to rest and refit, there some time, until we had orders to
and then moved through South move on and take a position a mile or more nearer Hagerstown." As we moved up, we | Mountain by Boonsboro' to Hagerssaw that the Rebels had some light field-town and the Potomac: where Lee works-hurriedly thrown up, apparently, to cover themselves while they rëcrossed
| had of course arrived before it, taken the river. I think we remained there three a strong position, and was prepared days; and the third night, I think, after we
to maintain it. Lee says, in his offigot up into that position, it was said the Rebels rëcrossed the river."
“The army remained at Gettysburg durThe 4th and 5th were devoted by | ing the 4th, and at night began to retire by
the road to Fairfield, carrying with it about Gen. Meade to caring for the wound
4,000 prisoners. Neariy 2,000 had previed and burying the dead; part of ously been paroled; but the enemy's numerour cavalry pursuing on the Cash- ous wounded, that had fallen into our hands
after the first and second day's engagements, town road, as Sedgwick did on that were left behind. by Fairfield. On the 5th, Meade “Little progress was made that night, was satisfied that Lee had retreated : owing to a severe storm, which greatly em
treated; / barrassed our movements. The rear of the but he believed that he was falling column did not leave its position near Getback into the Cumberland Valley— tysburg until after daylight on the
| “The march was continued during that not making for the shelter of the | day without interruption by the enemy, exPotomac. Ile decided to move the | cept an unimportant demonstration upon our great body of his forces by the left
rear in the afternoon, when near Fairfield,
which was easily checked. Part of our train flank through Boonsboro' Pass, and moved by the road through Fairfield, and so place himself between the enemy
the rest by the way of Cashtown, guarded
by Gen. Inboden. In passing through the and his resources. But Sedgwick
mountains, in advance of the coluinn, the soon reported that the main body great length of the trains exposed them to of the enemy was in position in and
attack by the enemy's cavalry, which cap
tured a number of wagons and ambulances; around Fairfield Pass, and that it but they succeeded in reaching Williamsmight be necessary to fight another port without serious loss.
“They were attacked at that place on the battle in those mountains. Here- | 6th by the enemy's cavalry, which was galupon, the 5th corps and some other lantly repulsed by Gen. Imboden. The attroops were sent to rëenforce Sedg- and
tacking force was subsequently encountered
de peag and driven off by Gen. Stuart, and pursued wick, and the 1st and 3d, which had for several miles in the direction of Boons
18 July 6.