« 上一頁繼續 »
heavy loss, and struggling despe- , turn assailed in front and flank, and rately to seize Round Top at his driven back, with a loss of 2,000 out left.
of 5,000 men. Ultimately, as Sickles's Meade regarded this hill as vital corps fell back.in disorder to the to the maintenance of our position, ground from which he should not and had already ordered Sykes to have advanced, Hancock closed in advance the 5th corps with all possi- from the right, while parts of the 1st, ble haste to save and hold it. A of the 6th, and a division of the 12th fierce and bloody struggle ensued; corps, were thrown in on the enefor the enemy had nearly carried the my's front, and they in turn were rehill before Sykes reached it; while pelled with loss; falling back to the Humphreys, who, with one of Sykes's ridge to which Sickles had advanced, divisions, had been posted in the and leaving our line where Meade morning on Sickles's right, was in had intended to place it."
36 The Richmond Enquirer has the following enemy's batteries, posted upon McPherson's account of this fight by an eye-witness on the heights, had encountered the enemy's advance Rebel side, writing from Hagerstown on the
line, and had driven him across the Emmitsburg pike to a position behind a stone wall or
fence, which runs parallel with the pike, and “About the middle of the afternoon, orders about 60 or 80 yards in front of the batteries on were issued to the different commanders to pre- the heights, and immediately under them. Here, pare for a general attack upon the enemy's cen- this gallant brigade had a most desperate enter and left. Longstreet was to commence the gagement for fifteen or twenty minutes; but movement, which was to be followed up on his charging rapidly up the almost perpendicular left in quick succession by the respective divis- side of the mountain, they rushed upon the eneions of Hill's corps. As Anderson's division, my's infantry, behind the stone wall, and drove or at least a portion of it, took a conspicuous | them from it at the point of the bayonet. Now part in this movement, I have ascertained, and concentrating their fire upon the heavy batteries now give you, the order of its different brigades: (20 guns) of the enemy on the crest of the On the extreme right of Anderson's division, heights, they soon silenced them, and, rushing connecting with McLaws's left, was Wilcox's | forward with a shout, soon gained the summit brigade, then Perry's, Wright's, Posey's, and of the heights, capturing all the enemy's guns, Mahone's. At half-past 5 o'clock, Longstreet and driving their infantry in great disorder and commenced the attack, and Wilcox followed it up confusion into the woods beyond. by promptly moving forward; Perry's brigade “We now had the key to the enemy's strong. quickly followed, and Wright moved simultane-hold, and, apparently, the victors was won. ously with him. The two divisions of Long McLaws and Blood had pushed their line well street's corps soon encountered the enemy post up the slope on the right; Wilcox had kept well ed a little in rear of the Emmitsburg turnpike, up on his portion of tho line; Wright had which winds along the slope of the range upon pierced the enemy's main line on the summit of which the enemy's main force was concentrated. McPherson's heights, capturing his heavy batAfter a short but spirited engagement, the ene teries, thus breaking the connection between my was driven back upon the main line upon their right and left wings. I said that, appathe crest of the hill. McLaws's and Hood's di rently, we had won the victory. It romains to visions made a desperate assault upon their be stated why our successes were not crowned main linc; but, owing to the precipitato and very with the important results which should have rugged character of the slope, were unable to followed such heroic daring and indomitable reach the summit. The enemy's loss on this bravery. Although the order was peremptory part of the line was very heavy. I have heard that all of Anderson's division should move into several officers say that they have never seen action simultaneously, Brig.-Gen. Posey, comthe enemy's dead cover the ground so thickly, manding a Mississippi brigade, and Brig.-Gen. not even at the first Fredericksburg fight, as Mahone, commanding a Virginia brigade, failed they did on that portion of the field over which to advance. This failure of these two brigades McLaws's troops fought. While the fight was to advance is assigned, as I learn upon inquiry, raging on our right, Wilcox and Wright, of an as the reason why Pender's division, of Hill's derson's division, were pressing the enemy's corps, did not advance-the order being, that center. Wilcox pushed forward for nearly a the advance was to commence from the right, mile, driving the enemy before him and up to and be taken up along our whole line. Pender's his very guns, over and beyond his batteries, failure to advance caused the division on his several guns of which he captured, and nearly left-Heth's--to remain inactive. Here we up to the summit of the hill. Wright had swept have two whole divisions, and two brigades of over the valley, under a terrific fire from the another, standing idle spectators of one of the
LEE PREPARING FOR THE DECISIVE CHARGE.
essential advantage: od day of July fresh brigrom Chambersbu
Meanwhile, the withdrawal of a row's triumph would richly repay all division from Slocum had enabled their losses." Ewell to assail our right wing in su- The battle opened next day” on perior force, crowding part of it back our right; where Slocum—his diviconsiderably, and seizing some of its sion having returned from the leftrifle-pits. Hence, just at dark, the pushed forward to retake his lost enemy assailed the right of Howard's rifle-pits, and did it, after a sharp shattered 11th corps, holding the right conflict, rëestablishing his line, and face of Cemetery hill; but gained no resting upon it. Meantime, Lee had
rëenforced Longstreet with three Night closed the 2d day of July fresh brigades, under Pickett, which and of the battle, with the Rebels arrived from Chambersburg an hour decidedly encouraged and confident. or two before Sedgwick came up on Of the seven corps composing our our side, a division from Ewell, and army, three had been severely han- two detached from Hill; and the dled, and at least half their effective Rebel left was firmly established and strength demolished. Reynolds, com- its batteries planted on the ridge manding the 1st, and Brig.-Gen. Zook, whence Sickles had been driven. of Sickles's corps, had been killed; | There was a pause of anxious exSickles, of the 3d, had had his leg pectation, fitfully broken by spits of shattered by a cannon-ball, and was firing here and there, while the Rebout of the fight; our total losses els were making their dispositions up to this hour were scarcely fewer and posting their batteries for the than 20,000 men; and none were supreme effort which was to decide arriving to replace them. The ground this momentous contest. At length, whereon Reynolds had fought and at 1 P. M., the signal was given, and fallen so gallantly was about the cen- 115 heavy guns from Hill's and Longter of their army; they held that street's front crossed their fire on also on which Howard had been cut Cemetery hill, the center and key of up, and that from which Sickles had our position. Here, a little behind been hurled in disorder. True, they the crest, was Meade's headquarters ; also had lost heavily; but they had though the hill had been plowed by reason for their hope that the mor- Rebel balls during the fierce fighting most desperate and important assaults that The failure of Posey and Mahone to advance has ever been made on this continent-15,000 upon Wright's left enabled the enemy to throw or 20,000 armcd men resting on their arms, in forward a strong force on that flank, and to push plain view of a terrible battle, witnessing the it well to his rear along the Emmitsburg pike. mighty efforts of two little brigades (Wright's It was now apparent that the day was lostand Wilcox's; for Perry had fallen back over- lost after it had been won-lost, not because our powered), contending with the heavy masses of arıny fought badly, but because a large portion Yankee infantry, and subjected to a most deadly of it did not fight at all.” fire from the enemy's heavy artillery, without a single effort to aid them in the assault, or to as- |
30 Lee, in his official report, says: sist them when the heights were carried. Per- "After a severe struggle, Longstreet succeedry's brigade, which was between Wilcox and ed in getting possession of and holding the deWright, soon after its first advance, was pressed sired ground. Ewell also carried some of the so heavily as to be forced to retire. This left an strong positions which he assailed; and the reinterval in the line between Wright and Wilcox, sult was such as to lead to the belief that he and which the enemy perceiving, he threw a would ultimately be able to dislodge the enemy. heavy column into the gap then made, deploying The battle ceased at dark. These partial suca portion of it on Wilcox's left flank, while a large cesses determined me to continue the assault force was thrown in rear of Wright's right flank next day."
37 Friday, July 3.
GETTYSBURG-POSITIONS HELD BEFORE THE FINAL ASBAULT, JULY 8. of the eve before—some of them com- the Rebel batteries as well posted as ing over from our left and annoying ours, while superior in number and our soldiers on the right. For nearly in average caliber; so that, gradutwo hours, this hill was gashed and ally, the fire on our side slackened, seamed by round-shot and torn by and at length nearly ceased. Meade bursting shells, while perhaps 100 or Howard, finding that our guns guns from our side made fit reply. had become heated, gave the order But the enemy had concentrated to cease firing and cool them; though their batteries for this trial, while the Rebel balls were still decimawe had not; and here was no broad ting our gunners, while our infantry, river valley, like that of the Rappa- crouching behind every projection hannock at Fredericksburg, to ren- and nestling in each hollow, awaited der the fire of guns from bluff to patiently the expected charge. And bluff an idle squandering of ammu- now from behind the enemy's batte nition. The range was excellent; Iries emerged their infantry in line of
battle, three or four miles long, pre-, ceased firing. This was a fearful inoment
for Pickett and his brave coinmand. Why ceded by a cloud of skirmishers and
| do not our guns rëvpen their fire? is the insupported by a line of reserves, mov- | quiry that rises upon every lip. Still, our ing swiftly to the charge upon Ceme
batteries are silent as death! But on press
Pickett's brave Virginians; and now the tery hill, and Hancock's corps more
enemy open upon them, from more than especially, but upon the entire front fifty guns, a terrible fire of grape, shell, and westward to Round Top. Let the
canister. On, on they move in unbroken
line, delivering a deadly fire as they adRebel correspondent of The Rich | vance. Now they have reached the Emmond Enquirer describe this grand nitsburg road; and
| initsburg road; and liere they meet a severe
fire from the heavy masses of the enemy's assault, as follows:
infantry, posted behind the stone fence; "Now the storming party was moved up: / while their artillery, now free from the Pickett's division in advance, supported on annoyance of our artillery, turn their whole the right by Wilcox's brigade and on the fire upon this devoted band, Still, they releft by Heth's division, commanded by Pet-main firm. Now again they advance; they tigrew. The left of Pickett's division occu- storm the stone fence; the Yankees fly. pied the same ground over which Wright The enemy's batteries are, one by one, had passed the day before. I stood upon silenced in quick succession as Pickett's men an eminence and watched this advance with deliver their fire at the gunners and drive great interest; I had seen brave men pass them from their pieces. I see Kemper and over that fated valley the day before ; I had Armistead plant their banner in the enemy's witnessed their death-struggle with the foe works. I hear their glad shout of victory! on the opposite heights; I had observed' “Let us look after Pettigrew's division. their return with shattered ranks, a bleed- / Where are they now? While the victorious ing mass, but with unstained banners. Now shout of the gallant Virginians is still ringI saw their valiant comrades prepare for ing in my ears, I turn my eyes to the left, the same bloody trial, and already felt that and there, all over the plain, in utmost contheir efforts would be vain unless their sup fusion, is scattered this strong division. ports should be as true as steel and brave Their line is broken ; they are flying, apas lions. Now they move forward ; with parently panic-stricken, to the rear. The steady, measured tread, they advance upon gallant Pettigrew is wounded; but he still the foe. Their banners float defiantly in retains command, and is vainly striving to the breeze, as onward in beautiful order rally his men. Still, the moving mass rush they press across the plain. I have never pell-mell to the rear; 38 and Pickett is left seen since the war began (and I have been alone to contend with the hordes of the in all the great fights of this army) troops enemy now pouring in upon him on every enter a fight in such splendid order as did side. Garnett falls, killed by a Minié ball; this splendid division of Pickett's. Now and Kemper, the brave and chivalrous, reels Pettigrew's command emerge from the under a mortal wound, and is taken to the woods upon Pickett's left, and sweep down rear. Now the enemny move around strong the slope of the hill to the valley beneath, flanking bodies of infantry, and are rapidly and some two or three hundred yards in gaining Pickett's rear. The order is given rear of Pickett. I saw by the wavering of to fall back, and our men commence the this line as they entered the conflict that moveinent, doggedly contending for every they wanted the firmness of nerve and inch of ground. The enemy press heavily steadiness of tread which so characterized our retreating line, and many noble spirits Pickett's men, and I felt that these men who had passed safely through the fiery would not, could not stand the tremendous ordeal of the advance and charge now fall on ordeal to which they would soon be sub- the right and on the left. Armistead is jected. These were mostly raw troops, wounded and left in the enemy's hands. At who had been recently brought from the this critical moinent, the shattered reinnant South, and who had, perhaps, never been of Wright's Georgia brigade is moved forunder fire-who certainly had never been ward to cover their retreat, and the fight in any very severe fight-and I trembled for closes here. Our loss in this charge was their conduct. Just as Pickett was getting very severe; and the Yankee prisoners taken well under the enemy's fire, our batteries acknowledge that theirs was immense."
* It is simple justice to brave foes to note that but one of their field officers killed or wounded; this imputation on Pettigrew's brigade has been falling back under command of a Major. They proved unjust. They fought as well and held as mustered 2,800 strong on the morning of the 1st of tenaciously as any of their comrades, having all ! July : at roll-call on tho 4th, they numbered 333.
Now let us hear ' Agate,' from our , was pushed behind the guns. Right on came
the Rebels. They were upon the gunsside, describe that last, determined
were bayoneting the gunners—were waveffort of the Rebellion to maintain a ing their flags above our pieces. foothold on the free soil of the North :
“But they had penetrated to the fatal
point. A storm of grape and canister tore "The great, desperate, final charge came its way from man to man, and marked its at 4. The Rebels seemed to have gathered track with corpses straight down their line! up all their strength and desperation for one | They had exposed themselves to the enfifierce, convulsive effort, that should sweep lading fire of the guns on the western slope over and wash out our obstinate resistance. / of Cemetery hill; that exposure sealed their They swept up as before: the flower of their army to the front, victory staked upon the “The line reeled back-disjointed already issue. In some places, they literally lifted -in an instant in fragments. Our men up and pushed back our lines; but, that were just behind the guns. They leaped terrible position of ours !-wherever they forward upon the disordered mass; but entered it, enfilading fires from half a score there was little need for fighting now. A of crests swept away their columns like regiment threw down its arms, and, with merest chaff. Broken and hurled back, colors at its head, rushed over and surrenthey easily fell into our hands; and, on the dered. All along the field, smaller detach
enter and left, the last half-hour brought ments did the same. Webb's brigade more prisoners than all the rest.
brought in 800: taken in as little time as it “ So it was along the whole line; but it requires to write the simple sentence that was on the 2d corps that the flower of the tells it. Gibbon's old division took 15 Rebel army was concentrated; it was there stand of colors. that the heaviest shock beat upon, and shook, “Over the fields, the escaped fragments and even sometimes crumbled, our line. of the charging line fell back-the battle
“ We had some shallow rifle-pits, with there was over. A single brigade, Harbarricades of rails from the fences. The row's (of which the 7th Michigan is part), Rebel line, stretching away miles to the came out with 54 less officers, 793 less men, left, in magnificent array, but strongest than it took in! So the whole corps fought here-Pickett's splendid division of Long -so too they fought farther down the line. street's corps in front, the best of A. P. ' “ It was fruitless sacrifice. They gathered Hill's veterans in support--came steadily, up their broken fragments, formed their and as it seemed resistlessly, sweeping up. lines, and slowly marched away. It was Our skirmishers retired slowly from the not a rout, it was a bitter, crushing defeat. Emmitsburg road, holding their ground | For once, the Army of the Potomac had tenaciously to the last. The Rebels reserved | won a clean, honest, acknowledged victory." their fire till they reached this same Emmitsburg road, then opened with a terrific
Gen. Doubleday, testifying before crash. From a hundred iron throats, mean the Committee on the Conduct of the time, their artillery had been thundering on
War, says: our barricades.
“ Hancock was wounded ; Gibbon suc- "Abont 2 P, M., a tremendous cannonade ceeded to the command--approved soldier, was opened on us from at least 125 guns. and ready for the crisis. As the tempest of They had our exact range, and the destructire approached its height, he walked along tion was fearful. Horses were killed in the line, and renewed his orders to the men every direction; I lost two horses myself, to reserve their fire. The Rebels-three while almost every officer lost one or more, lines deep--came steadily up. They were and quite a large number of caissons were in point-blank range.
blown up. I knew tliis was the prelude to "At last, the order came! From thrice a grand infantry charge, as artillery is gensix thousand guns, there came a sheet of erally massed in this way, to disorganize smoky flame, a crash, a rush of leaden death. the opposing command, for the infantry to The line literally melted away; but there charge in the interval. I told iny men to came the second, resistless still. It had shelter themselves in every way behind the been our supreme effort-on the instant, we rocks, or little elevations of ground, while were not equal to another.
the artillery-firing took place, and to spring “Up to the rifle-pits, across them, over to their feet and hold their ground as soon the barricades—the momentum of their as the charge came. charge, the mere machine strength of their “When the enemy finally charged, they combined action-swept them on. Our came on in three lines, with additional lines thin line could fight, but it had not weight called, in military language, wings: the enough to oppose to this momentuin. It i object of the wings being to prevent the